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L0ttfcmx: FETTER L-AJSTE, E.C. 
C. F. CLAY, 














Cambridge : 

at the University Press 


The present volume is the first of a 
Catalogue of the objects contained, in the 
Museum on the Athenian .Acropolis. The 
British School of Archaeology at Athens 
undertook this work at the request of 
the Greek Archaeological Authorities con- 
veyed, by 13r Kavvadias, and this volume 
was prepared "by Mr Gruy Dickins whilst 
a Student of the School. 

A second volume to be issued later 
will complete the work. 



May, 1911. 


first volume of the Acropolis Catalogue deals with 
JL the Sculptures of the period preceding the invasion of 
Xerxes in 480 B.C., at present contained in the first seven 
rooms of the museum. A number of post-Persian objects in 
the Entrance Hall are therefore excluded. On the other 
hand, to avoid subsequent confusion. No. 610 and a few 
heads in the wall-case in Room V are included in spite of 
their later date. 

This volume is devoted to sculpture, and therefore the 
architectural details at present in Room II are omitted as well 
as objects in terra-cotta. It is hoped that the second volume 
may contain the rest of the sculpture, the terra-cottas, and 
the architectural fragments. 

The order of the catalogue was at first arranged according 
to the position of the objects in the museum, but as extensive 
changes are contemplated there, I have thought it wiser to 
arrange the catalogue in numerical order, so that any object 
may be easily found in spite of any future alteration. 

I have much pleasure in thanking Dr Kavvadias and the 
other Greek archaeological authorities for allowing me the 
utmost facilities in studying the contents of the museum; 
Professor Heberdey of Innsbruck for assistance in the earlier 
part dealing with theporos sculpture; and Professor Schrader 


of Vienna not only for invaluable suggestions concerning 
many of the marble sculptures, but also for the permission 
to use his magnificent series of photographs for the purpose 
of illustration. The cuts in the text are reproduced from 
drawings made by Mr Dudley Forsyth from these and from 
other photographs. As the former are for the most part 
still unpublished. Professor Schrader's kindness in permitting 
their use is thereby greatly enhanced. I have further to 
thank Professor Heberdey and Drs Karo and Curtius, of the 
German Institute in Athens, for photographs. Professors 
Percy and Ernest Gardner have also helped me by reading 
the proofs of the Introduction. To Mr Dudley Forsyth 
I am particularly indebted for the surmounting of many 



October, 1911. 



INTRODUCTION ........ 1 

1. Excavations on the Acropolis ... 1 

2. The Perserschutt 5 

3. Chronological Study 9 

4. Subjects and Meaning 29 

5. Material and Technique .... 35 

6. The Costume of the female statues . . 41 

7. The Equestrian series 49 


INDEX 285 



From April, 1853, when the Turkish garrison was finally 
withdrawn, to March, 1882, when systematic excavations 
were first begun under the auspices of the Archaeological 
Society, the surface of the Acropolis underwent continuous if 
unscientific investigation. Three reasons may be given why 
results were hardly equal to expectation. In the first place 
the preliminary work of clearing away the remains of the 
Turkish buildings was itself a long and costly operation ; in 
the second place, largely owing to financial reasons, there 
was no systematic scheme nor continuous direction of the 
work ; and thirdly, the excavators were content with probing 
the accumulated dtbris down to a level approximating to that 
of the classical surface, without seeking below it for the 
treasures which had been hidden as early as the fifth 
century B.C. It is to M. Kawadias, more than any other 
single archaeologist, that we owe the recovery of the treasures 
which fill the Acropolis Museum, He it was who, for the first 
time, elaborated a consistent scheme for turning over every 
inch of soil above the native rock, and between 1885 and 
1890 succeeded in accomplishing this tremendous task, the 
story of which he has lately given to the world in con- 
junction with Herr G. Kawerau, the architect of the ex- 

It may be as well, however, before considering more in 
detail the scope of these operations, to mention briefly the 
sequence of events from the time of the Liberation. 

In July, 1833, Pittakis was appointed a colleague of 
Weissenborn, Ephor-General of Antiquities, to superintend 

1 Cf . Kawadias and Kawerau, 'Ayac-Ktupal TTJS 'AK/><Mr6Xews, Athens, 1907. 
D. 1 


more particularly the discoveries on the Acropolis. It was 
determined in August, 1884, that the Acropolis should cease 
to be a fortress, and should be cleared of all buildings of 
post-classical date. Thus the earliest discoveries consisted 
of marbles, inscribed or figured, which had been lying among 
or built into the numerous erections of a later date. These 
were at first collected in the Propylaea, mainly in the north 
wing. At the same time trial excavations were begun in the 
Parthenon, the Propylaea, and on the S.W. slope. Ludwig 
Ross, however, who had succeeded Weissenborn, was compelled 
to abandon these efforts for a time in favour of the building 
operations in the town. 

During the next two years little digging was done. 
Clearing of the ground continued, and some columns of the 
Parthenon were re-erected. Pittakis, who succeeded Ross as 
Ephor-General in 1836, proceeded with vigour in the de- 
molition of later buildings. Between 1836 and 1842 the 
Erechtheum was cleared and partly re-erected, the mosque 
in the Parthenon and later additions in the Propylaea were 
removed, and the triangle between these three buildings was 
cleared for excavation. In 1837 the Greek Archaeological 
Society was founded for the purpose of promoting the work 
of discovery. More columns and part of the cefla wall of 
the Parthenon were restored in 1841 -% 9 and a year or two 
later the Nike temple was pieced together from fragments 
found in the great Turkish oastion on the slope below the 
Propylaea. Trenches were also dug south of the Parthenon, 
and French investigators received permission to make trials 
in the Propylaea and Erechtheum. In 1847 the Caryatid 
porch was re-erected ; in 1850 the steps which now lead up to 
the Propylaea were restored ; and two years later the French, 
under Beule, discovered and restored the gate which bears 
that savant's name. During the succeeding years Pittakis 
continued his work with diminished funds owing to the 
temporary failure of the Archaeological Society* The 
numerous finds of this period, consisting mainly of frag- 
ments of the temple sculptures and great numbers of in- 
scriptions, together with the previous collection housed in 
the Propylaea, were either moved to a great roofed-in 
cistern west of the Erechtheum or built into various walls 


and buildings with the purpose of displaying them to the 

In 1863 it was determined to build a museum at the ex- 
pense of Bernardakis'' legatees, to supersede this somewhat 
primitive method of exhibition. The first site proposed, 
east of the Erechtheum, was abandoned after the discovery 
of ancient foundations, and the work was further hampered 
by the death of Pittakis. In 1864 Eustratiadis succeeded 
him, but funds were slow in coming, and it was not until 
1874 that the museum was completed at the cost of the 
Ministry of Education. In 1875 the Archaeological Society 
again came forward, and with Schliemann's help the old 
Frankish tower at the Propylaea was demolished., and 
trenches dug in the north-west corner of the Acropolis. 
In 1877 the French school conducted excavations west of 
the Erechtheum, and in 1880 the German Institute dug in 
the Propylaea. 

It was felt, however, that there was need of continuity 
and system in the operations, and in 1881 a large scheme 
was planned under the auspices of the Archaeological Society 
with Eustratiadis in charge. 

Not until March 15th, 1882, were the first deep trenches 
cut north of the museum and in front of the east faade of 
the Parthenon. For the first 1 time the ground was probed 
below the ancient surface, and the results were instantaneous. 
A number of poros fragments, in particular the greater part 
of the two pediments in the first room of the museum, 
together with many marbles, bronzes, and terra-cottas were 
found close below the ancient level. In April, 1883, 
Eustratiadis resigned in consequence of a difference of 
opinion with the Archaeological Society, and digging was 
interrupted until February, 1884. Stamatakis was now 
appointed, but had barely started operations near the north- 
east corner of the Propylaea, when he was attacked by a 
serious illness, of which he died in March of the following 
year. In July, 1885, Ka wadias was appointed Ephor-General 
and continued the work of excavation in November. From 

1 A few pre-Persian potsherds were found by Boss in 1835 in trenches 
south of the Parthenon. 


that time until 1900 the work was continuous, and all the 
surface soil was turned over right down to the rock. 

Dorpfeld, and later Kawerau, acted as architect to the 
excavation, and the latter's minute plans of the whole area 
are of inestimable advantage for the history of the site. 

Commencing where Stamatakis had left off, at the north- 
east corner of the Propylaea, the trenches were carried east- 
wards past the Erechtheum, and round by the museum to 
the south side of the Parthenon, so returning to the Pro- 
pylaea. The central area was then excavated, and finally 
the interior of the Propylaea. The most valuable finds were 
made near the Erechtheum and round the east and south 
sides of the Parthenon in artificial pockets, where the debris 
of the Persian sack had been packed during the later adorn- 
ment of the Acropolis. Thus on two days in February, 1886 > 
fourteen of the finest of the Korai were found packed together 
in a hole north-west of the Erechtheum. 

From December 18th, 1888, the Ministry of Education 
took the place of the Archaeological Society, until in February > 
1890, the last work was done in the Propylaea. 

Meanwhile since January, 1886, the Acropolis Museum had 
been rearranged and refitted by M. Kavvadias. A smaller 
magazine was added to hold the fragments, so that only the 
more important finds might be exhibited in the large museum. 
At the same time the countless fragments were examined with 
a view to joining those that might belong together. In this 
work MM. Studniczka, Winter, Lechat, Bruckner and others, 
afforded valuable help and advice. One cannot feel too 
grateful that the old habit of restoration in plaster was for 
the most part abandoned. The vases, bronzes, and in- 
scriptions were removed to the central museum, and the 
museum on the Acropolis received its present shape. Professor 
Schrader's recent discoveries in restoration have added some 
and greatly supplemented others of the marble statues, and 
two new pediments in poros have resulted from the researches, 
of Professor Heberdey. 

During the last twenty years the work of excavation has 
twice been taken up again in the neighbourhood of the 
Acropolis, in 18961900, when the outer slopes were ex- 
plored, and since 1908, when trenches were started eastwards 

from the Theseum, but the Acropolis itself has already sur- 
rendered its treasures. 


For the want of a sufficiently concise English equivalent 
we must accept the German Perserschutt as the generic title 
of the contents of those strata on the Acropolis which pro- 
vided the finest of the exhibits in the first seven rooms of the 

In 480 B.C. and again in 479, the Persians occupied Athens 
and the Acropolis, razing and burning temples and statues. 
Whether the sack was as complete as Herodotus 3 would have 
us believe may perhaps be doubted. Pausanias, at any rate, 
in the time of Hadrian saw statues that had survived the 
wrath of Xerxes, and the contents of the museum alone are 
sufficient to shew that the work of destruction was not very 
thorough. The Athenians, however, on return to their 
blackened homes, determined to waste no efforts on re- 
storation or re-erection, but to make a clean sweep of the 
debris and start the beautification of the Acropolis afresh. 

The north wall of the citadel, built by Themistokles soon 
after the battle of Plataea, shews the same patchwork of 
materials as the walls of the lower town. Athens was 
fortified in a hurry, lest the Spartans should interfere with 
the work. It contains many of the architectural members of 
the old temple of Athena, as well as unfinished column-drums 
from the new temple planned by the victorious democracy of 
Kleisthenes. This wall was not built on the summit of the 
Acropolis rock, but on its side near the top, probably on the 
ruins of the old "Cyclopean" wall, and the pocket between 
the wall and the summit was packed with broken fragments 
of buildings and statues from the wreck-strewn surface of 
the hill. 

The wall on the south side was later in date. Funds for 
its erection were not to hand until after the battle of the 
Eurymedon in 467 B.C. Then Kimon built it at his leisure of 

1 Of. especially Dorpfeld, in A.M., 1902, p. 379 foil. 

2 viii. 53. 


squared stones the present face is mediaeval in date but 
he used the same device as Themistocles. That is to say, he 
increased the area of the summit by building his containing 
wall some way down the slope of the hill, and then filling up 
the pocket thus formed with the unused debris that was still 
lying among the ruined temples. 

Neither Kim on, however, nor Themistokles was the first to 
think of extending the surface of the citadel. The older 
Parthenon, whose foundations may still be seen projecting on 
the eastern side of the great temple of Perikles, is, according 
to the generally accepted theory of Dorpfeld, earlier than the 
Persian wars. Its half-finished column-drums are built into 
the Themistoclean wall, and it never got beyond the earlier 
stages of construction, but it, too, required an extension of 
the summit, and excavations to the south of it have revealed 
some facts of its history. If another temple was to be built 
on the hill besides the old temple of Athena, whose founda-* 
tions still lie between Parthenon and Erechtheum, it was 
necessary to build out an embanked foundation on the south 
side. How this was done is shewn by the illustration on 

P- 7 ' 

In this diagram, which shews a section running north and 

south between the Parthenon and the south wall : 

1 is the remains of the early Cyclopean wall which ran 
round the Acropolis hill. 

I is the original soil on the surface of the rock before 

the building of the earlier Parthenon. The wall 
of the foundation is built through this stratum 
down to the rock. 

is the foundation of the earlier temple and also a 
containing wall built contemporaneously to contain the 
debris which was shovelled in to make a platform on the 
south side. 

II is the stratum of rubbish thrown in at the time 

of the earliest building. In this stratum was 
found the greater part of the poros remains. 

3 is a second retaining wall built on the ruins of the 
Cyclopean to serve as the platform wall after the rubbish 


began to fall over . It shews a second period of building 
marked by a heightening of the foundation. 

III is the debris filling up the angle and contem- 

porary with 3. 

4 is the Kimonian wall, the south wall of the Acropolis 
built after 469 to extend the platform. 

IV is the corresponding debris containing objects of 

the same character as the pocket on the north side 
of the Acropolis, i.e. the Perserschutt proper, since 
II and III are debris of an earlier date. 

5 is Pericles' addition to the Kimonian wall and the 
Periclean foundation of the Parthenon. 

V is the additional Ming of rough blocks and chips 

of rock at the time of the second (Periclean) 
Parthenon, when the height of the foundations 
was further raised, and the surface of the Acropolis 

The total depth of these strata was about 14 metres 
(45 ft.). 

5 dates from 447 434 B.C. 

4 after 469 B.C. 

Between 4 and 3 there is an interval during which, as 
we know from the contents of 4, came the Persian sack 
of 480. 

Between 3 and there is a short break, which is found 
most naturally in the Marathon period. 

Between 2 and 1 there is an interval of quite uncertain 
length during which the foundations of the first Parthenon 
were laid, and poros sculpture flourished and passed away. 

The date of the earlier Parthenon lies clearly between the 
Peisistratid renovation of the oldest Athena temple and the 
Persian wars. The unfinished drums on the north wall shew 
us that it was not completed in 480 B.C. The question 
therefore arises whether it was begun before or after Marathon 
in 490 B.C. Here our illustration helps us, for we see that 
there were two periods even in this earlier building, since 2 
was built to serve as the terrace wall at first, but afterwards 
the height of the foundation was raised and 3 was built 


further out. We have to allow, therefore, for a break and 
for the erection of the massive foundations of the temple. 
Ten years is too short a time, especially as the funds of 
483480 were devoted mainly to snip-building. We may, 
therefore, conclude that the gap was caused by the Persian 
danger 492 490, and that the earliest scheme is still 

Under such circumstances Dorpfeld can hardly be wrong 
in ascribing the earlier Parthenon to the time of Kleisthenes, 
when the new democracy that had just expelled the tyrants 
would naturally desire to replace the Hekatompedon associated 
with their name by a new building, greater still and more 
ambitious, to celebrate the triumph of the new order. 

It was at this time then, 508 or a little later, that the 
first foundations were laid, and the first accumulation of 
debris II began. In this stratum the poros remains are 
found, and it must be remembered, therefore, that the poros 
remains were buried fully 30 years before the marbles in an 
earlier Tyrcwinenschutt, if the word may be coined. 

In this way were the great deposits of archaic sculpture 
formed by men who felt so confident in their own artistic 
skill for the future that they were content to sweep into the 
rubbish heap the accumulated treasures of fifty years 1 . 
Thanks to these three deposits of material, in 508, 478, and 
466, we find at the present day marble and poros statues 
alike with the bloom of freshness still on them, and their 
original colour little impaired by time. 


There are a few objects in the first seven rooms of the 
museum of a later date than 480 B.C., but it may be stated 
broadly that that is the lower limit of the chronological 
period. Most of these statues have come from the rubbish 

1 Many of the statues in the museum seem to have been hacked or 
mutilated, e.g. Nos. 595, 606, 671, 680 and 682. It has been suggested that 
this was for the purpose of packing them in the Perserschutt. It is not 
impossible however that it represents Persian destruction. Traces of the 
conflagration are visible in the many splintered surfaces like those of No. 665 
and the new Kore. 


heaps of 508500 or of 479469 B.C., and represent either 
the ruins of the Persian sack or the superseded pediments of 
poros. Another chronological datum, unfortunately hard to 
fix, is the remodelling of the old temple of Athena under the 
tyrants, when the marble peristyle and pediments superseded 
the earlier poros fronts. We possess both the new and the 
old pediments, but we can only estimate vaguely the date of 
the change. Its importance rests largely on the fact that the 
pediments of the Hekatompedon are among the latest mani- 
festations of poros art, and consequently we can attribute 
with safety the bulk of the poros works to an age prior to 
that of the temple reconstruction. Contributory evidence 
on this point is provided by a comparison of the poros 
sculptures in general with examples of black-figured vase 
paintings of the first half and middle of the sixth century. 
The date of the Franfois vase is generally accepted as 
within ten years of 550 B.C., and its points of resemblance 
to the Introduction of Herakles pediment are many and 

On a priori evidence therefore we may premise two general 
periods in early Attic art : 

(1) A period lasting down into the second half of the 
sixth century and including the poros sculptures. 

(2) A period succeeding this one and lasting until 480, 
during which time fine marble work was accomplished. 

A more detailed chronology depends largely upon the 
internal study of style. 

M. Lechat, whose two works 1 on the Acropolis sculptures 
have hitherto provided the most careful and detailed general 
view of early Attic art, bases his study of style on two con- 
siderations : 

(1) Work in a superior material is later than work in an 
inferior material ; 

(2) Good work, i.e. work of technical excellence, is later 
than bad work, i.e. work of clumsy or faulty appearance. 

He is thus led to divide early Attic art sharply into a 
period of wood technique, a period of poros technique, and 
a period of marble technique. The first period depends only 

1 Au Huste de VAcropole d'Athenes, Paris, Lyons, 1903; La Sculpture 
attique avant Pheidias, Paris, 1904. 


on theoretical and literary evidence, as no early Attic wood- 
work has survived. 

By a further sub-division, Lechat divides the poros period 
into two parts, an early part during which bad material, 
full of holes, shells, and other defects, was used, and a later 
part in which good material was used. Similarly the age 
of marble is divided into periods in which the inferior 
marble of Hymettos, the hard Parian, and the softer coloured 
Pentelic were respectively employed. Within these general 
lines technical excellence provides his criterion for dating, 
and thus poros sculpture is started with the two rude masks 
(Nos. 11 and 12) and culminates with the Zeus head from 
the Introduction pediment. The marble period opens with 
the Moschophoros, which bridges the gap between poros and 
marble, much as the masks bridged the gap between poros 
and wood. The fine Korai form the next stage in art, and 
then come two eclectic schools of Attic-Ionic and Attico- 
Peloponnesian sculpture. 

Before considering the detailed order of the statues it is 
necessary to enter a protest against the main principles of 
Lechat's criticism. 

It is no doubt true that the earliest carvings in Attica as 
in most other countries were in wood or ivory or bone, but we 
have no evidence of wood technique in the poros sculptures, 
and therefore no right to infer that period from the contents 
of the museum 1 . 

Lechat finds this evidence in the Hydra pediment (No. 1). 
He considers this much the oldest of the poros pediments, 
and maintains that the flat planes and sharp edges of this 
composition represent the methods of wood-carving. Further, 
he considers the tools used for poros-carving were the wood- 
worker's tools, gouges and knives, not the chisel, the discovery 
of which led to marble work. 

It must first be remarked that the Hydra pediment is in 
very low relief, nowhere exceeding three centimetres, or a 

1 The fragments of the marble akroteria of the old Athena temple are the 
only statues in the museum which definitely point to wooden originals 
(cf. pp. 113, 114). Without doubt in early buildings the akroteria would be 
made of wood, but such statues afford no evidence of a " wooden " period in 
early Attic art. 


little over an inch. We must, therefore, be careful in com- 
paring it with works of free sculpture or in high relief. This 
feature of flat planes and sharp transitions is inherent in all 
primitive low-relief work. It is only after a long develop- 
ment that the sculptor of a Parthenon frieze can graduate 
delicately these subtle planes. The origin of low relief is 
simply drawing on stone and then cutting out the back- 
ground. Numerous examples of this method are provided by 
the excavations of Sparta 1 , where we have the whole de- 
velopment from the scratched outline to the elaborate system 
of superimposed planes visible in the Chrysapha stele 2 . 
Early wood-carving proceeds on quite different principles. 
It naturally works in the round, on the log not the board, 
and has no occasion to shew flat planes and sharp edges 
wood-carvers do not split wood along the grain. Primitive 
wood-carving, whether ancient, as in discoveries at Ephesos 3 , 
or mediaeval, as e.g. the doors of Santa Sabina in Rome 4 , 
does not shew an arrangement of planes at all. Early works 
in low relief are all connected closely with drawing, and the 
ancestors of the Hydra pediment are vase paintings not 
sculptures in wood. 

It is not at all surprising, therefore, that we find the 
closest analogy to the scene of the Hydra pediment in an 
early vase painting 5 . But we may go further than this 
and derive the whole of the poros works in the museum 
from the subjects of vase paintings. The figures of the 
introduction pediment, the seated Zeus and Hera, the march- 
ing Herakles and Iris shew the closest analogies in costume 
and in attitude with the scenes on the Franois vase 6 . The 
so-called Erechtheum pediment with its pictorial background 
can only be explained at so early a period as an adaptation 
.from the painter's art, and may be paralleled in the typical 
fountain scenes 7 . The combat of Herakles and Triton is a 

1 B.S.A., xii. p. 333 foil., xiv. p. 25. 

2 Antike Skulpturen zu Berlin, p. 273, No. 731. 

3 Hogarth, Excavations at Epfwsus, pp. 161, 217, pi. xxv. 1 and 2. 

4 Yenturi, Storia delV arte italiana, i. p. 333 foil., figs. 308327. 

6 Gerhard, Auserlesene Vasenbilder, ii. No. 95. 

fl Furtwangler, Vasenmalerei, pi. i., n., ra., xi., xn., xm. 

7 E.g. Gerhard, op. cit., iv. Nos. 307, 308. 


common scene on the vases 1 , and so are pictures of lions and 
bulls. As yet no vase has given us a three-bodied monster 
like No. 35, but we may still hope for a replica. Bone or 
ivory carvings provide much closer analogies than wood- 
carving. Thus the lions and bulls may be compared to a 
fine ivory group from Sparta 2 , but here again the ivory- 
carving undoubtedly owes its origin to the engravers art, as 
the half-finished Spartan ivories shew 3 . Wood technique, on 
the other hand, passes directly into marble sculpture, and 
such works as the Nikandra of Delos or the statue of 
Cheramyes in the Louvre owe their inspiration directly to 
primitive wooden xoana. This class, as we shall see, is 
represented in the Acropolis. 

As regards tools, the chisel is demonstrably used on the 
masks, on the owl (No. 56), and indeed on all the poros 
work, and was certainly used in Attica at an earlier period 

Again, as to the transition from marble to poros, it is 
true that the Moschophoros (No. 64) shews the closest 
analogies with poros work, but there is a whole group of 
sculptures in marble much earlier than the Moschophoros. 
An isolated poros head, moreover, No. 50, displays such 
marked Ionian characteristics that it can hardly have been 
carved before the influx of Chiot sculpture into Attica, i.e. 
before a period much later than the Moschophoros, and there- 
fore we have evidence of poros work lasting down to a com- 
paratively late date. 

With regard to Lechat's sub-divisions it must be pointed 
out that the right-hand slab of the Hydra pediment is a 
piece of poros in every way as good as any of the blocks in 
the sculptures of the Hekatompedon (Nos. 35 and 36), and^ 
that inferior pieces are found not only in the Hydra 
pediment, but in almost any group of the whole series. 
Parian marble is used for the Chiot statues because the 
Chiot masters imported Parian and not Pentelic, but Pentelic 
marble was used in Attica before as well as after Parian. It 
was even used before Hymettan marble, since the earliest 

1 Of. GerJaard, op. tit., ii. No. 111. 

2 B.S.A., xiii. p. 89, fig. 33. 

Ibid. pp. 97, 99, figs. 29, 30. 


statues of all, before the Hymettan Moschophoros, and before 
the poros pediments, are undoubtedly in Pentelic marble, 
though the fact is not universally admitted 1 . 

Lechafs second principle equally fails to meet the facts. 
The masks, the technique of which he takes to be the earliest 
of all the poros group, are clearly of quite a developed period 
the bearded head shews a satyr type of quite conventional 
appearance. Their primitive appearance is due to the fact 
that they are probably not genuine offerings at all, but 
small pieces carved by workmen during the dinner hour for 
their own amusement! They are bad and careless, but they 
are not early. Similarly the Zeus head, which Lechat takes 
to be the culminating point of poros art, is undoubtedly, as 
we shall see, from a group much earlier than Nos. 35 and 36. 
It cannot be too often repeated that mere excellence of style 
or the reverse is in itself no criterion for date. There are 
good early artists and bad late artists, and the work of the 
former will frequently look the better and the more de- 
veloped from the artistic point of view. The only sure 
criterion of dating is to take the development of small 
individual features like the curves of lips, the shapes of eyes 
and ears, or the modelling of the cheelcs. These are points 
in which artistic conventions gradually develop, conventions 
which bad artists and good alike learn from their masters, and 
it is by the gradual improvement of stock artistic convention, 
and by that only, that a series of statues can be dated on 
purely internal evidence. 

We must look, therefore, for other principles than 
Lechafs in establishing a chronological series of these 

The first thing to do is to rule out the poros works 
from the direct line of development of Attic art. These 
works are all architectural, and therefore they have to con- 
form to quite different conditions from the self-sufficing 

The earliest decorated pediments were no doubt painted, 
and therefore by tradition, as well as from the inherent 

1 These smaller figures are not included in Lepsius, Griechische Marmor- 
studien, and I know of no expert geological opinion. My own view is based 
on actual experiment and comparison with other statues in the museum. 


character of relief work, these works depend on the stream 
of development in painting much more than on that in 
sculpture. It is comparatively easy to paint complicated 
groups of snakes and animals and wrestling men. But the 
problems they present to the true sculptor are very difficult, 
and the poros sculptors never even attempted to grapple with 
them. None of their works stand any but a frontal obser- 
vation. For the development of feature-carving, and to some 
extent for the portrayal of the surface muscles of individual 
limbs, the poros series gives us valuable information, but it 
gives us little or no evidence on the growth of the sculptural 
conventions that led to the Moschophoros or the early Kvre 
(No. 593). This can only be provided by free sculpture, and 
our first search must be for the earliest free sculpture of 

Even before Lechat's publications Winter performed a 
most useful service by his collection of a group of early 
sculptures round the central figure of the Moschophoros. W*e 
are now enabled, however, with a closer knowledge of all the 
results of the excavations to extend the earliest period of 
Attic art some distance further back. 

In Nos. 58 and 589 we have two early statues of com- 
pletely ocoanic type, i.e. the roughest possible adaptations 
of a block of stone to the human form. These are the 
statues that are derived from original xoanon figures in 
wood or fortuitously shaped meteorite stones, which formed 
some of the earliest objects of worship 1 . We might call 
them pre-Daedalid in type, for the name Daidalos really 
points to that period in development when the limbs began 
to be separated. No. 619 shews us that in certain circum- 
stances this type could be preserved into a decidedly later 
period. In Athens, however, such statues must go back into 
the seventh century long before even so developed a work of 
art as the Hydra pediment. Nos. 582, 583, 589 and 593 
give us a series of early Kore statues culminating in the fine 
figure of No. 593. Here we find steady development in the 
line of naturalism and decorative skill, and the identity of 
costume with the figures of the poros pediments suggests 
that the two series are developed together. 
1 For such statues cf. Pausanias, ii. 30, 4 ; iii. 14, 7; yiii. 17, 2; ix. 3, 9. 


Next to No. 593 comes No. 679, a fine piece of Attic 
sculpture, whose resemblance to the Moschophoros has already 
been noted by Winter. It is clear that a long line of de- 
velopment separates such a statue from No. 582. Other 
important members of this early series are the two groups of 
Hermes and the Charites represented by the various frag- 
ments Nos. 586, 587, 6%%, and 637. Hence we find in con- 
nection with female figures of quite stiff appearance heads 
which must be carefully compared with those of Nos. 6S4, 679 
and the poros pediments. In all of them we find a round 
long head, the hair very simply blocked out, level eyes with, 
the lower lid straight and the upper arched, giving a tri- 
angular shape, a nose thin at the upper part and bulging at 
the nostrils, a straight, unsmiling mouth 1 terminated by 
downward cuts at the corners, clumsy ears, and a square face 
with rather heavy chin. This is the normal head of the 
poros pediments as shewn in lolaos, Zeus, the three-bodied 
monster and the smaller heads, and it is distinct from the 
high Ionian smiling head, and the flat Peloponnesian head 
with straight cheeks and bulging occiput. We may take it 
as the pure Attic type, and as such we find it reproduced 
exactly in the Hermes (No. 622). In both 624 and 679 
there are modifications. In the former the eye is flatter and 
more oval, the corners of the mouth are ended differently, 
and the ridge that marks the two planes meeting behind the 
eye is emphasised in almost an Egyptian manner. Similarly 
in 679 the mouth corners are treated differently, and there 
is some trace of the Ionian smile. Also 678, whose head 
betrays features identical with those of 679, is attired in a 
travesty of the Ionic costume betraying faulty imitation. 
Now the later scenes of the poros pediments .are undoubtedly 
affected by Ionian originals, e.g. the Herakles and Triton 
by the same type as the Assos frieze, and the bulls and lions 
by the Ionian type found at Sparta, or in the Xanthos frieze. 
We may, therefore, accept the parallelism of the Moschophoros 
group with the later poros works, so ably demonstrated by 
Winter, but we must then compare the Hermes relief with 
the purer Attic work of e.g. the Introduction pediment or the 

1 The upper lip projects slightly further than the lower at the corner 
and from this angle a groove runs downward. 


Hydra. The horses 1 heads (575 580) are clearly parallel 
with the horses of the chariot of lolaos. This will throw the 
earliest ccoana distinctly into the earliest place before the 
period of poros work at all. 

We must now fix the relations of the poros series. It is 
impossible, with Lechat, to spread the whole series over 
a very long period. The latest limit of the Triton and three- 
bodied monster (Nos. 85 and 36) must antedate by some 
years the Peisistratid reconstruction of the Hekatompedon 
and can hardly be later than the decade 540 580, when 
Peisistratos came into full power. We may put the recon- 
struction tentatively at about 5&0 1 . Now, since the colouring 
of the earlier poros works is little fainter than that of Nos. 35 
and 86, one can hardly postulate a great number of years 
for the whole series. Moreover, the parallel with the black- 
figured vases of the middle of the century hardly enables us 
to date the Hydra pediment before the decade 570 560 at 
the earliest. On internal reasons of style there is so little 
difference in technique, so little advance in spirit between 
earliest and latest that forty years seems the greatest possible 
length for the whole period. Technique grows rapidly in 
the sixth century. Since the poros technique is based 
primarily on drawing, we shall be inclined to recognise as the 
earliest those works that are the most influenced by drawing, 
as later those most influenced by sculptural designs. In this 
way we get two groups, an earlier group of No. 1, the Intro- 
duction pediment, and the " Erechtheum " pediment 2 , and 
a later group of No. 2, the bulls and lions, and the remains 
of the Hekatompedon pediments. 

On all grounds we may take the Hydra pediment as the 
earliest, though not so much earlier than the others. Lechat 
lays emphasis on the distorted position of lolaos, but this is 

1 Our only data are a comparison with, other architectural works ^of the 
period, e.g. the Diouysos temple in Athens, and the hall at Eleusis: of. 
Dorpfeld, AM., 1902, p. 407. 

2 The introduction of a scenic background in this pediment is absolutely 
opposed to the principles of early Greek work in relief, where the background 
is conceived not as the distance in a picture, but as space like the wall 
behind a statue. The Hellenistic sculptors were the first to treat the 
background as part of the relief, and thus to start perspective sculpture. 
It can only be explained here as a literal translation of painting into 

D. 2 


due to the difficulties of low relief. The naturalism of the 
horses and the crab, .and the fine attitude of Herakles are 
works of developed art. The head of lolaos is, however, 
clearly the earliest in its crudity of carving. The finish of 
the features is very hard and has none of the careful tran- 
sitions of the " Typhon " heads. In this respect it is im- 
portant also to note the development between the Zeus head 
and the heads of the three-bodied monster (No. 35). In the 
latter the eyes are rounded and cut into the head deeply at 
the corners ; the edges of the lips are not hard, but rounded 
softly. Between the two lion groups there is some difference 
in technique. The group in the second room is careless and 
flat ; its details are conventional. No. 3, on the other hand, 
is vigorous in pose, and shews a technical advance in the 
rendering of a soft surface like the pads of the lion's feet or 
the bulPs muzzle by a series of small holes. Compare too the 
necks of the two bulls. 

Another main difference is the form of composition. The 
earlier groups shew the figures one by one like a vase painting; 
the later ones shew them intertwined in a more structural way. 
The latest of the poros heads has already been mentioned, 
No. 50, which shews the smile and groove round the mouth 
of the Chiot statues. 

We may now hazard a tabulation of the poros series : 

(1) Hydra pediment and soon afterwards the " Erech- 

theum " pediment. The figure of the " Hydrio- 
phore," No. 52, which belongs to this pediment, 
seems to approach the rigidity and primitiveness 
of lolaos very closely. 

(2) The Introduction pediment. This pediment must 

be nearly contemporary with the Fra^ois vase, 
which is dated usually about 550 1 . 

(3) The earlier Triton pediment (No. ) and the earlier 

bull and lions. This shews the first appearance of 
Ionian sculptural notions, cf. e.g. the Assos frieze. 

(4) The Hekatompedon pediment (Nos. 35 and 36) 

and the second bull and lions (No. 3). 

(5) The Ionic head (No. 50). 

1 Walters, History of Ancient Pottery, i. p. 370. 


Roughly one might ascribe each of these to a decade 
between 570 and 580. This puts the first Ionian influence 
about 550, or about the time of the first tyranny of Peisis- 
tratos in whose later years comes without doubt the great 
period of Chiot importation. According to this system the 
Hekatompedon pediments were erected about 540, before 
Peisistratos 1 power was firmly established, and the Chiot 
influence was in full swing by 530. 

We must now return to the marble sculptures, where we 
have seen reason for two early groups, an original Attic 
group culminating in the Hermes relief and perhaps the Kore 
(No. 59S), and a group tinged by Ionic influence in a slight 
degree while keeping intact its main Attic lines. This 
includes Nos. 624 and 679, and we may add the horseman 
(No. 590), whose Attic appearance is modified by his im- 
ported material, Parian marble. The first group would begin 
before the poros and develop along with them down to 550 or 
so, and then for the next fifteen years we have this period of 
earliest Ionian influence. The Naxian figures Nos. 619 and 
677 and the bowl No. 592 may belong to this age, when im- 
portation was just beginning 1 . 

We now come to a complete break in tradition caused by 
the appearance of the main series of the Karai. The line of 
Attic tradition is destroyed and only appears again much 
later in a modified form. 

Until the age of the tyrants Athens occupied a position 
of little general importance in Greece, and remained self- 
centred and unaffected by foreign currents of art or politics. 
But with the tyranny of Peisistratos she was drawn into 
Aegean and Greek politics in all directions. Peisistratos 
and his sons were Ionian in sympathy. They had important 
interests in North Ionia, and they revived the Pan-Ionian 
position of Delos. Ionian artists and poets crowded to their 
court, and left inscriptions still preserved to this day 3 . It is, 
of course, a matter of history that art developed much more 

1 It is to this period too that we should ascribe the Egyptianizing scribes 
Nos. 144 and 146. It is suggested on p. 167 that these figures are derived 
via Naukratis. 

8 Archermos of Chios, C.I.A., i., Suppl. m. p. 181. Theodores of 
Samos, ib. 



quickly on the eastern side of the Aegean, and recent exca- 
vations have shewn Sparta as well as Corinth and Athens 
under the domination of Ionic tastes in the middle of the 
6th century. 

Ionian art may be said to fall roughly into two schools, 
the Southern or Samian and the Northern or Chiot. The 
Samian style is fixed for us by the discoveries of Branchidai, 
and of late years in Samos itself 1 . It is, as we might expect, 
Egyptianizing, with a round head, heavy face, and straightish 
mouth, in no way the art of the imported statues on the 
Acropolis. We have no first-hand evidence of what Chiot 
art was, but we know that Archermos invented, according to 
tradition, the type of the winged Nike, and that Bupalos and 
Athenis, his sons, excelled in the reproduction of the draped 
female figure. We know, too, that these artists made statues 
in Delos, and that their names are found in inscriptions both 
at Delos and on the Acropolis. At the same time we find the 
Kore type both at Delos and Athens, and in addition at Delos 
a Nike whose facial type is precisely that of the Korai and a 
base inscribed by Archermos 2 , which may or may not belong 
to the Nike. 

We need therefore have no hesitation in associating the 
imported Korai with the names of the family of Archermos 
and the Chiot school. 

It is now necessary to shew that this series of Korai is 
really foreign, and that some of the statues at any rate were 
directly imported, if we wish to prove that the Attic tra- 
dition was broken owing to Chiot importation. 

1 L. Curtius, Samiaca, A.M., 1906, p. 151, pi. x. xir., xrv. xvi. 

2 Controversy still rages on the question whether the winged Nike and 
the base found at Delos belong together. Klein separates the two and 
ascribes the Nike to a Peloponnesian school. It is impossible not to stigmatise 
this view as resting on a complete misconception of the true differences of 
Ionian and Peloponnesian art. The head corresponds closely with the 
Korai of the Acropolis, but presents no resemblance whatever to the metopes 
of Selinos with which Klein compares it. The broad flat head of the latter, 
with its flat cheeks, round eyes, and a straight mouth, shews a totally 
different type. Homolle's view is that it is an akroterion and not a votive 
offering. Whether the base belongs or not, it is still possible with Stud- 
niczka to ascribe the statue to Archermos. Kawadias, rXwrra i. No. 21 ; 
Collignon, i. 134; Studniczka, Siegesg. p. 6; Klein, i. p. 138: Homolle 
B.C.H., xxv. p. 406*. 


We have already seen that the type of early Attic head 
is fixed by a great number of examples. The Chiot Kvrai on 
the other hand shew a tall egg-shaped head, slanting eyes 
with large tear-ducts, a nose of equal breadth throughout its 
length, an oval face, finely carved ears, very elaborate hair, 
and a mouth which ends with the lip corners drawn up in a 
sharp bow and melting off into a semicircular groove which 
runs all round the mouth. Further distinctions are that the 
Attic figures are broad and stocky 1 , the Chiot tall and slim, 
the Attic heads held upright, the Chiot bent downwards, the 
Attic figures veiled in heavy drapery, the Chiot in diaphanous 
garments, and finally the Attic as against the Ionian costume. 

The rule of Peisistratos was not firmly established until 
538 B.C., and thus we may put that year as the highest limit 
of the importing period. 

The statues of this period which shew the characteristics 
of Chiot art in a pure and uncontaminated manner are 
Nos. 594, 670, 673, 675 and 682, to select the more im- 
portant of the series. There are also a few heads, e.g. 
No. 663, of pure Chiot type. This group of statues must 
be attributed definitely to Chiot artists, and was more prob- 
ably made in Chios and imported, although it is conceivable 
that the artists may have worked in Athens with imported 
material. All are in Parian marble, which now becomes 
general on the Acropolis. 

The hall-mark of early Attic art above and beyond the 
technical characteristics already noted is the overflowing 
reality and vigour of even the earliest efforts. Chiot art, 
for all its immense technical superiority and greater decora- 
tive effect, is in spirit cold and lifeless. Its conventional 
delicacy and grace at first produce a favourable effect, but 
in the end the repeated smile, and the insistence on decorative 
splendour not truly sculptural in essence, must inevitably 
bring a reaction to simplicity and truth. Although Chiot 
art swept the crudity and clumsiness of early Attic art into 
obscurity, and ruled Attic fashions for a quarter of a century, 
we find tendencies of reaction even at the period of closest 

i The term is relative, as the tendency of most of the early statues on 
the Acropolis is towards slimness, but a comparison between Nos. 682 and 
688 illustrates the essential difference. 


imitation. It may be wondered why Attic art remained 
enslaved so long, but the reason is not difficult to find. Art 
depends largely on its patrons, and the best patrons were the 
Peisistratidae. As long as they held the tyranny, Ionian art 
was en rZgle, and the democratic revolution of 510 B.C. marks 
a separation from the ideals of the previous 30 years not the 
least in this, that it at once gives birth to a revival of truly 
Attic art. 

For some time before 510 we find alongside of the im- 
ported Korai a class of imitations and adaptations of the 
type, all of which betray by some Attic feature their native 
origin and inspiration. But the court taste is powerful 
enough to keep the stream of art on the whole in Chiot 
lines. The development of the Chiot Korai^ Nos. 594, 670, 
673, 675 and 688, shews nothing but an increasing tendency 
to elaboration and decoration culminating in 594 and 
the superb 68. One or two decades cover the whole five. 
The Attic, or rather the Attic-Ionian, Korai, on the other 
hand, present a much greater variety of type. The most 
important of these are Nos. 671, 672, 674, 676, 680, 683 
and 685. They all copy the Chiot models in costume and 
pose and hair-treatment, but all shew some variety in detail. 
Thus 685 has the straight Attic mouth and eyes ; 676 revives 
the old Attic triangular eye and the long head ; 671 adopts 
the old fashion of finishing the lip corners, though in a 
fashion much softer and neater. 672 has Chiot eyes and 
mouth corners, but otherwise has reverted entirely to the old 
type ; 674, the masterpiece of this school, infinitely finer as a 
work of art than any of the Ionian originals, by a new fashion 
of its straight mouth and delicately moulded cheeks, has won 
a certain grave and austere beauty unparalleled in earlier art. 

But all these statues are in bondage to some extent. The 
Ionian hair, elaboration of dress, and attention to purely 
superficial ornament as compared with a real study of tri- 
dimensional effect, destroy originality of conception 1 . The 

1 The greater number of the smaller Korai and of the small heads in the 
wall-case in Boom "V. belong to this period of Attic-Ionian art. The normal 
type here represented shews a general resemblance to No. 616. The eyes 
are usually flat with the upper edge projecting, the lower sunk into the cheek, 
the head is round, the mouth slightly curved, the chin and cheek-bones 
prominent, the ears small and delicate. 


most impressive monument of the whole period, the great 
gigantomachy pediment of the Peisistratid reconstruction of 
the Hekatompedon (No. 631), unmistakably by an Attic artist, 
though in the fashionable Parian marble, shews tendencies 
much more Attic. The general Ionic appearance of drapery, 
hair, and detail is modified by the reversion to an almost 
completely Attic type of face with wide-open eyes, straight 
mouth, and heavy chin. A comparison of the treatment of 
the nude male form shews that here, in the absence of Chiot 
models, the older poros works exercised great influence, and 
Athena's head owes much to the renewed study of these 
unfashionable works. The pediment, erected probably about 
520 B.C., proves that the architects at any rate had not for- 
gotten the Attic tradition, and that during all this period 
the old types were still remembered. The group may be 
closely compared with the Boreas and Oreithyia from Eretria 1 , 
which seems clearly Attic in origin. 

We need not therefore be surprised that once the tyrants 
have been deposed Attic art rises again from its ashes, and 
that in Antenor's Kore (No. 681), the masterpiece of the next 
decade 510 500, we see a complete reaction against Chiot 
rules and a reversion to the older Attic type. 

The costume and pose of this figure, it is true, are still 
Ionian, but by this time the Ionian dress was the rule at 
Athens, and the pose is a commonplace of early art. The 
type of head on the other hand is entirely Attic, although 
with a great accession of delicacy and finish. These were 
Chiot lessons never forgotten or repudiated by Attic artists. 
The long square head, wide open eyes, and straight mouth 
ending in downward cuts are all revived. The surface decora- 
tion of the drapery is kept, but it is reinforced by heavily 
undercut edges which entail a truly sculptural effect of light 
and shade. The forms are broad and noble, the gaze upright, 
the whole statue radiant with a true and not fortuitous beauty. 
Controversy has raged about the connection of statue and 
base 2 , but on the whole the evidence inclines distinctly in 
favour of its authenticity, and we may therefore accept 

1 Furtwangler, Aegina, p. 322, figs. 259 261. Here called Theseus and 

a Of. p. 171. 


Antenor's authorship. The letter forms of the inscription 
give us a date coinciding with the a priori conclusion, i.e. the 
decade following the establishment of the democracy, 510 
500 B.C. In every way the work is a masterpiece and is 
fittingly coupled with the name of one of the greatest masters 
of this period. Another, Endoios 1 , may with nearly equal 
certainty be recognised from No. 625, in which again we find 
an Attic feeling for breadth, life, and simplicity shewn by no 
purely Ionian statue. 

Two other statues are closely connected with No. 681, the 
new Kore (No. I860) and No. 669. Here we see the same sim- 
plicity and the same Attic features, and it is at this period 
that the saw is added to the sculptor's tools. With these 
statues we enter on the third period of Attic art which may 
conveniently be called the Attic revival. 

But Athens is now no longer a small parochial community, 
and the newly fledged democracy is soon involved with its 
Peloponnesian neighbours. It is about this time that we 
begin to find new principles appearing in Attic sculpture 
which we can attribute unhesitatingly to Peloponnesian 

1 In spite of Pausanias' statement (i. 26, 4) that Endoios was an Athenian, 
it has generally been assumed from the Ionic characters of the two inscriptions 
hearing his name which were found in Athens, and from the fact that he 
worked at Erythrai and Ephesos, that he was really an Ionian sculptor 
attracted to the court of Peisistratos. The date of the inscription puts him 
roughly in the last quarter of the 6th century, and there is no reason to 
douht that in No. 625 we have the statue mentioned hy Pausanias (cf. 
p. 162). Klein prefers to pay more attention to the statement that he was 
a pupil of Daidalos, and therefore calls him a Cretan, but this statement 
need mean little save that he marks a technical advance on primitive art. 
To Pausanias, as to us, No. 625 must have looked a barbarous object after 
its long exposure in the open air. 

In the light of the separation of Attic and Ionic types we may feel 
inclined to revise the general attribution of an Ionic origin to Endoios. 
No. 625 certainly appears Attic in type. The slight curve of the figure from 
the true frontal position, the variation in pose, the broad shoulders and 
massive form, unite with the simplicity of adornment to suggest an Attic 
origin. It seems impossible to follow Schrader here in the opinion that 
there is nothing particularly Attic about the statue. After all, if Endoios 
was a sculptor of the Attic revival, there is no real reason why he should 
not have worked in Erythrai and Ephesos, e.g. about the time of the Ionian 
revolt, and there is perhaps more colour for his working at Tegea. As to 
the inscriptions, Ionic was perhaps the court dialect under the tyrants, and 
one would feel inclined to put No. 625 earlier than the full triumph of the 
democracy in 510. 


influence. No. 686, one of the latest of the Korai, besides 
displaying the Attic characteristics of the revival, shews 
further signs of a type even more strongly opposed to the 
Ionian ideal. Two main differences have been noticed by the 
critics, an almost primitive simplicity of costume and adorn- 
ment, and a change in expression from the gaiety of the 
Chiot or the calm beauty of the Attic Korai to a sombre 
and pensive thoughtfulness usually associated with the Pelo- 
ponnesian schools. We may point out even stronger signs 
of difference in the flat cheeks, hitherto always concave 
between chin and cheek-bones, the downward turn of the 
lip corners, and heavy-lidded eyes. The school, whose 
influence we find here, is not the Aeginetan. In the much 
later sculptures of the Aphaia temple we still find traces 
of the " archaic smile. 1 " It is not the Spartan, whose art is 
now a thing of the past. Tradition and discovery alike point 
to the Argive school, or, as some have called it, the Argive- 
Sikyonian school, for the influence now exerted on Athens. 
Politics and geography also point to Argos; we have the 
tradition that the great Attic sculptors of the early 5th century 
were pupils of Ageladas ; and we have the more important 
evidence of all the early works connected with the Argive 
school. The Argive head, as judged from the Ligourio 
bronze, from the statue of Polymedes at Delphi, or from 
the later types of Polykleitan sculpture, was long like the 
Attic, but flatter on the top and with the occiput protruding. 
The chin is more pointed and the mouth smaller. The eyes 
are oval with heavy lids, but perhaps the cheeks are the most 
distinguishing feature. Both Attic and Ionic cheeks are 
hollow, but the Argive is nearly flat. This flat cheek is 
common to most Peloponnesian art, and can be traced in 
the poros Hera head at Olympia or the Dorian metopes of 

On the Acropolis we find a number of heads which 
correspond closely with this type. The Kore, No. 686, the 
ephebe head, No. 689, and two heads in the wall case in 
Room V, Nos. 644 and 657, are clearly affected by this 
Argive influence, and No. 644 is possibly an actual work of 
Argive art. We have signatures of Peloponnesian artists 


among the Acropolis inscriptions 1 . At the same time a 
great change can be observed in the treatment of the nude 
male torso. From the clumsy figures of the Moschophoros 
and the giants of the pediment we find a sudden transition 
to Nos. 145 and 698. In speaking of a sudden transition we 
are omitting two figures belonging to the period of importa- 
tion. No. 665, which belongs to the "early Apollo" series, 
and No. 633, which is clearly Chiot in character. But for 
the development of the nude male figure we have little 
between the horseman No. 590 and the Moschophoros on 
the one side and the later groups on the other. The Chiot 
period was not one in which the nude male type was popular. 
In No. 145 we have a statue clearly later than the gigan- 
tomachy pediment, and we can see the effect of some foreign 
influence. The general proportions of the body are quite 
different from the early Attic type, and the muscles of the 
torso, instead of being conventional as in the Moschophoros^ 
are correct if somewhat hard in treatment. When we come 
to No. 698, we find a fully established canon of proportions 
which is demonstrably that of later Argive art, and therefore 
we cannot be wrong in attributing to Argive influence the 
improvement in nude male sculpture which begins to appear 
in Attic art after 510. The giants of the Athena pediment, 
no doubt affected by the difficulties of relief, shew no capacity 
for adapting their anatomy to the effects of motion. The 
statuette No. 80S has his pectoral muscles in no way modified 
by the raising of the right arm. Even No. 69, a fine work 
of quite developed art, shews the most cursory appreciation 
of anatomy combined with Ionian partiality to surface effect. 
But the statues which we have noticed, Nos. 145, 698, and we 
may here add No. 599, though this is probably post-Persian in 
date, shew a complete revolution in the direction of scientific 
anatomy. Of these the most interesting is No. 698 from its 
strong resemblance with the Harmodios of Naples, which is 
a copy of the work of Kritios. This resemblance is strong 
enough to justify our accepting with Furtwangler the attribu- 
tion of this work to the school of Kritios, and recognising 

1 Kallon of Aegina, C.I.A., i, Suppl. n. p. 86, No. 373 s3 ; Onatas. #>., 
p. 89, No. 37399; ...theos of Sikyon, ib., p. 100, No. 373 200 . 


in Kritios himself a sculptor who represented this Pelopon- 
nesian influence in Athens 1 . 

The Attic revival, then, is soon followed by a growth of 
Peloponnesian influence, first represented in the Kore No. 686. 
We have now to consider another line of development repre- 
sented by Kore No. 684. This figure, whose head and features 
clearly proclaim an origin later than the Attic revival, yet 
exhibits to a striking extent the Ionian qualities of surface 
adornment and elaboration of costume. It has been both 
compared and contrasted with No. 686, but evidently belongs 
to a totally different style and a practically identical period. 
The round head and broad shoulders are obviously Attic, and 
the face approximates to No. 681, but the Ionian hair and 
drapery shew that we must admit a line of Ionian reaction. 
Two other works, Nos. 641 and 690, may be taken in connec- 
tion with 684, and prove that an Ionizing school survived the 
collapse of the Chiot popularity. Nos. 661 and 659, also, 
present features which seem to place them in this class. We 
can have little doubt that this school continued to flourish in 
Athens, and developed in the delicate art of Kalamis. 

The ephebe head No. 689 is composite in type. Its close 
resemblance to No. 686 proves Peloponnesian influence, while 
the round head without occipital protuberance is distinctly 
Attic. Something of Ionian delicacy and preciosity appears 
in the droop of the head. 

The Attic revival then at the end of the 6th century 
seems to have split into three main lines of development : 

1. A line of Peloponnesian influence culminating in 
No. 698 and the School of Kritios. 

%. A line of Ionian reaction marked by No. 684 and 
culminating later in the School of Kalamis. 

3. A line of eclectic development exhibited in the head 
No. 689. 

1 Apparently with the introduction of Peloponnesian influence into Attica 
comes a change in the convention of the feet. The earlier artists, Attic 
and Ionian, shewed the toes in a line of diminishing length with the big toe 
longest, but the later Korai and ephebi have the second toe longest. The 
poros Herakles, No. 665, the Moschophoros and the giants of the marble 
pediments belong to the former class, together with the new figure of Nike, 
while 140, 160, 168, 431, 499, 571 and 1360 (the new Kore) belong to the 


Now an examination of the great names of Attic art in 
the middle of the 5th century gives us three names which 
correspond exactly with these schools. In Kalamis we have the 
direct descendant of the Ionian school; in Myron, whose heads 
shew many traces of resemblance to the Kritios heads, the 
representative of the Peloponnesian. The third name is 
Pheidias, who more than any other Greek artist combined 
Peloponnesian form with Ionian beauty. It is significant 
that Hegias has been suggested by Furtwangler as the author 
of 689, an artist known as the master of Pheidias. This 
a priori suggestion is certainly strongly supported by a com- 
parison of No. 689 with one of the greatest treasures of the 
museum, the head No. 699. 

That No. 699 is in direct relation to Pheidias a comparison 
with the metopes of the Parthenon leaves no doubt. The 
curved and undercut lower eyelid, the rather thick and parted 
lips, the Argive head and the crescent -shaped ear, the roughly 
blocked hair and taenia, and the extension of the line of the 
upper eyelid beyond that of the lower one at the outer eye- 
corners, are all distinctly Pheidian characteristics. No argument 
except the want of external proof exists to prevent the attri- 
bution of No. 699 to the hand of Pheidias himself. Its close 
resemblance to the metopes and its evident superiority suggest 
that it might have been the artist's model for the workmen. 
But for our immediate purpose the interest of this head rests 
also in the resemblance to No. 689. The latter is clearly of 
earlier date, but in the curving lower lid, the crescent-shaped 
ear, the modelling of the cheeks, and the astonishingly power- 
ful expression of inner feeling there are just those resemblances 
that descend from master to pupil. 

Provisionally, at any rate, we may take this head of 
extraordinary beauty to be the link between Antenor on 
the one hand and Pheidias on the other. 

It only remains to represent this chronological study in 
tabular form. 


2 9 

480 J 

Period I. 
Pure early Attic art. 

Earliest Ionian in- 

Period n. 

Chiot Art and Attic-Ionian 

Nos. 582, 583, 586, 587, 589, 593, 622, 637. 

1, Introduction pediment, "Ereeh- 
theum " pediment. 

Nos. 144, 146, 590, 611, 617, 619, 620, 
624, 677, 678, 679. 

2, 3, 35, 36. 

The greater number of the Korai, 633, 
Nikai, Sphinxes, etc. 

Period m. 
A. The Attic Kevival 
(Antenor, ?Endoios). 

New Kore, 621, 625, 
669, 681, 1332. 

B. Ionian School, 
641, 684, 690 (? 659 
and 661), leading 
on to Kalamis. 

C. Peloponnesian School D. Eclectic School 
(Kritios), 145, 599, 644, (Hegias?), 689, 
657, 698, leading on leading on to 
to Myron. Pheidias (699). 


The contents of the Acropolis Museum belonging to the 
pre-Persian period fall into two classes works in poros and 
works in marble. With their chronological relation we have 
already dealt; we have now to consider the subjects repre- 
sented, and the meaning which attaches to them. 

There is one primary consideration which draws a hard 
and fast line between these two classes. With the exception 
of a small group of objects, of which Nos. 11 and 12 are the 
only representatives in the museum itself, the poros works 
are entirely in relief and entirely architectural in character. 
There are a few instances of small votive offerings, the masks, 
small copies of Doric capitals, heads, figurines, etc., but the 
objects displayed in the first two rooms in the museum are 
all, with the two exceptions named, part of the sculptural 
adornment of buildings. So far as we can judge, they all 
belong to pediments, though No. 3 raises some problems of its 
own. All are at any rate essentially decorative in purpose. 
The buildings to which they originally belonged have Ibeen 
very largely recovered by the researches of Dr Wiegand 1 . 

1 Wiegand, Porosarchitektur, Cassel, 1904. 


The subjects are drawn from the ordinary list of Greek 
mythological types, a discussion of which need not delay us 
here. Only one point of interest arises in the predominance 
of Herakles as a central figure. One might have expected 
Theseus or some more distinctively Attic hero. But the pre- 
dominant position of Theseus in Attic story belongs to a 
later date. His adventures are depicted on early black- 
figured vases, but not to the same extent as those of Herakles. 
It was the new democracy, fresh from its victories over the 
Persian, that found in Theseus its prototype, and it was 
Kimon who first brought the hero's bones to their resting- 
place in Attica. We have seen that poros sculpture derived 
its subjects in the main from the vase-painters, and in the 
vase-painter's tradition Herakles occupied the greatest position 
as intermediary between God and man. Herakles, too, had 
special relations with Athena, to whom he owed lifelong 
support and posthumous recognition, and thus before the 
story of Theseus became the national legend there is no 
hero better suited to adorn the temples of Attica 1 . The 
motive of the lions and bulls needs no explanation. In all 
the history of art the ferocity of one and the solid strength 
of the other have appealed to realist or symbolist, and 
numerous instances of earlier and later date witness the Hel- 
lenic predilection for this grouping. More interest attaches 
to the most fragmentary of the poros pediments the so- 
called Erechtheum pediment. This title is not adopted in 
the Catalogue, since the olive-trees represented in the relief 
can hardly be said to certify the identification. There was 
only one sacred olive-tree on the Erechtheum, and the building 
is by no means certainly a temple at all. The Hydriophore, 
if she is identified correctly, points rather to a fountain-house, 
perhaps the veritable Enneakrunos from which the Pelasgi 
carried off the maidens 2 . 

The marble sculptures fall into quite a different category. 
Apart from the pediment figures of the old Athena temple, 
and the reliefs which have been thought to belong to its 
frieze, the marbles of the pre-Persian period have no purely 

1 Heracles had an ancient cult in the Marathon tetrapolis (Pans. i. 
32, 4). 

2 Herod, vi. 17. . 


architectural significance, but are votive offerings. They con- 
stitute the furniture of the temple and its precinct, but are 
not part of the temple themselves, and consequently their 
subjects and their meaning depend primarily on their votive 

The subjects fall into the following classes 1 : 

(1) Korai or female figures of a particular standing 


(2) Seated female figures. 

(3) Representations of Athena. 

(4) Nike. 

(5) Male standing figures, nude and draped. 

(6) Equestrian figures. 

(7) Seated male figures called " Scribes." 

(8) Groups. 

(9) Animals, including two sphinxes, an owl, a pig, and 

the Hippalectryon. 

(10) Reliefs. 

(11) Miscellaneous objects. 

It will be advisable to deal with the significance of each 
class separately. 

1 Subjects of marble statues and reliefs : 

Korai, Nos. 269, 420, 493, 582, 583, 584, 585, 588, 589, 593, 594, 595, 
598, 600, 601, 602, 603, 604, 605, 611, 612, 613, 614, 615, 616, 617, 619, 
626, 627, 628, 636, 639, 640, 641, 643, 645, 648, 649, 650, 651, 652, 654, 656, 
659, 660, 662, 664, 666, 667, 668, 669, 670, 671, 672, 673, 674, 675, 676, 677, 
678, 679, 680, 681, 682, 683, 684, 685, 686 (609), 687, 688, 696 (493), 1360 
(new figure). 

Seated female figures, Nos. 169, 329 (498), 618, 620, 625, 655, 3721. 

Athenas, Nos. 140, 142, 625, 034, 635, 646, 647, 658, 661, 695. 

Nikai, Nos. 159, 690, 691, 693, 694. 

Standing male figures, Nos. 145, 302, 431, 599, 621, 622, 624, 633, 642, 
644, 653, 657, 663, 665, 689, 692, 698, 699. 

Equestrian statues, Nos. A and B (in courtyard), 148, 449, 571, 575580, 
590, 606, 623 (4119), 697, 700. 

Scribes, Nos. 144, 146, 629. 

Groups, Nos. 293 (452) + 658 + 141, 160 + 168 + 7142, 145 + 370, 586 + 587, 
622 + 637. 

Animals, Nos. 122, 143, 552 (554), 597, 630, 632. 

Miscellaneous, Nos. 592 (bowl), 638 (Heracles), 701 (Medusa). 

Beliefs, Nos. 120, 121, 356, 449, 577, 581, 631, 702, 1332, 1340, 1342, 
1343, 1344, 1350. 

The Korai 1 are the largest and most important class of 
votive offerings, and present perhaps the most interesting 
problem. Who are the persons represented? It has been 
urged that these figures represent the goddess herself. It 
would, however, be impossible by all the recognised canons of 
Greek art to portray Athena at so early a period without any 
distinguishing attribute of helmet, aegis, or shield. The 
majority of these figures held in one hand an object, which 
proves, on all occasions where it has survived, to be a fruit, 
bird, crown, or other offering, not the patera for receiving 
offerings which is characteristic of a deity. The figure is in 
the guise of a worshipper. A second theory would identify 
them with the priestesses of Athena, but as the priestesses 
held office for life, a small consideration of the number of 
Korai will preclude this possibility for a period not much ex- 
ceeding half a century. There is more reason for associating 
the statues with the sacred maidens of Athena, whose duties 
were connected with the weaving of the peplos and the 
Arrhephoria. Even on this supposition, however, we should 
expect to find some significant attribute or some uniformity 
of costume to distinguish the statue from that of an ordinary 

Similar statues are found at Delos in the precinct of 
Artemis, at Eleusis in the precinct of the great goddesses, 
and a relief of similar type was discovered in the sanctuary 
of Athena Chalkioikos at Sparta. But they are not found 
in the precinct of Zeus at Olympia, of Apollo at Delphi, or 
among the bronzes of Dodona. These facts seem to shew 
two considerations: (1) ^Tore-statues are not peculiar to 
Athens or Athena; (%) ^re-statues are offered to female, 
not male, divinities. The key probably lies in the dedicatory 
inscriptions. Here we find references to dedications of Komi, 
and dedications by men, not women 2 . Similarly the stele 
from the sanctuary of the Chalkioikos in Sparta bears the 
one word Anaxibios. This would seem to rule out a fourth 
theory that the statues were personal dedications of female 
worshippers, and that the differences in facial type represent 

1 A good collection of the earlier views on the Kore type is given by 
Ghirardini, Bull Com. di Roma, ix. (1881), pp. 106 foil. 

2 C. LA., i., Suppl. m., p. 179 ; Lolling, AeXHoi/, 1888, p. 208. 


elementary portraiture. In the first place portraiture of 
any kind has yet to be established for so early a period ; in 
the second place we see that the dedicators are usually male. 
On these grounds we shall feel inclined rather to attribute 
the sex of the offering to the divinity, and to consider that 
the offering of a maiden-statue or Kore of purely indefinite 
personality was a suitable offering for a maiden goddess. 
The statue then has reference to the deity rather than the 
worshipper. Suidas (s. v. TTOLVTJ^ 3163 B, narrates the 
sacrifice of Lokrian maidens to Athena of Ilion. It is 
not impossible that the marble Kore of the Acropolis repre- 
sents the real maiden who was once offered to the maiden 

The seated female figures are more difficult to classify, 
as only in two cases are they preserved above the waist. 
No. 685 is obviously a statue of Athena herself, and both 
Nos. 618 and 620 might be the same. Even if the costumes 
of No. 329 and No. 655 be held to exclude the divinity, 
there is probably some distinction from the standing Korai. 
Possibly matrons were intended, although the costume is 
identical with that of the Korai. The great series of seated 
terra-cotta figurines shews that the attitude was common 
enough in another class of votive offering, if rare among 
the marbles. 

Figures of Athena or Nike need no discussion. To offer 
to a divinity a representation of himself or herself was always 
an acceptable offering, and to Athena Nike a statue of her 
attendant Nike would be always appropriate 1 . 

With the male figures we again come to a difficulty. The 
Moschophoros is clearly not Hermes or another, but simply a 
man offering a calf to the goddess. For a perpetual reminder 
of his generosity Rhombos or Kombos had the scene trans- 
lated into stone. The calf is the offering just as the Kore 
might be, but in the intrusion of the worshipper we have a 
different attitude toward the offering 2 . There is implied here 
also the dedication of the worshipper himself, or at any rate 
this feeling begins to come out in such a statue, and reaches 

1 At least one of the Nike figures, No. 694, was probably on akroterion. 

2 The male sex of the calf in no way precludes its suitability as an 
offering to Athena, of. Farnell, Cults of the Greek States, vol. i. p. 320. 

D. 3 


its logical fulfilment in such statues as Nos. 692 and 698, 
where we see simply the ephebe alone. There remains the 
question whether such a statue represents the dedicator him- 
self or an ideal figure. In the case of a dedication to Athena 
we may accept the former idea unhesitatingly, especially on 
the analogy of the Moschophoros. There need be no question 
of portraiture, but such ephebe statues would seem to 
represent a self-dedication, or at the least a dedication 
typical of the worshipper himself, on his own part or that 
of another. 

The same consideration applies to the Equestrian figures 
and the Scribes. Here without doubt we are to understand 
the statues as dedications of a scribe or a rider as the case 
may be. Other theories have been advanced, e.g. that No. 606 
represents a vanquished Mede, but neither this nor any other 
explanation is really so consistent with the facts. That such 
dedications were made is proved by the relief of the Potter 
(No. 1832) and the handicraft worker, whatever he may be, 
on relief No. 577 ; nor has the scribe any other significance 
save to be the representation of a ypa^fiareij^ of the State 1 . 
Whether the riders were the Hippeis themselves or the 
attendants of Hoplites has been questioned by Helbig, but 
it is now generally accepted that the statue refers to the 
livelihood or occupation of the worshipper. Two alternatives 
were open, e.g. to a rich potter. He might, like Nearchos, 

employ Antenor to make him a Kore, or like IO2, offer 

a picture of himself at his own trade (No. 1332). Thus 
Athena might receive a Kore, a statue of herself or Nike, or 
a statue of the worshipper. 

A fourth type of offering is exemplified in the Groups, the 
animals, some of the Reliefs, and miscellaneous objects. 

It was possible to offer miscellaneous votives a pair of 
lions (No. 3832), a sphinx (Nos. 630 and 632), a group of 
cock-fighters or dice-players (Nos. 160 and 168), a picture of 
a sacrifice (No. 581, which perhaps comes rather under the 
third head), or a small copy of part of Athena's pediment 
groups (Nos. 141, 293). Some Naxians offered a bowl ; the 
Hippalectryon came from Ionia, with some heraldic meaning 
of its own. 

1 C.I.A., i. p. 186, No. 399, gives the dedication of a y pa ware fa. 


No. 702, Hermes and the Graces, belongs to Hermes of 
the Propylaea, not to Athena, the dogs perhaps to Artemis 
Brauronia ; Athena, however, was the recipient of nearly all 
the offerings now assembled in the museum, gifts which 
once decorated her old temple of the Hekatompedon and 
its precinct. 


The material of the poros sculptures of the Acropolis 
is the limestone rock (TT&PWOS \[0o$) which forms some of 
the hills of Athens and Piraeus. At the present day the 
building-stone of the town comes largely from the breccia 
quarries on Lykabettos, but anciently the Munychia hill was 
the main source. Of varying quality, one block may be full 
of air-holes or fossilized shells, while another presents the 
limestone in a pure state. Lechat supposed that the inferior 
blocks were used at an earlier period, but a comparison of 
the existing sculptures proves a haphazard use of the 
material (cf. p. 13). This comparatively soft stone offered 
much less resistance to the sculptor than marble, and there 
was no need for the use of saw or drill. Lechat, however, is 
wrong in supposing that the chisel was not used. The 
stone could certainly not be cut with the gouge or with 
the utensils of wood-carving. The marks of various shapes 
of chisels are apparent on the statues. A clear example is 
the owl (No. 56). 

No. 1 is a pediment which offers some variation from 
the others by reason of its low relief, nowhere exceeding 
*03 m. or a little over an inch. It is probable that this 
pediment is the earliest of those that have come down to 
us, and the proof lies not only in its style, but also in its 
technique. It has already been suggested (p. 12) that the 
poros sculptors were largely influenced by vase paintings, and 
that in this pediment we have a painter's technique applied 
to stone, i.e. the scene drawn on the surface and the back- 
ground cut away. Although the relief is higher, the Intro- 
duction and Erechtheum pediments shew a very similar style, 
but No. Q shews a somewhat different technique and so do 
the later poros remains. T^he figure is no longer treated in 


silhouette but plastically, and consequently the relief is 
much higher. Even on the low relief of a later period the 
silhouette is abandoned in favour of a perspective principle 1 . 

The application of colour to the poros works proceeded 
on simple rules. Two shades of red, dark blue, green, 
black, and white tints were used, and the entire surface of 
the statue was covered, except where the natural colour 
might be used in contrast. The material having no beauty 
of its own, thick colours could be used to hide it, and the 
consequent effect must have been gaudy in the extreme. 
The backgrounds are usually blue, but are sometimes left 
plain, the flesh rose, eyelids and brows black, pupils black, 
red or blue, hair blue, red or white, and the garment entirely 
covered with various hues. A blue chiton and red himation 
or vice verm is the rule for the women, and some garments 
have border-patterns in addition. 

The gaudiness of the effect must of course be discounted 
by two considerations: (1) The Greek sun soon tones 
down the effect of bright colours fully exposed to it, and 
would indeed fail to show up delicate gradations of colour ; 
(&) The pediments are primarily architectural and decorative 
in character, and must, therefore, conform with the general 
appearance of the building to which they belong. The 
colours used are conventional with only the slightest relation 
to nature. Flesh is uniformly rose, but otherwise the colour- 
scheme is arranged with a view to the effect of the composition, 
not to reality. 

1 As soon as relief deals with the representation of one figure behind 
another the problem of perspective arises for the artist. The early Greek 
artists solved it in two ways : the 'Spartans by delineating the farther figure 
on a lower plane of relief, the northern Greeks by the principle of fore- 
shortening. The Chrysapha stele shews two figures in true profile, each of 
their four arms being on a different flat plane parallel with the background. 
Thestelaiof Akanthos, Doriskos, Pharsala, etc., shew the figure in three-quarter 
view foreshortened. Attic art in the Hydra pediment starts with the former 
principle, which is the natural one for a painting technique working in 
silhouette, and is visible too in the fragments of the tethrippos, 575 580 ; but 
by the time of the poros pediments of the Hekatompedon foreshortening is 
already introduced in the torsi of No. 35 and continues until it results in 
the wonderful tour de force of the Parthenon frieze. For a long time 
however Attic relief did not entirely free itself from the vase painter. In 
Nos. 577 and 1332 we find essential details still rendered by paint, and this 
may even be the case in No. 1332. 


Four kinds of marble, if not five, are to be distinguished 
among the pre-Persian works of art. Naxian marble is 
represented by a few examples, Parian (with a somewhat 
coarser variety labelled in the text "Island") by the great bulk 
of the imported statues as well as many Attic ones ; the finer 
Pentelic is preferred both before and after the period of 
foreign influence, and a small group of statues of an early 
date are carved in a greyish dull stone, either from Hymettos 
or the upper levels of the Pentelic quarries or perhaps both. 
The dates at which these respective materials were used have 
already been discussed on p. IS. It is by no means easy 
to distinguish between the various kinds of island marbles 
without expert help. Naxian marble betrays itself by its 
coarse crystals; Pentelic is distinguishable by its minute ones. 
The finer Parian, the AL^/TT/?, can also be detected without 
much difficulty, but the other qualities of Parian, and the 
produce of other island quarries are much harder to dis- 
tinguish. In the catalogue these are all called simply "Island 
Marble.' 1 With the technique of marble-cutting there is 
no need to deal here. Certain advances in mastery over 
material may fitly be noted. The saw and the drill both 
begin to be freely used, apparently about the transition 
period between the Chiot schools and the Attic revival. 
The new Kore and No. 669 are good instances of the use of 
the saw, and though the drill is much earlier in its first 
application, heavy under-cutting for the purpose of throwing 
light and shade really starts with the Kore of Antenor. 
The whole period shews, of course, the history of the gradual 
growth between the primitive ocoanon roughly hacked into 
some semblance of the human form and the finished master- 
piece which triumphs over all difficulties of material. 

The statues of Korai, as we now possess them, are not 
usually carved from a single block of marble. As a rule the 
outstretched arm, and frequently also the head, are made in 
separate pieces and inserted by means of dowels and tenons. 
Occasionally this is clearly the result of an accident, e.g. 
in No. 670, where the right lower arm and a piece of the 
sleeve are restored in a different marble. This is not a 
necessary consequence of breakage in transit, since the same 
feature is visible in No. .684, which' is certainly a native work. 
It points rather to a custonj of repairing accidental breakages 


after the statue was once set in position. 598, 643 and 672 
afford good examples of breakages repaired. Even the small 
poros figures like No. 52 were elaborately restored. But in 
many instances we may suspect that the insertions were 
original. A quantity of arms with tenons for insertion are 
visible in the wall-cases in Room IV. It was obviously 
extravagant, especially when the material was imported, to 
waste the great amount of marble that would have to be 
hacked away, when any extended arm was made in one block 
with the bo'dy. In the case of No. 674 the singular beauty 
of the head militates against the view that it was not the 
work of the original artist and yet it was carved from a 
separate block and somewhat clumsily attached. The ordinary 
procedure was to secure the tenon in its mortice with cement, 
and occasionally also to run metal dowels through the 
adjoining surfaces. When visible from the outside, these 
holes were stopped with small studs of marble (cf. Nos. 672 
and 674). The head of No. 626 is inserted into a mortice, 
a dowel is run through from back to front, and finally lead 
is run in from a hole in the right shoulder right round the 
tenon. This unusual care may be due to an ancient restora- 
tion where the new tenon proved too small for the old mortice. 
In Nos. 676 and 687 we find a part of the head restored and 
small additions of drapery are not uncommon, cf. Nos. 672, 
674, 680, 694. The eyes of Nos. 681 and 682 and of the ephebe 
698 were inserted, in blue glass, if we may generalise from 
681. Small hanging locks of hair are also added separately 
in many statues. No. 682 has also the intermediate locks 
between head and shoulders carved in separate pieces. Thus 
we may conclude that the early Attic sculptors worked with 
the eminently rational intention of making their block of 
marble go as far as possible, and adding outstanding limbs 
separately. In small statues not so much extravagance was 
involved, but 681, alone among the larger Kora^ is carved 
from a single block. 678 and 682 were carved from two 
blocks each, joined by dowels at the knees 1 . 

1 Insertions (Korai) ; 
1. Eight arm. 

(a) with tenon only, 594, 601, 604, 612, 613, 614, 615. 666, 667, 668, 
671, 674, 676, 680, 682, 684, 686. 

(6) with tenon and dowel, 584, 600, 670, 673, 685, 688. 


The statues stand as a rule on small plinths carved from 
the same piece of marble and cut roughly round the feet. 
These were inserted in the larger bases, numbers of which 
are preserved, some still inscribed with the names of donor 
and artist 1 . Unfortunately the connection of statue and 
basis has only been made in a few cases. The Koral of 
Antenor and Euthydikos, the Moschophoros and No. 665 alone 
have been successfully united. 

The larger statues have usually a hole in the summit of 
the head which is sometimes filled with a bronze rod standing 
upright for about six inches and terminating in a spike. For 
some time the meaning of these rods was much debated. As 
it never appears on vases, we may feel certain that it is not 
an ornament, but performs some use for sculpture alone. 
Kawadias first suggested that it was the support of a kind 
of parasol to keep off rain and the droppings of birds. The 
latter had specially to be guarded against, as we see from the 
opening of the Ion of Euripides. The /JL^VLO-KO^ mentioned 
in the Birds of Aristophanes 2 as a protection for this purpose 
has been interpreted as a disc or crescent supported on this 
spike, but no trace of such a crescent had been discovered, 
nor do any of the spikes shew signs of an attachment. 
Any erection would naturally have attracted birds, but the 
simple spikes, by occupying the only flat part of the head, 
kept the birds from perching on it. Why or whether they 
were called meniskoi remains dubious. 

2. Left arm. 

(a) with teuon only, 598, 614, 666, 685, 688. 
(6) tenon and dowel, 671, 672, 679. 

3. Head. 

(a) tenon only, 598, 600, 604, 615. 

(ft) tenon and lead-running, 674. 

(c) tenon, lead-running, and dowel, 626. 

(d) top of head with dowel, 676, 687. 

(e) without dowel, 643. 

4. Binglets, 594, 595, 611, 626, 640, 669, 673, 682. 

5. Drapery fragments, 672, 674, 680. 

1 These are preserved in large numbers in C.I.-4., i., especially Suppl. n. 
and in. under No. 373. 609, the basis of the Euthydikos Kore, gives a good 
example of the type, of. Borrmann, Jb. 1888, p. 269. 

3 1. 1114. 


The application of colour to the marble statues proceeds 
on totally different rules from those observed in the use of 
pores. The material was more precious, and the statues 
were closer to the eye. Colour is only applied to the whole 
surface of a garment when that surface forms a comparatively 
small part of the whole surface of the statue. Thus the 
himation of the Korai is never coloured all over, nor the 
chiton when it forms the sole garment. There is only one 
statue which goes at all contrary to this rule, the seated figure, 
No. 329. The whole of the chiton is here painted bright 
blue and forms a large mass of colour, but a himation is 
worn in shawl fashion, and the statue is on a small scale. 

Decoration is applied to the himation mainly in the 
form of borders and of a broad vertical stripe (irapv^r)) 
which hangs vertically from the waist, usually between the 
legs. A horizontal stripe is found occasionally between 
knees and ankles, and small rosettes or other ornaments are 
worked in the field of the garment. A rather different 
arrangement of patterns is followed in the case of the Attic 
peplos (Nos. 593, 679) from that characteristic of the Ionian 
himation. Chiton and epiblema also receive borders, and the 
chiton when largely covered with the himation is customarily 
tinted all over. When worn alone it has ornaments in the 
field and borders like a himation (No. 670). 

The reasons for these rules are not difficult to understand. 
The beauty of the material precludes the obscuring of the 
surface with heavy washes of colour such as were applied to 
the poros sculptures. The statue, therefore, was just picked 
out in colour with its main surfaces left free. These were 
not left in the brilliant original whiteness, but the marble 
was toned down without obscuring its surface by a system 
known as ydvcoo-i?. By some method, details of which are 
unknown, hot wax was rubbed into the surface of the marble 
so as to dull the brightness that would otherwise have made 
too great a contrast with the coloured patches. 

The colours used are predominantly red and blue. The 
latter has usually suffered a chemical change to green, and 
L&rmann interprets all the dark green shades as originally 
blue. Other colours are also, found : black, rose, light blue, 
light green, and yellow ochre. The chiton is usually blue 


(green ?) to contrast with the red of the locks that fall on the 
bosom, the hair usually red. Yellow for the hair is not 
however unknown (cf. Nos. 615, 639, 664, 669, 687, and 689) 
and may be a later step towards realism. The colours and 
patterns of the drapery follow no rule. The eyes are shown 
by a red iris outlined with black and with a black centre. 
The eyelids and eyebrows are black. The lips are red, the 
earrings and stephane picked out in red and blue (or green ?). 

The patterns are mainly variations of the niaeander, 
palmette and lotus (practically universal for the stephane) 
or square with stars and rosettes. The field is decorated 
with stars and rosettes, or, in the case of No. 688, with 
an elaborate honeysuckle pattern. The character of these 
patterns points without doubt to embroidered originals. 
Had they been woven, geometrical designs would have been 
universal. The care and accuracy with which the patterns 
are painted far exceed the similar work of vase-painters, 
and show the importance of the painter's share in this style 
of sculpture. 

It is hardly necessary to add that the use of colour is still 
conventional. Although yellow hair is found, red is the pre- 
dominant colour both for hair and eyes. The whole theory 
underlying the ancient painting of sculpture rests on the 
assumption that the colour is not naturalistic, but chosen 
primarily with a view to harmony in the whole colour 


The costumes worn by the Korai and other female statues 
in the museum fall into four divisions 1 . 

1 1. Attic, Nos. 582, 583, 586, 587, 589, 593, 679, and aMporos figures. 

2. Pseudo-Ionic, Nos. 611, 678. 

3. Ionic. 

(a) Chiton only, Nos. 602, 625, 670, 683. - 

(6) Chiton and himation worn as shawl, Nos. 329, 585, 588, 620, 655, 
666, 671, 702. 

(c) Chiton and himation with additional short overfall on chiton, 

Nos. 687, 688. 

(d] Chiton and himation fastened on right shoulder and passing 

under left arm, Nos. 120, 121, 293, 581, 595, 598, 601, 603, 604, 


1. Attic, 

The Attic costume may consist of three garments : 

(a) A fine linen chiton shewn by wavy folds with sleeves 

fastened down the arms by brooches as far as the 
elbows. This is worn by Nos. 593 and 679, and 
is no doubt the rule. It is probably not a garment 
cut to shape, or it would be sewn and not joined 
by brooches. It was put on like a sack with the 
top and upper part of the sides open, and then 
fastened along the extended arms. 

(b) A peplos of heavy material, probably wool, hanging 

flat and hiding all contours of the limbs. This is 
also an unshaped garment designed like a tube 
but with the upper part folded over to make an 
overfall hanging to the waist. It was not made 
of two pieces sewn together, but of one large 
piece folded round the body, for only the left 
side of the overfall is open, cf. No. 679, The 
left arm passed through a hole in the seam on 
the left side just below the point where the stuff 
was folded over for the overfall, while the right 
arm can only have been inserted through a hole 
cut in the stuff at the corresponding position. 
The garment was secured on the shoulder by 
large pins (cf. the Fra^ois vase, where the same 
garment is worn). 

(c) A himation or cloak might be worn over both 

shoulders like a shawl, hanging low over the 

612, 613, 614, 618, 619, 626, 627, 628, 631, 667, 668, 669, 674, 
675, 676, 677, 680, 681, 682, 685, 686, 690. 
(e) Chiton and himation fastened ou left shoulder and passing under 

right arm, Nos. 577, 672, 691, 693. 
(/) Chiton and himation fastened on both shoulders, Nos. 142, 600, 

605, 673. 
(g) Chiton and epihlema over left shoulder, round right hip and round 

left arm, No. 584. 

(h) Chiton, himation as in (d) t epiblema as in (#), No. 615. 
(i) Chiton, himation as in (d) ) epiblema over left shoulder, round 

right hip, and round right arm, Nos. 594, 684. 
4. Doric. 

Doric chiton with modified Ionic himation, Nos. 140, 694, 
Simple Doric peplos, No. 695. . 


back and arms. The difficulties caused to the 
artist by this garment, when the arms are bent, 
are discussed under No. 593. 

This costume is worn by all the female figures of the 
poros pediments and by the Korai of the early Attic School. 
It appears also on the Francois and other early Attic vases. 
We have therefore no difficulty in labelling it Attic. The 
peplos differed from the Doric chiton only in its material and 
its greater tightness, which prevented the arms being brought 
out at the top of the tube, and necessitated openings at the 

2. Pseudo-Ionic. 

This name is given to the costume of the figures Nos. 611 
and 678, which present peculiarities of their own. It can be 
studied most conveniently on the larger statue. The Kore is 
wearing two garments, for there are two clearly separate edges 
round the neck. There are no traces of a seam under the 
arms down the sides of the garment which clothes the upper 
part of the body, and therefore this cannot be the ordinary 
overfall of the Ionic himation, nor can it be the overfall of 
the garment which covers the legs, for there would then be an 
opening on the left side. Since it has a separate edge on the 
neck, it must be a separate tubular garment put on like a 
"sweater*" over the head, and then fastened with brooches 
down the arms. Thus we get a long under garment from 
neck to ankles and a short upper garment from neck to hips. 
Such garments have no parallel elsewhere, but might well 
represent the impression on a stranger of the Ionic himation. 
We shall see shortly that the overfall of the Ionic himation 
is an integral part of the garment covering the legs, but even 
the workers of terra-cotta figurines regarded them as separate, 
for we find the overfall painted a different colour from the 
skirts. The Chiot sculptors and later Attic sculptors made no 
mistake of this kind, but an early Attic sculptor, who wanted 
to make a figure in imitation of the new fashion just coming 
in, might easily fall into error as to the details of the costume. 
It is noteworthy, too, that he represents the angle formed in 
front by the overfall of the Ionian himation, though such a 
shape was impossible without tailoring for the garment he 


was depicting, and also a greater length for the hanging 
folds on the right hip as in the Ionic original, although 
there was no reason for want of symmetry in his figure. 
There can be no doubt that he was copying a fashion which 
he did not understand, and a comparison with No. 679 shews 
that a statue of identical date and style was still wearing 
Attic costume. 

3. Ionic. 

The Ionic costume, like the Attic, may consist of three 

(a) The chiton. 

This garment is always represented by a crinkly surface, 
and is usually visible under the himation only on the neck 
and shoulders. It is best seen in its entirety in Nos. 670 and 
683. Prom these statues it is apparent that it was a long 
garment reaching to the feet and made to shape with elbow 
sleeves. These sleeves however are very full, as can be seen 
when the crossband of the himation is pulled tightly under 
the arm. Nos. 682, 594 and many others shew in the left 
armpit the fulness of the sleeve pulled up in this way. The 
seams of the sleeves are usually sewn but may be fastened 
with brooches (e.g. No. 670). When the chiton is worn by 
itself, it is girded round the waist and then pulled up over the 

firdle to form a /co\7ro$ or pouch. In Nos. 670 and 673 the 
jlness of the skirts is pulled together, and falls in folds 
between the legs like the 7rapv<f>ij of the himation. The 
difference in texture between the upper and lower part is 
due to the fact that it hangs naturally above, but is stretched 
against the legs below. In No. 687 where the skirts are not 
stretched the crinkly effect is visible in the lower part as well. 
The material may have been some kind of silk crepe or fine 
wool. It was not linen, since a crinkly surface would then be 
impossible. When a himation is worn over it we cannot see 
whether the kolpos is retained, but it appears in No. 671, 
where the himation is worn like a shawl. It is unlikely that 
two girdles would be used, and so we must suppose that the 
chiton was ungirt in the typical costume. In that case 
a shorter kind of garment must have been worn, since other- 
wise we should infallibly see the skirts of the chiton below 


those of the himation. There is no difficulty in supposing 
that chitons were of two kinds, a longer one when it was 
the sole garment, and a shorter one when it was used as a 

(6) The himation. 

This was a large garment worn always above a chiton and 
usually fastened on the right shoulder after passing under the 
left arm. It seems to have been a long rectangular piece of 
linen doubled over, like the Attic peplos and Doric chiton, 
to make an overfall, then wrapped round the body and 
fastened on the right shoulder, so that the fastening" came 
in the centre of its own doubled breadth. 

The back and front were fastened together by brooches 
down the right upper arm to the elbow, from which the ends 
hung freely down. Below the overfall the garment was girded 
round the waist. Occasionally it was fastened on the left 
shoulder instead of the right (e.g. No. 672), and occasionally 
on both shoulders (e.g. 673), when a hole is left for the left 
arm between the fastening and the doubled edge. The normal 
fashion is the right-shoulder fastening. But it is not simply 
wrapped round the body. In the more carefully worked 
examples there seems to be a belt passed round the body 
first over the right shoulder and under the left arm, and then 
the himation is pulled up a little and hangs over the belt. 
Otherwise we cannot explain the straight horizontal folds and 
the loose vertical folds above them that appear in Nos. 682, 
594, and the Nike, No. 690. It has been suggested that the 
horizontal folds are caused by the upper edge of the himation 
being twisted over. This might explain Nos. 627, 628, 669, 
672 and 681, but it will not explain the vertical folds. Some 
artificial attachment is essential here to hold the vertical 
pleats in place, and this could hardly be managed without 
some kind of belt, like that, for instance, on which a modern 
Greek Jkistanella is sewed. This arrangement gives also the 
typical triangular shape of the himation in front, and permits 
those zigzag pleats that form the feature of the costume. The 
girdle is clearly visible in several of the statues (e.g. No. 682). 
The corresponding fulness of the skirt to match the pleats of 
the overfall is gathered tightly together, and usually falls 


between the legs, but is grasped by the left hand and pulled to 
the side 1 . A vertical stripe (irapvfyrj) decorates these gathered 

(c) The epiblema. 

This is a rare garment occurring only in four statues in 
the Museum, in one of which it takes the place of the hima- 
tion (No. 584), while in the other three it forms a third 
garment worn as a cloak above chiton and himation. It is 
a rectangular unshaped garment worn loosely without fasten- 
ings. In two figures (Nos. 584 and 615) it is thrown over 
the left shoulder from behind, draped round the right hip, 

1 Controversy still exists on the question of the Ionic himation (cf. Kalk- 
mann, J7>. 1896, p. 19 ; Studniczka, Beitrfige zur Geschichte der altgriechiscken 
Tracht, Yienna, 1886) although the other garments of the Ionic costume may 
now be taken as settled. A recent writer, E. B. Abrahams, in her book on 
Greek dress (London, John Murray, 1908), has revived the theory that the 
upper part of the garment with the pleats and the zigzag edges is not an 
overfall, but a separate strip attached above a complete chiton with ic6\iro$ 
such as appears on Nos. 670 and 671. But apart from the contrary 
evidence of vase-painting, which may be misleading, it is surely impossible 
that the colour of the chiton should be different on its upper and lower 
portions, and utterly improbable that the separate garment or himation 
should be always decorated in the same way as the skirts of the chiton. 
Examples from vases and terra-cottas, quoted by Miss Abrahams, afford 
a totally inadequate parallel. In such cases colour is applied indifferently 
and decoratively. Large and carefully worked marble statues stand in an 
entirely different category, and here we find small meticulous patterns 
identical on the upper and lower parts of the figures. The chiton on the 
other hand is coloured all over. The difficulties which Miss Abrahams finds 
in this very obvious arrangement are non-existent. Firstly, the material 
which appears in the apex of the triangle formed by the zigzag fold is 
certainly a belt. The patterns on Nos. 675 and 682 shew this clearly, and 
leave no possibility of its being a *6\7ros. Not only is the guilloche pattern 
unparalleled for drapery and suitable for a belt, but the surface of the upper 
garment is here visible and is white, not green. Secondly, no difficulty need 
be felt in the small vertical folds hanging over the crossbelt. It is true that 
they are not exactly true to life for that matter no part of the garment is 
scrupulously accurate but they represent closely enough the effect of a pleated 
edge, double not single, falling over the tightly-drawn crossbelt, to which the 
garment was probably sewed. It may be objected that a doubled edge should 
not technically shew a border, but the reply is simply that by sewing on to 
the crossbelt the doubled edge has become technically a single one. This 
overhanging edge is, of course, a later development. The earlier Korai are 
shewn without it, simply with a crossband* A garment of the type described 
by Miss Abrahams would perform no useful function, and could not be 
described as a himation. It is true of course that no lower chiton skirts 
appear round the feet of the Korai. Probably, as already suggested, the 
coloured chiton was a short garment like a chemise. 


then in front across the body, and finally wound round the 
outstretched left arm. In the other two (594 and 684) it 
covers both shoulders, and is wound round the outstretched 
right lower arm. In the two latter figures it has an orna- 
mental border, in the two former it is quite plain. The 
rarity of the epiblema is due perhaps to the confusion which 
it adds to the sculptural effect. In No. 594 it has clearly 
confused the artist, and it naturally interferes with the fine 
lines of the hanging folds of the himation. 

The Ionic costume is worn by all the imported Korai 
and by the Attic Korai which imitate them. The simplicity 
of the Naxian version is in direct contrast to the elaboration 
of the Chiots. It is still the costume of No. 686, though the 
artist of that figure has simplified away the rich effect of the 
hanging folds. Its latest appearance is in the Athena, No. 140, 
where it is adapted in appearance to the Doric peplos, left 
open down the right side, and fastened by a single brooch 
on each shoulder. After the Persian wars it was doubtless 
abandoned, as Thucydides 1 tells us, with other Ionian fashions 
for the simpler Doric costume, in which the Athena No. 695 
is draped. 

4. Doric. 

It is hardly necessary to describe the Doric costume. In 
its simplest elements it consists merely of the peplos (No. 695), 
a rectangular piece of heavy woollen "material with an overfall 
above, wrapped round the body like a tube and held on the 
shoulders by two pins. The arms protrude at the top of the 
tube between the pins and the edges of the garment. 

The Nike, No. 694, and the Athena, No. 140, wear 
himatia, which, but for the greater length of the overfall, 
are identical with the Doric peplos. They seem to be a 
transitional shape. Below them both wear a tight-fitting 
smooth short-sleeved garment probably of wool, with the 
sleeves cut to shape. 

The Korai and other female figures are also adorned with 
jewellery of various descriptions 2 . Necklaces, bracelets, 

1. 6. 3. 

2 1. The stephane in the hair is universal except in the following instances : 
Nos. 643, 660, 669, 681, wear a round circlet. 
Nos. 664, 686,- wear a plain band. ' 



earrings, and ornaments in the hair are the ordinary rule. The 
footwear consists normally of sandals (Nos. 598, 672, 679, 
682), though in one figure (No. 683) we find pointed red 
shoes like Turkish slippers, and in three figures (Nos. 681, 
609 and the new Kore) bare feet. The newly identified feet of 
Nos. 674 and 684 are also bare. The hair of the Chiot Korai 
is confined by a stephane or thick band, perhaps of leather, 
in which bronze ornaments might be inserted, and which is 
shaped with an angle above the ears. Two heads (Nos. 654 
and 696) wear instead of this a high polos crown, the mean- 
ing of which is doubtful. It is referred to Aphrodite, but 
may possibly be a part of hieratic uniform. The more dis- 
tinctively Attic Korai wear either a simple band to confine 
the hair (Nos. 678 and 679), or, in later times, a round 
circlet (Nos. 669 and 681) which takes the place of the 
stephane. The Athena of the pediment (No. 631) wears a 
similar circlet round her helmet. 

The hair is treated in many different ways, the commonest 
being to shew it in a number of separate locks, with tri- 
angular chisel cuts from above and from both sides. It falls 
in a broad mass on the back and in three or four locks on 

(c) Nos. 679, 685, wear a bronze wreath. 

(d) No. 678 wears a pearl chaplet. 

Nos. 641, 648, wear a band across the back hair as well as a stephane. 
No. 659 wears a stephane and a pearl chaplet, and has additional 
ornaments inserted in the ringlets. 

2. Necklaces are worn by 

eNos. 593, 595, 684 (carved). 
Nos. 668, 670, 675, 678, 679 (painted). 
Nos. 627, 659, 669, 675 (attached in bronze). 

3. Earrings are worn by all but Nos. 640, 654, and 686. 

(a) No. 593 (carved pendants). 

(b) Nos. 612, 616, 639, 641, 645, 648, 649, 650, 651, 660, 662, 666, 670, 

672, 673, 675, 676, 680, 682, 684, 685, 687 (carved round 


No. 683 (painted). 
Nos. 659, 669, 671, 678, 679, 681 (attached in bronze). 

4. Bracelets are worn by 

(a) (carred) Nos. 670, 680 (left hand), 681, 682, 684, 685. 
(6) (painted) No. 680 (right hand). 

5. Footwear : 

(a) sandals, Nos. 698, 672, 679, 682. 
(6) shoes, No. 683. 

(c) bare feet, No. 681, new Kore, Nos. 609, 674, 684. 



each shoulder. In front of the sbephane it is arranged in 
fringes of very various types, sometimes simply waved back 
over the ears, sometimes arched in long undulations, some- 
times hanging in spiral curls with coils covering the temples, 
and often in complicated combinations of two or three of 
these methods. It is of course impossible that hair can ever 
have been actually worn like this, but doubtless the elabora- 
tion of e.g. No. 68 represents an equal elaboration in the 
original coiffure of the richly-clad maidens of Chios. 

The pose of the Kore is almost always the same. The 
lower arm of the side on which the himation is fastened 
(usually the right) is extended with an offering, while the 
other hand draws the drapery tightly against the legs. The 
opposite foot is a little advanced, but both legs are straight, 
and both feet flat on the ground. The figure is quite 
upright and rigidly frontal. The offering is usually an apple 
or pomegranate, but Nos. 683 and 685 hold birds. 


The great series of the Korai has afforded us ample data 
for the establishment of a chronological system for the 
Acropolis statues. The only other type which is represented 
by sufficiently large numbers for chronological comparison is 
that of the equestrian male figures. An examination of this 
series may serve at once as a check upon our chronological 
theory, and an illustration of the interaction of Attic and 
Ionian art. 

Our preliminary difficulty in this investigation is to settle 
the type of the Ionian horseman and horse. For the most 
part we have to depend on the horses alone as the riders have 
only partially survived the accidents of time. 

We may start by distinguishing two main types of horses, 
represented well by the two mutilated fragments in the 
courtyard. That on the left, which is not strictly part of 
an equestrian statue, but belongs to a chariot group, shews 
us an equine type with broad chest and thick muscular neck. 
The mane is represented by zigzag incisions; the eye is 
triangular in shape and just behind it is seen a deep hollow. 
The horse on the right is narrow-chested, and its neck is thin, 



curving back in an exaggerated arch. The bony structure of 
the head is smoothed away, and the eye is marked by a long 
tear-duct from the lower corner. The mane, too, is dif- 
ferently treated, being raised from a background which is 
picked out in colour. A dividing line down the centre of the 
forehead is visible in the former type and not in the latter. 

When we compare with these two the other equestrian 
figures of the museum, we shall see that these differences 
are not fortuitous. Thus Nos. 575 580 (on a much more 
primitive level), Nos. 590, 606, and 697 all agree in the 
conventions of the left-hand horse, while No. 148 and No. 
4119 follow the pattern of the right-hand example in their 
thin curving necks and their raised manes ; No. 700 is of an 
eclectic type. 

A priori we should naturally call the more vigorous 
and muscular type Attic, the more graceful and elaborate 
Ionic, and of late years we have recovered sufficient evidence 
fully to bear out that view. 

No. 590 is obviously a work of Period I., though it 
may belong to the second division. Its resemblance to the 
Moschophoros and to the poros sculptures makes this quite 
certain. We have already observed that in the treatment of 
the horse's body this statue shews close analogies to the left 
and courtyard horse, which we may call Type A. The 
muscular development is still primitive, and the mane is treated 
like those of the horses of the Parthenon pediments, in two 
layers instead of one, but there is just the same solid feeling 
for life and muscle which is characteristic of all early Attic 
work. On the other hand the close resemblance of Type B 
to No. 4119 becomes of prime importance after Schroder's 
indubitable restoration of its horseman in No, 63. The 
head of this charming statuette leaves us in no doubt as to 
its Ionian origin. The egg-shaped head and acute smile are 
characteristics which we cannot mistake. Types A and B are 
respectively Attic and Ionic. 

It is now necessary to fix the chronological relation of the 
equestrian series. This has already been done most carefully 
by Winter, and we shall be able to accept his order without 
much alteration. 

The oldest group is clearly the fragment of the tethrvppos, 


Nos. 575 580. Here we get a type of sculpture hardly 
removed from vase-painting, and really little developed beyond 
the horses of Pediment No. 1. It cannot be dated much later 
than 570 B.C. No. 590 comes next, belonging to the last 
period of the early Attic school, roughly contemporaneous 
with the Moschophoros, perhaps a quarter of a century later 
than the tethrippos. In the Attic series the next examples 
are the courtyard horse, and No. 606, the "Persian horseman." 
A comparison of these two figures shews that they belong to 
the same period. Allowing for the weathering that No. 606 
has escaped, there is the greatest similarity in all technical 
details. This period can be fixed from a comparison with the 
vase-painting in the Ashmolean Museum to the period 520 
500 1 . It cannot in any case be brought down as late as 
490, so as to connect No. 606 with Marathon, since both 
No. 697 and No. 700 are pre-Persian, and exhibit a great 
growth in technical skill. 

The examples of Type B begin with No. 148, whose 
precariously balanced rider displays a technique developed 
little beyond that of No. 590. Next in order is probably the 
courtyard horse, and the last is No. 623 ( + 4119), where the 
rider's head suggests a date contemporary with the main stream 
of Chiot art or the decade 535 525. The last two figures, 
Nos. 697 and 700, fall in the developed period of the Attic 
revival. No. 697, which is the finest of afl, and the technique 
of which is a distinct advance upon No. 700, finds a place 
without doubt at the very end of our period. No. 700 
presents a more eclectic appearance. Its general features 
tend in the direction rather of grace than vigour, and the 
archaic tear-duct reappears. At the same time the body 
is much better understood than in No. 606. It falls most 
naturally perhaps in the decade 500 490. 

This short analysis of the equestrian figures clearly con- 
firms in every detail our chronological study based on the 
Korai. We have the same evidence of imported Ionian work 
under the Peisistratidae, accompanied by a break in the Attic 
tradition, of an Attic revival in the decade 510 500, and of 
a subsequent development in two directions, which we may 
describe as Peloponnesian vigour and Ionian grace. 

1 P. Gardner, Gat. of Vases in the Ashmolean Museum, p. 30, pi. xm. 






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Philologenversamndung 1909). Vienna, 1909. 
Springer- Michaelis, Handbuch der Kunst- 

geschichte, 8th edition. Leipzig, 1907. 
L. von Syhel, Katalog der Sculpturen zu Athen. 

Marburg, 1881. 
Tarbell, History of Greek Art. London, 1896. 




Rev. arch. 
Rev. fit. Gr. 

Schrader, Arch.} 
Harm. ] 

Springer-Michaelis 8 

Th. Wiegand, Porosarchitektur. Cassel, 1904. 

50 tes . Programm sum Winckelmannsfeste. Ber- 
lin, 1890. 



FOREPART OF HORSE (in Outer Court). 

Found near Propy- 

Parian marble. 
H. ri6m. (head to 
chest). L. -87m. 

In two pieces, the 
head and neck added 

Missing legs, hind 
quarters, and front of 
head. The marble is 
much weathered, the 
surfacerough, and there 
is no colour surviving. 
The statue must have 
stood for long in the 
open air. The head is turned over the left shoulder. The 
mane is shewn by regular incisions in two fringes with its 
top hollowed, There is a hole for the bridle at the top of 
the head. Two slanting holes on the back must have also 
served for attaching harness, of which a fragmentary bronze 
rosette on the chest is another trace. The muscles of the 
chest are conventional, but we see regular incisions to 
indicate the folds of flesh under the jaws and between the 
forelegs. The forehead is well moulded with deep hollows 
behind the eyes. There is no support under the horse's 
belly, but at the back there is a band of marble going right 


across the body underneath. Behind, the body is cut off* 
straight. This fact, combined with the absence of a rider 
and the holes for harness, suggests that we have here part of 
a chariot relief in which the horse is represented as project- 
ing straight out of the background like the horses on the 
metope from Selinos. Nos. 575-580 represent a similar group 
in miniature. .The work is rather formal/ but there is 
considerable vigour in the form of the head. Part of 
another horse belonging to the same group is to be seen on 
the entrance steps by the Beule gate. It is said that both 
were found on the slope below the Propylaea, so that we 
may assume them to have been a dedication in memory of 
some victory, like the bronze chariot and horses in memory 
of the great victory of 506 B.C., which Pausanias described 
(i. 28. ). The style of the horses is approximately the 
same as that of No. 606, which we can date in the last 
decade of the 6th century. 

Winter, Jb.'vm. 1893, p. 138. 

B. Part of EQUESTRIAN STATUE (in Outer Court). 

Parian marble. 
H. 1 "17m. to centre 
of thighs. L. (body 
only) l'30m. 

Put together from 
9 pieces. 

Missing forepart 
of head, legs, tail, 
greater part of right 
side, and much of the 
surface of the left side, 
which has been deliber- 
ately hacked off. We 

see traces of the rider sitting much too far forward ; a hole 
above the head served for the attachment of the bridle. 

This torso shews a very different style from the last. 
The whole treatment is flatter and less vivid, although there 
is greater delicacy of detail. The surface is well finished and 
the mane is picked out carefiilly in white locks against a red 
background. The eye shews a vertical downward slit for 


the tear-duct. The muscles of the shoulder though treated 
with clearness are too flat. The swelling of the neck in 
front is rather too prominent. The topknot in front is .com- 
posed of twisted locks. These characteristics point to Ionian 
authorship, cf. p. 50. 

Winter, Jb. vin. 1893, p. 139, fig. 9; Lechat, Sc. Aft. 
p. 275. 

1. Pediment in low relief representing the combat of 

Found in 1882 to the S.E. of the Parthenon- 

PoroSy mainly of a coarse kind. 

Height '79 m. Length (restored) 5*80 m. Thickness 
16m. to *18m. Angle of slope 1 in 7-34. The height of 
relief does not exceed '03 m. 

The composition originally consisted of six slabs, five of 
which are still preserved for the main part. An important 
lacuna, however, is the head of Herakles. The four slabs on 
the left are of a coarse poros full of shells and holes, the latter 
of which have been partially filled with colouring matter, 
while the fifth slab is of a closer grain without holes or 

Herakles stands just to the left of the centre with legs 
firmly planted wide apart. The head is missing, but there 
remain traces of a beard in profile. The right hand brandished 
over the head a club of which the upper half remains, and the 
left is extended clenched in the direction of the Hydra. The 
hero is clad in a cuirass, of which the sharp edges under the 
left arm betoken a metallic material, presumably bronze. On 
its surface the main lines of the torso muscles are engraved. 
Across the cuirass from the right shoulder runs the strap of 


the sword-belt. Part of the sheath with two tassels hanging 
from it is visible under the left armpit. Legs and arms are 
bare. Facing the hero is the Hydra, whose coils fill the 
right half of the pediment. Starting from the tail the body 
is divided into three bands separated by incised lines and 
distinguished by colour. After two undulations the body 
forms a complete coil and then separates into nine long 
necks, each three retaining the colour of their original band. 
Of the nine heads seven are represented with gaping jaws and 
forked tongues in conflict with Herakles, while two hang 
down already lifeless. They are all provided with beards. 

Immediately behind Herakles stands the charioteer lolaos 
with body facing left and head turned sharply to the right 
over his shoulder. His right foot rests on the ground, his 
left on the step of the chariot, which occupies the greater 
part of the left half of the pediment. He holds the reins in 
both hands, and in his right hand a goad in addition. He is 
bearded and clad solely in a cuirass probably of leather, 
judging from the rounded edges. The chariot is of a type 
familiar in black-figured vases, with a strap from the rim to 
the end of the pole, which shews above the backs of the 
horses. These, two in number, lower their heads to the 
ground and appear to be snuffing at a gigantic crab, which 
fills the left corner of the composition. The outline of the 
farther horse follows that of the nearer and is only distin- 
guished from it by colour. They wear small saddles 
attached by breast straps and girths. The ring above 
the saddle gives the side view of the yoke-cushion and the 
straight bar in front is the outside handle or horn of the 
yoke, while the red projection behind the cushion is probably 
the end of the pole curving upwards. 

As far as can now be determined, the colour scheme was 
as follows: background, plain; crab, rose; nearer horse, dark 
blue (now green), red mouth and nostrils, black bit, red 
mane; further horse, uncoloured; saddle, reins, girths, pole, 
pole-strap, red and rose ; yoke-cushion, black ; yoke-handle, 
plain (? red) ; chariot, red with a red line on plain wheels ; 
lolaos, flesh rose, dark (? blue) cuirass, dark hair, beard, and 
eyeballs; Herakles, flesh rose, plain cuirass, red sword-strap 
and tassels, dark beard; Hydra, two outside divisions of body 


dark, middle division plain; the heads correspond with 
their respective divisions save that the two visible middle 
heads are green; all have black tongues and eyes and red 

The middle .of the coil and the background above the 
chariot are discoloured by fire. 

The execution of the pediment has been too hastily 
condemned as clumsy and primitive. Crudities of composi- 
tion like the head and legs of lolaos and the general flatness 
of the large surfaces are due to the lowness of relief which 
provides difficulties of a special kind to the primitive artist. 
The pediment is not really plastic in treatment, but is 
practically a drawing on stone with the background cut out. 
Thus comparisons with the other poros compositions have to 
be made with reservations. We may on the other hand 
notice the clever design of crab and hydra for the pediment 
corners, and the touch of nature in the position of the horses. 
The treatment of the nude is superficial but not more so 
than in the other pediments, and in the case of Herakles the 
lines of the torso muscles are correctly indicated. 

The resemblance in design to vase-paintings is obvious 
(cf. Introd. p. 1&), and we have here the clearest case of 
imitation both of subject and technique. We can hardly 
be wrong therefore in calling it the earliest of the poros 
pediments. A date about 570 B.C, is suggested in the Intro- 

Mylonas, 'E<. 'Ap#., 1883, pp. 39, 40 ; Purgold, 'E<. 
'Ap % ., 1884, p. 150, pi. VIL, 13; id. ib., 1885, p. 33; Meier, 
A.M., x. (1885), p. 237, 322 ; Studniczka, ib., XL (1886), 
p. 61; id., Jb. L (1886), p. 87; Mi/^eZa, p. 15, pi. iv. 4; 
Botticher, Die Akropolis, p. 76; Lechat, Rev. Arch. xvii. 
(1891), L p. 325; id., Au Muste, p. 26; id., Sc. Ait., p. 24; 
Collignon, i. p. 213; Overbeck 4 , L p. 180; L. Magne, Le 
Parthenon, pi. xix,; Pavlovski, AeXr. Tocro-., vm. (1895), II T 
p. 39; id., Sculpt. Att., p. 39, fig. 3; E. Gardiier, i. p. 159; 
H. Brunn, Griech. Kunstgesch., L p. 137; Antilce Denkmaler, 
No. 16; Furtwangler, Roscher>s Lexicon, i 2 . p, 2198; 
J. Schneider, Die 1. Kdmpfe des Heracles, p. 27; Perrot, 
vnr. p. 583, fig. 273; Wiegand, Porosarch., p. 192, pL vin. 4; 
Klein, p. 91. . 


2. Pediment in high relief representing the combat of 

Found in 1882 at 
thesametime and place 
as No. 1, to the S.E. 
of the Parthenon. 

Poros of varying 

Height '63 m. 
Length T64 m. 
Angle of slope ap- 
proximately equal to No. 1 (1 in 7*34). 
Height of relief '18 m. 

It is not possible to estimate the exact height or length 
of the pediment, as we do not possess the central point, but 
it would seem to be approximately the same size as No. 1. 

The preserved portions belong to the right side of a 
pediment and consist of three main fragments: (1) the bodies 
of Herakles and the Triton, (&) an undulation of the Triton's 
tail, (3) a fragment further to the right of the background 
of the pediment. The second fragment is of an inferior 
material to the other two. 

The scene shews the wrestling of Herakles and the 
Triton. The hero, who is nude, leans against the body of 
the monster, both facing to the left. His right knee is bent, 
but does not quite touch the ground, while his left leg, bent 
at the knee, has the foot flat on the ground. His head is 
buried behind the shoulders of the Triton, and with his 
arms he clasps him round the neck and left shoulder, the left 
hand holding the right wrist. This attitude of the hands is 
paralleled in vase-paintings 1 , where, however, the hero is shewn 
astride of, not beside, his antagonist. In the Assos frieze 
the body is in the same attitude as in the pediment, but the 
hands, instead of throttling the monster, grip his arms to 
prevent him from escaping. In both cases the Triton is 
intent on flight, not resistance, a difference from the group 
No. 36. The Triton's hair is long and hangs on his neck. 
It is divided vertically by fine incised lines, but is neither 

1 E.g. Gerhard, op. cit. t ii. No. 111. 


worked nor painted behind. His head is in profile, and his 
right hand is outstretched as if in supplication, while the 
left hangs powerless by his side. Both are empty and have 
the fingers extended. Below his waist starts the fish-body 
divided into two longitudinal bands, one of which has curved 
lines incised across it. It extends in two undulations towards 
the corner of the pediment. The whole group is coloured a 
dark brick-red. The second fragment shews one of the 
undulations of the Triton's body with a fin on the top of the 
curve. The colour is very faint and the material inferior. 
A third fragment gives a small piece of the background with 
a narrow red stripe along the top edge and traces of yellow 

This pediment avoids some of the crudities of No. 1, 
owing to its greater relief-height, which permits of a more 

Elastic treatment. However one must notice that the right 
ig of Herakles is much longer than his left, and that his 
right upper arm is out of proportion to the rest of his body. 
In details of execution it seems to belong to the same period 
of technique, but in artistic conception it must rank higher, 
since it is a definite tridimensional group, not a mere 
drawing on stone. It is ,also the first effort to group figures 
in perspective, one behind the other. In type, like No. 1, it 
seems to be an adaptation of a stock design. Considerable 
controversy has existed on the question whether the two 
pediments belong to the same building. In the light of the 
arguments adduced in the Introduction, p. 17, this view 
must be held untenable. 

Mylonas, 'Ef 'Apx-, 1888, p. 39; Purgold, ., 1884, 
pi. vii. 5; id. ib. 9 1885, p. 242; Studniczka, A.M., XL (1886), 
p. 61, pi. IL; Meier, ib., x. (1885), p. 327; Escher, Triton u.s. 
Bekdmpf. d. Herdkles, p. 125; Lechat, Rev. Arch.^vm. (1891), 
ii. p. 12 ; id., Au Mus., p. 36 ; id., Sc. Att., p. 32 ; Bruckner, 
AM., xv. (1890), p. 119; Mvweia, pi. iv., pp. 20, 21; 
Wiegand, Porosarch., p. 195, fig. 213; Klein, p. ~~ 


Pediment in high relief representing THE INTRODUCTION OF 

The various fragments were found in 1888 E. and S.E. of 
the Parthenon. 

Poros of good quality. 

Height (to top of taenia), '94 m. Length (total restored 
6*60 m.) of existing portion 1*74 m. Angle of slope, 1 in 3J. 
Height of relief "27 m. 

The composition has recently been put together by 
Professor Heberdey from a large number of isolated pieces. 
As existing at present it consists of the centre and about 
half the right side of a pediment with a blue background 
surmounted by a taenia of reel-moulding, against which are 
four figures with evidence for a fifth in varying stages of 

Just to the left of the centre is seated a bearded male 
figure in profile to the right, on a high-backed throne with 
footstool. His sitting height is '90 m. Part of his hair, 
left arm, right arm from below elbow, left leg, and most of 
body below waist are missing. The throne exists in fragments. 
The head was attached by means of a large iron bar, still 
visible, the upper left arm was inserted into a square cutting, 
and a similar, though smaller, cutting served for fastening 
the right foot. The figure wears a close-fitting short-sleeved 


chiton reaching to the ankles with a tightly folded himation 
above it passing over the left shoulder ancl under the right 
arm. Part of- the himation falls over the right arm of the 
throne. The borders of the plain chiton are decorated with 
a red tongue pattern, while the dark blue himation had a 
red border with a plain maeander on it. On the feet are red 
sandals, on the head a diadem with maeander pattern from 
which rise small rays or leaves. The hair is waved in front 
and divided by fine lines, while it falls behind in a heavy 
mass divided into horizontal waves. The pointed beard is 
divided by fine criss-cross lines and the end is missing. The 
raised left hand held a slanting object long enough to reach 
the side of the female figure, which may have been a sceptre, 
while the right arm rests on the arm of the throne, holding 
some object in the hand, of which there are traces on the 
right knee. The throne is straight-backed and has a panel 
behind covered with a diamond chequer pattern in white, red, 
brown, and black, while the inside is coloured red. The seat 
is decorated with eight-leaved rosettes and zigzags incised, 
and the legs are straight with the customary palmette orna- 
ment below surmounted by eight-point stars. A red cushion 
rests on the seat, and the red footstool has a large raised 
maeander pattern. No traces of flesh colour are visible. 
The figure may be safely recognized as ZEUS holding a sceptre 
or a thunderbolt, and, probably, an eagle. 

To his right and slightly further from the centre of the 
pediment is a female figure seated full face. Her connection 
with Zeus is proved by the existence of part of her foot on 
the same fragment as that of the male figure, and also by 
correspondence in the background. Missing are her head, 
most of the left hand, right elbow, and all the body below 
the waist except a fragment of the right foot. She is ckd in 
a long close-fitting peplos .and himation of Attic type, girt 
at the waist, with the himation over the shoulders. The 
peplos is dark blue with a large red maeander neck border, 
the himation red with a border of crosses and stars in blue. 
Three locks of hair in straight ringlets fall on each shoulder, 
and a fourth is visible on the neck. Hound the neck is a 
tight plain band. The hands are bent across the breast, the 
right with fingers extended, the left holding a rod-shaped 


object, probably a sceptre, at a sharp slant. The throne legs 
are decorated with raised circles and eight-point stars. The 
height of the neck from the ground is *70 m. ? which allows 
215 m. for the head. This seems to preclude the possibility 
of a helmet, and so makes it highly probable that the figure 
represented is HERA and not Athena, especially as there is no 

To the right of Hera the blue-green background of the 
pediment is broken by three ridges which must have served 
for attaching standing figures. The small size of these 
figures, due to the decreasing height of the pediment, would 
compel them to be practically in the round and artificially 
connected with the background, if they were to be visible 
from below. These figures would naturally face the centre 
of the pediment, and Professor Heberdey has in fact found 
two figures of the correct scale which have traces of similar 
ridges on their right sides. The larger of these is a figure 
of HERAKLES (restored height -71 m.) put together from two 
fragments above and below the waist. The hero strides 
forward with the left leg and right arm outstretched shewing 
the body in three-quarter view. Missing are the right half 
of the face and the whole surface of the right side, and front 
of body below the neck ; also both arms, the right leg, and 
the left leg below the middle of the thigh. The back and 
portion of the left leg are well preserved and shew great 
detail. Herakles is clad in a skin-tight chiton reaching to 
the mid-thigh with a ray ornament round the neck and a 
maeander round the lower border. Above it he wears girt 
round the waist a lion-skin with the head drawn over his 
own head, the fore paws tied round his neck and the hind 
paws hanging down his thighs. Under the left arm passes 
a band perhaps for sword or quiver. The hair shews in 
waves below the lion's teeth, and his close beard is divided 
like that of Zeus by parallel vertical lines. The mouth ends 
in a downward cut, and the eye is shewn almost in full face 
with carefully carved lids. 

The second figure is smaller and female, consisting of a 
torso from neck to mid-thigh clad in a skin-tight blue chiton 
with a red scalloped border below and plain red edge round 
the neck. Above is a red fawn-skin with white spots and 


border. The figure strides forward with the right leg and 
extends the right arm so that the body is in full view. The 
left arm rests on the hip, and the hair seems to have been 
short. The curves of the body are very much exaggerated. 
The identity of the figure is doubtful, though IRIS has been 
suggested. It was called an Amazon on first discovery 
before being connected with the pediment. 

Judging from their scale and from the indications of the 
ridges, these figures belong to the two last of the three 
ridges on the background, so that we have one still vacant 
next to Hera. If, as seems probable, the subject of the 
pediment is the introduction of Herakles to Olympos, the 
missing figure can hardly be other than ATHEXA, and 
Professor Heberdey has suggested that in No. 50 we possess 
perhaps the head of the missing goddess. It does not, how- 
ever, seem possible that that head can have belonged to this 
pediment (cf. p. 89). The floor of the pediment is uneven 
and sloping, and may be intended to represent the summit 
of Olympos. The top under the cornice is decorated by a 
heavy reel-ornament ('115 m. high) in red and blue and 
plain colour. 

It is also possible, as Professor Heberdey has pointed 
out, that in the three figures Nos. 48, 54, and 55, we have 
portions of the missing left half of the pediment. All are 
joined to a background by ridges on their left side. Inventory 
No. 4557 also shews the feet of two figures walking to the 
right, but the relief appears too low to belong to any of the 
three figures mentioned. Doubtless the left half of the 
pediment was occupied by figures representing the assembly 
of the gods. 

The execution of this pediment is technically superior to 
that of the two already described. In design and grouping 
however it is inferior to No. , since the scene is certainly 
not so cleverly adapted to the limitations of space. Here 
again both the scene and the individual figures can be 
accounted for by vase-paintings. For the Herakles, cf. in 
particular a practically exact parallel in a red figured vase 
of Euphronios now in Munich (Walters, History of Ancient 
Pottery, i. pi. 38). The figure of Zeus can be paralleled 
exactly on the Franois vase, and we can feel little doubt 


that both pediment and vase are reproducing an artistic 
conception of the middle 6th century. Thus the parallels 
to this pediment afford important chronological data, cf. 
Introduction, p. 18. 

The pediment displays both vigour of conception, 
especially in the two smaller figures, and also great love 
of decorative effect, especially in the two seated figures. In 
its embroidered borders it is a forerunner of the marble 
Korai, Nos. 598 and 679, and the figure of Hera may be 
compared very closely with these statues. But the especial 
interest of the pediment lies in the heads of Zeus and 
Herakles. From these two, from lolaos in No. 1, and from 
No. 55, we can trace the early Attic type of male head. 
The head is deep in comparison with its height below, 
and broad at the jaw in comparison with the forehead. 
The eyes are straight and pointed with lids carefully cut 
and the upper eyelid much more arched. The nose is narrow 
above and broad at the nostrils, the mouth has only a 
slight curve and is terminated at the corners by vertical 
cuts. The hair is treated in waves close down on the 
forehead, the beard pointed, with fine incised lines and 
following a clear outline on the jaw with a sharp angle in 
the centre of the cheek. The ears are large and clumsy. 
The same head can be traced through No. 35 to the 
Moschophoros (No. 6S4), and is the norm of early Attic art. 
As to muscular form Zeus is quite covered by his clothing 
save for the correct and vigorous right arm, but Herakles 
and Iris both shew the heavy, rather exaggeratedly fleshy 
curves which we shall observe both in the pediments of the 
old Athena temple and in the marble gigantomachy pediment. 
The decorative detail is very complete and shews that even 
before the period of Ionian influence such tendencies were 
prevalent in native Attic art. 

Head of Zeus: Wolters, Jf.M, xm. (1888), p. 437; AeXrt'oz;, 
1888, Aug., p. 154, Sept., p. 164. Zeus: Lechat, Rev. Arch., 
xvin. (1891), ii. p. 155, pi. xv.; Wiegand, Porosarch., pi. vm. 
1 and 2, p. 97, figs. 98, 99, 101; Perrot, vm., fig. 76; 
Lermann, fig. 3; Furtwangler, Munch. Sitzungsber., 1905, 
p. 448. Hera: Wolters, A.M., XIL (1887), p. 267; Lechat, 
B.C.H., 1888, p. 341; id., Rev. Arch., xvn. (1891), i. p. 


320, pi. xii.; Ae^rtW, 1898, Jan., p. 11 (a); Pavlovski, 
AeXr. Toxrcr., vin. (1895), n. p. 74, fig. 15 ; Wiegand, Poros- 
arch., pi. vin. 3, p. 101, fig. 100; Furtwangler, IDC. cit. 
Herakles: AeXTioz/, 1888, Feb., p. 31; Wolters, Jt.M. 9 xn. 
(1887), p. 387; Lechat, B.C.H., 1888, p. 242; Bruckner, 
A.M., xiv. (1889), pi. in. 2, p. 79 ; Pavlovski, op. cit., p. 67; 
Mi^/Aeta, p. 15, pi. iv. 3; Wiegand, op. cit., pp. 208, 211. 
figs. 226, 228, 229. Iris: ke\Tiov, 1888, May, p. 82; Lechat^ 
B.C.H., 1888, p. 334 ; E. Gardner, J.H.S., 1888, p. 63 ; 
Wiegand, op. cit., p. 211, fig. 27. 

3. Group in high relief of TWO LIOXS DEVOURING A BULL. 

The various fragments of this group and of the group 
in the next room were found together in 1888 to the E. and 
S.E. of the Parthenon. 

Poros of fine quality. 

Total length 5-35 m. Existing height "97 m. Height 
of relief -60 m. 

The bull is more nearly complete, lacking only the right 
horn, shoulder, part of back, and part of right legs and tail, 
but of the lions only portions of the legs and claws with a 
large fragment of the left lion's torso remain. Fragments of 
their tails are also to be seen in a small glass case to the 
right of the group. 

The group represents a bull pulled down by two lions, 
who pin him from opposite sides by his horns and left 
hind leg, while they rest their weight on his body and dig 
their claws into his side. The bull is thus pressed down 
flat against the ground, while the lions are probably to be 
restored raising their heads in the air in the centre of the 



The group is almost exactly symmetrical. Of the left 
lion we see the left hind paw holding down the bull's left 
hind leg, while the right hind paw stands free ; the right fore 
paw is seen dug into the bull's side, while streams of blood 
issue from the wound. Similar streams of blood suggest 
that the left fore paw should be restored next the right fore 
paw of the right lion on the back of the bull, and a small 
fragment above the right fore paw without blood below it 
shews where the body of the lion rested on the bull's back, 
while the head must have been raised. The hind paws of 
the right lion are similarly placed on the horn and on the 
ground, while holes with blood below them shew where we 
must restore the left fore paw symmetrically with the right 
fore paw of the left lion. Here too we have the right fore 
paw and traces of the body on the back of the bull, and here 
again the head must have been raised in the air. The only 
difference in pose is that, judging from the attitude of the 
hind legs, the hind-quarters of the right lion were higher, 
those of the left lion more crouching. The bull lies extended 
with left hind leg stretched out behind, right hind leg in an 
impossible position under the body, right fore leg under the 
body, and left fore leg stretched out in front. The tail is 
tucked between the legs, the head bent over so that the 
forehead touches the ground. 

The torso of the left lion, which has been put together 
from several fragments, and now stands under the window on 
the west wall, shews that it was uncoloured but had a red 
mane with plain incised lines. The mane lies flat on the 
neck and chest in rounded locks. The right lion on the 
other hand is coloured red. The claws of both are un- 
coloured, while the hairs above the claws are shewn by black 
incised lines, and the pads by a number of small holes 
designed to give a velvety effect. The tails are dark blue 
with plain incised lines. The bull is dark blue with the 
inside of the ears, nostrils, mouth, and rims of eyes red. 
The muzzle is uncoloured and covered with the same small 
holes as the pads of the lions. Red blood pours from his 

The execution of the group is particularly good. In 
spite of the clumsy attitude of the bull's hind legs, the 


impression is one of great vigour and life. The creases in 
the neck of the bull, though really out of place above since 
the neck is being strained to its full extent, and the treat- 
ment of the muzzle and the lion's pads, give great variety to 
the surface appearance. The muscles of the legs,, though 
conventional, give a good impression of strength, and the 
bull's head is full of expression if without much resemblance 
to nature. In comparison with She group on p. 76 we see 
the clearest distinction between its lifelessness and conven- 
tionality, and the fresh vigour of this composition. As to 
its architectural nature, various ideas have been advanced. 
Watzinger's erroneous restoration with the heads low on the 
bull's back gave the group an oblong shape, which suggested 
the decoration of an altar. It was at one time thought to 
be a sculpture group in the round, but it is now clear that 
though partly free, it is as a matter of fact attached to a 
background, and thus part of an architectural whole. It 
might of course be a pediment, like all the other fragments 
of pores sculpture on the Acropolis, but in that case the 
necessary dimensions are larger than the Hekatompedon or 
any other poros building known to us. The question 
thus remains problematic. In date there can be no doubt 
that it belongs to the most developed period of poros 

The bibliography of all the bull and lion fragments is 
given on p. 78. 

Fragments of a pedimental relief representing A BUILDIXG 



Found in January 1888 opposite east front of Parthenon. 

Poros of varying quality. 

Length of fragment 1/48 m. Height '80m. Height of 
relief -17 m. 

The restoration was first taken in hand by Wiegand, and 
a large fragment has now been restored by Heberdey. 

The upper edge of the pediment is decorated with a 
tongue pattern in red and blue, and a square taenia below 
with a blue maeander design. In the centre of the pediment, 
filling rather more of the left side, is a building with a hipped 
roof. The walls consist of seven courses of alternately thick 
and thin blocks represented by incisions, and in the centre of 
the pediment to the right of the building is a door reaching 
to the roof. A jamb projects on the left of the door, and 
possibly also on the right, but the wall is here broken away. 
The inside of the building is painted black. The roof is 
tiled with flat tiles, whose joins are covered by pentagonal 
covering tiles. Below it the cornice and mutuli are visible. 
There are two rows of black guttae under the mutuli and the 
viae are red. There is also a red line on the cornice. On the 
top of the roof in the centre of the pediment is a large 
hole, probably for a dowel fastening it to the cornice of the 

To the left of the building the branches of an olive tree 
or trees are incised on the background, and below at a relief 
depth of 13 m. is a wall (height '#96 m.) of five regular 
courses of blocks. 

Remains of three figures are preserved : 

(1) Fragment of a bare left male leg in profile to right 
(height *35 m.) in relief against the lower wall. 

(2) From neck to mid-thighs of a female figure also in 
profile to right in relief against the left part of the wall of 
the building. The figure is clad in long red peplos, girt at 
the waist, with three bands of decoration round the neck, and 
a blue himation over both shoulders, with an uncoloured 
maeander border. The left hand is raised, the right arm 
bent at the elbow, perhaps carrying a stick close to the 

(3) The figure No. 52, known as the " Hydriophore." 
Height from ankles *385 m. The figure is female, upright. 


with left arm raised and right arm across the body. The 
legs appear to be together, and the lower part of the body is 
stiff* and shapeless. The feet and lower part of the legs We 
missing. She is clad in a red peplos and dark blue himation 
worn over both shoulders. On her head is a round cushion- 
like object broken above, which is probably either the foot 
of a " hydria " or a pad for carrying one. The hair is waved 
in front in furrows and falls behind in a heavy mass with 
three long locks on each shoulder. A band confines the 
back hair. The eyes are large and prominent, sloping down- 
wards. The lips end in a slight swelling and downward cuts. 
The neck is long and the figure oval in section, with a raised 
curve for the bosom but no separation of the breasts. The 
right arm is square, as the edges of the planes have never 
been rounded off. There are remains of leaden dowels on 
each shoulder, at the ankles, and on the left arm. These 
probably represent ancient repairs. 

This figure is in the round unlike the others., but is 
carelessly worked behind. Heberdey has placed it to the 
right of the door at the right corner of the building, not in 
the entrance, as Wiegand suggested. The reason for this is 
that the figure would be too large, with a water-pot on the 
head, to stand under the roof of the building, and the right 
side seems to have a cut made in the roof, perhaps for the 
accommodation of the figure. Also a large leaden dowel is 
affixed here to the roof, which may have a connection with 
the dowels on the figured shoulders. 

On the other hand it is dubious if the figure should be 
placed in three-quarter face as Heberdey has placed it. There 
seems no good reason why it should not face due front. 

The building has been interpreted as the archaic Erech- 
theum on the ground of the olive trees on the wall, which 
are supposed to be the sacred olive tree and the wall of the 
Kekropion. The two female figures have been identified as 
priestesses carrying water and the male figure as an attendant 
or worshipper. But such an interpretation is somewhat 
arbitrary. The building does not look like a temple, and 
there are several olive trees, not only one. The scene might 
then be a fountain house, perhaps even the rape of the 
Athenian maidens from Enneakrunos. 


The larger figure is important in the history of art as the 
completest example of a female figure in poros. The costume 
resembles that of No. 593, and the hand in the hair behind is 
paralleled by Nos. 678 and 679. The characteristics of the 
face, with large triangular eyes and straight mouth terminated 
by cuts, are typically Attic. The style is certainly primitive, 
but the clumsiness of the right arm is probably due to want 
of finish. It belongs to the earliest class of the poros works. 

Wolters, AM., xn. (1889), p. 267 ; AeXr&y, Jan. 1888, 
p. 11 /3; Lechat, B.C.H., xn. (1888), p. Ml ; id., Rev. Arch., 
xvn. (1891), pi. XL, p. 317; id., Au Mus., p. 16 (Hydriophore) ; 
id., Sc. Aft., p. 62; Wiegand, Porosarch., p. 197, figs. 214 

>, pi. xiv. ; Petersen, Die Burgtempel der Athenaia, pp. 
40 ; Collignon, I. p. 206, note 2 ; MvrjfjLia, p. 11, pi. TV. 1 ; 
Pavlovski, AeXr. c P<<r<7., vin. 2 (1895), p. 72. 

1 1 . MASK. 

Good poros. 

Height *15 m. 

A mask of very good ma- 
terial with the features roughly 
scratched on a slightly convex 
surface, and emphasized by 
red paint. The surface is 
finely chiselled all over and 
was probably a fragment re- 
jected from some larger block. 

12. MASK. 

Coarse poros. 

Height -18 m. 

A mask cut with a much blunter instrument on a slightly 
concave surface. The material is rough without any pre- 
liminary chiselling. 



These masks are of course 
not serious work, but probably 
cut roughly by workmen in their 
leisure moments. A roughly 
blocked-out sphinx is preserved 
in the same wall-case, and a 
number of small poros objects 
are to be seen in the Magazine. 

Lechat, Rev. Arch^ xvii. 
(1891), p. 312, pi. x.; Wiegand, 
op. cit., p. 231, figs. 246, 247. 

25. LEFT HAND holding bird's claw. 

Breadth of closed fingers 
*05 m. No paint. 

This has been attributed 
by Heberdey to the nymph 
running from the contest of 
Herakles and Triton. It seems 
however very small. Wiegand's 
attribution to the Zeus of the 
Introduction pediment is im- 
possible since Heberdey's restor- 
ation of that pediment. 

Wiegand, op. cit.> p. 105, fig. 

3 1 . RIGHT FOOT in laced glove-like boot. 

It is coloured pink. Length '11 m., 
and preserved as high as ankle (*06 m.). 
A small projection on the big toe 
belongs to the background. The shoe 
is paralleled on the Frai^ois vase. 

Heberdey attributes this to a statue 
of Athena filling central position in large Triton pediment. 
Such a restoration is of course purely conjectural. 
Wiegand, op. cit., p. 207, fig. 224. 


Fragments of a SNAKE from a pedimental group. 

The various fragments were found in 1888 to the E. 
and S.E. of the Parthenon. 

Poros of good quality. 

The main piece of 1'70 m. in length. 

The estimated total length on restoration would be from 
2*00 m. to 210 m. 

Height of head '375 m. Relief height '37 m. 

The body of the snake after four flat undulations from 
the left describes a complete coil and then rises to a head 
with widely opened jaws. The upper half of the body is 
divided longitudinally by narrow red and broader blue bands. 
The latter are divided obliquely by plain bands, and the 
trapezoidal spaces thus formed have a smaller plain trapezoid 
in the centre. These spaces do not decrease in size till quite 
near the tip of the tail. The under part is divided across by 
incisions into wide oval-shaped scales. The eye and the teeth 
are shewn plain, the interior of the mouth red. Painting on 
both sides of the head shews that it was seen full face, not in 

The snake clearly occupies the left corner of a pediment. 
A lead-running fastened the extremity of the tail to the 
floor. Behind the main coil is a cut sloping surface parallel 
with the top of the pediment. On this rested the top taenia 
of the tympanon wall with a painted maeander pattern. 
This taenia we know to be '11 in. high, which is exactly the 
depth of the cutting. Thus the main coil just reached the 
cornice, and this fixes its position 1'71 m. from the left 
corner. The tail does not lie straight on the pediment floor 
but obliquely, so that the tip is right in front. 

The bibliography of all the fragments connected with the 
Hekatompedon is given at the end of No. 86. 


Fragments of a SNAKE from a pedimental group. 

Found in 1888 to E. and S.E. of Parthenon. 

Poros of good quality. 

The restored length of the various fragments is estimated 
at about 2 '50 m. Relief height '34 m., length 1*84 m. 

The under portion of the body is treated in the same way 
as that of the other snake, in plain oval scales, the upper 
part covered with triangular scales with the apex towards 
the neck. These scales have the border plain and raised, the 
interior of the triangle coloured dark blue. They diminish 
in size towards the neck and towards the tail. The extremity 
of the tail is in one piece with the tympanon wall. It appears 
that the position corresponded roughly to that of the pre- 
ceding snake, and filled the right corner of a pediment. The 
main coil turns in the opposite way, i.e. the portion nearer 
the tail is on the outside. On it also we see the cutting for 
the taenia of the tympanon wall. A wedge-shaped piece was 
let into the neck and the direction of a lead-running suggests 
that the neck was bent back with the head probably in 
profile. Wiegand drew a distinction between land and water 
snakes in connection with these two, which appears however 
to be unsound. The neck portion of this snake was at one 
time supposed by Bruckner to be part of another tail because 
of the diminution in size of the scales. But it is to be 
noticed that the scales diminish in the direction of the apex 
of the triangle, not in the direction of the base as in the 
real tail. 

For bibliography cf. pp. 78 and 86. 

Fragments of a LION from a pedimental group. 

Poros of good quality. 

Large fragment with mane: Length 1*28 m. Height 
1-07 m. 


Very few fragments of this lion exist. It can be distin- 
guished either from the lioness on the opposite wall or from 
the lion torso No. 3 by its mane, which consists of plain 
rounded locks with red incisions. The main fragments 
consist of part of head, shoulder and fore paws, and part 
of the rump shewing the tail. From these we can restore 
the animal in profile facing right, apparently couchant and 
not in the act of seizing or devouring its prey. It must 
thus occupy the left side of a pediment. The body is 
uncoloured and the execution somewhat flat and formal, 
resembling closely that of the great group on the opposite 
wall, with which it is combined by Heberdey. The whole 
composition would then fill the centre and greater part of 
a pediment. 

Pedimental group of A LIONESS DEVOURING A BULL. 

Poros of fine quality. 

Length 3-22 m. Height 1'60 m. Height of relief 

m. '5% m. 


The group consists of a large number of fragments put 
together by Professor Heberdey. They were found together 
with those of the other lion group to the E. and S.E. of the 
Parthenon in 1888. 

The head of the lioness occupied the centre of the 
pediment. She lies with her body to right extended on 
the bull which she has thrown down, and is in the act of 
biting him in the haunch. With her fore paws she grips 
his hind-quarters, while her own hind-quarters crouch on the 
ground. The bull is crushed flat on the ground, his head 
pressed down between his shoulders and his fore legs splayed 
out in an impossible position on either side of it. The 
lioness's tail is between her legs and curling out again over 
her rump. Her eye is shewn by two concentric circles, the 
inner dark and the outer red, set in a deep socket with red 
rims. The bull's eye has further three wrinkles round the 
outer rim, probably for the sake of expression. Nostrils and 
mouth are wide and painted red inside. The hair below the 
horns, and the creases on the neck are both indicated, but in 
a conventional and unconvincing way. The mane of the 
lioness is red with one row of dark blue or green locks, 
lying flat on the body with plain incisions. The teats are 
red, and the hair above them and on the rump very flat 
and formal. The main part of the composition was flat and 

The head of the bull and the udder of the lioness above 
it were restored by Watzinger as belonging to a group with 
the lioness in the opposite position (i.e. with head to right), 
but Heberdey's restoration is justified by the direction of the 
hair above the udder. The restoration is in no way proble- 
matical, and the angle of the head is fixed by the main piece of 
the neck. A piece of the tympanon wall by the hind-quarters 
of the lioness shew that it was coloured blue and hollowed out 
to accommodate a greater depth of relief. 

The scene, then, consists of the lioness devouring the bull 
in centre and to right, while the left is occupied by the lion, 
couchant and looking on. 

The execution of the group is not good. The legs and 
claws of the lioness are flat and lifeless; the body of the bull 
is impossibly contorted, and without any true impression of 


reality; the head is formal and inexpressive. The head of the 
lioness is good, but the treatment of the mane soon de- 
generates into pure convention, and her hody is hardly more 
than a shapeless mass. When we compare the details of this 
group with the lively vigour of No. 3 we appreciate at once 
the difference in treatment. 

The artist is ignorant of the device for shewing a porous 
surface by means of small holes, his hair is frequently only 
flat incision, and his distinction of muscle and sinew purely 
superficial. It is not so much however on the ground of his 
inferior ability, but rather of his ignorance of artistic conven- 
tion that we can safely attribute this group to an earlier 
date than No. 3. 

, 1888, July, p. 125, Nov. p. 203; Lechat, B.C.H., 

xm. (1889), pp. 139, 336, 433; id., Rev. Arch., xvm. (1891), 
ii. p. 136, pi. xiv.; id. 9 Au. Mus., p. 68, fig. 3; id., Sc. Att., 
p. 68 foil.; Wolters, A.M., xin. (1888), p. 107; id., Mz^eta, 
p. 26, pi. iv.; E. Gardner, J.H.S., x. (1889), p. 262; id., 
Handbook, i. p. 161; Collignon, i. p. 210, pi. in.; Overbeck 4 , 
i. p. 185 ; Pavlovski, AeXr. 'Poxrcr., vm. (1895), n. p. 70 ; 
L. Magne, Parth&non, p. 77; H. Brunn, Gr. Kunstgesch.^ n. 

&138; Watzinger in Wiegand's Porosarch., p. 214; B.-B., 
o. 456 B ; Perrot, vm. pp. 541 foil., figs. 278, 282 ; Springer- 
Michaelis 8 , pi. vii 1 . 

35. THREE-BODIED MONSTER from the right half of a 
pedimental group. 

Poros of fine quality. 

Length 3;25 m. Height -775m. Height of relief '415 m. 

The position of the subsidiary fragment on the left is 

fixed by the angle of the hand. Besides general damage, 


the following main pieces are missing : part of right arm of 
back body, right hand of central body with top of object 
held in left hand, finger fragments and head of bird belonging 

j_ L~^ 4. "U^J^.^ nvk j 4-"U . j_ L __r "i_* 

to front body, and the greater part of his upper wing. 
Probably the back body had a lower wing corresponding to 
that of the front body; if so, that is also lost. Part of the 
end of the snake-tails is preserved in the wall-case. The 
heads and the greater part of the two front bodies are in 
the round. The heads were found separately, but the back 
two actually fit, and the front right head, while not actually 
presenting a joining surface, agrees with indications of the 
hair on the neck. 

Found in 1888 to E. and S.E. of Parthenon. 

The monster has three human bodies reaching to the 
lower line of the pectoral muscles, and below that a cluster 
of snaky tails. The bodies are shewn upright, the tails 
stretching to the right corner of the pediment. The bodies 
are seen at different angles, the back one on the left in 
profile, the middle one in rather less than three-quarter view, 
the front one on the right nearly full. The two back heads 
are in profile, the front one in three-quarter view. The hair 
is combed in long wavy strands ending in curls on the neck 
and crimped in front into a high fringe. The beards are 
divided into smaller wavy lines, those of the back two pro- 
jecting more than that of the front head. The moustaches 
are plain and curl upwards. The front or right head shews 
some differences from the other two. His hair is brighter in 
colour, his eyes rounder and deeper cut, his mouth more 
curved and with thicker lips, his ears lower, and his ex- 
pression gayer than the other heads. This however is no 
reason for separating this head from the others, as was at 
one time suggested. The right hand of the left body is 
open and outstretched; that of the middle body is also 
outstretched, but is missing; that of the right body strokes a 
bird painted red which he holds in his left hand. It has 
been suggested from the fragment of this bird's head that it 
is an owl. The left hands of the back two bodies hold 
objects of unknown significance. They are oblong in section, 
and taper a little to the lower extremity. They seem to have 
been the same length and to have the top and bottom cut 


flat. Wavy lines are incised along them 1 . From the back of 
the right body grow two wings, the lower plain above and 
with feathers below like a bird's wing, the upper curling 
upwards in a conventional shape like the corresponding wing 
on the right shoulder of the back body. Two pieces of a 
lower wing belonging to this side have now been found by 
Prof. Heberdey. There seems to be no effort to shew a 
definite number of snaky tails but simply a coiling mass. 
One of these tails has curving incised lines on it, the rest 
are simply distinguished by colour. 

When discovered the colouring of the composition was 
very vivid, and it still produces a fine polychrome effect, 
although it has faded considerably. The colour scheme is 
as follows : the hair, moustache, and beard of the front and 
back heads are blue; the central head has blue moustache and 
beard, but white hair. The pupils of the left and central 
heads were red, the eyelids dark, the lips red; the right head 
had a blue iris with a deeply incised pupil. The flesh is 
coloured rose, the snaky tails blue, red, and plain. 

Several holes with remains of leaden pins are to be seen 
on the arms and shoulders. Bruckner and others suggested 
that these served for attaching small snake heads and bodies, 
of which some fragments were found, now in the wall-case. 
Furtwangler attributed the latter to the aegis of a missing 
figure of Athena, and the pins he considered designed to 
prevent the approach of birds. Heberdey points out that 
they can hardly have served the latter purpose as some of 
them are horizontal. He shews that the snake bodies had 
wedge-shaped extremities and suggests that they fitted into 
the angles of arms and bodies and were secured at the side by 
the pins. The position of the pins, however, fails to support 
this view. Various interpretations have been suggested^ for 
the curious objects held in the left hands of the two back 
bodies. They have been called emblems of water, tongues 
of fire, and, by Furtwangler, straps such as were used by the 
Luperci in Rome for promoting the fertility of women 1 . 

1 On the whole perhaps the most satisfactory interpretation is to take 
them as emblems of water. A practically identical sign occurs on the pre- 
historic disc found at Phaistos in Crete (Pernier, Ausonia, p. 287, No. 24 ; 
A. J. Evans, Scripta Minoa, p. 280). 


The fragment on the left, which displays the right hand 
of the back body, contains also a long broken ridge like 
those on the background of the Introduction of Herakles 
pediment and to the right of the ridge two folds of red 
drapery with a plain border hanging over a round object. 
Wiegand interpreted this as a tree trunk covered with the 
garment of Herakles, but on the analogy of the pediment 
referred to, we may unhesitatingly follow Furtwangler in his 
suggestion that it is a human figure with outstretched arm. 
This figure must be upright and consequently on a small 
scale, and also practically in the round. Furtwangler supplied 
a figure of Hermes, Heberdey a nymph flying from the 
struggle of Herakles and the Triton. It is clear, at any rate, 
that the attitude of the monster is peaceful, and one cannot 
follow Bruckner in any restoration of an attacking deity. 
Its whole attitude and occupation betoken rest and calm, 
and the open hand of the approaching figure denotes an 
attitude of supplication rather than defiance. The inter- 
pretation of its significance is obscure. It was long called 
Typhon on the analogy of a vase-painting (cf. Gerhard, 
Auserl. Vaseribilder, u. No. 3), but the figure represented on 
the vase has one, not three, bodies, and, as has just been 
pointed out, the expression is benignant and presents no 
parallel with the battle scene on the vase. Furtwangler 
suggested that the monster represented the Tritopatores 
whom he supposed to be benignant deities of the wind, 
with influence over childbirth, and supported his theory by 
pointing to the Lupercal attributes in the hands 1 . But we 
have no reason for supposing that the Tritopatores were 
shewn as three bodies with a single taiL They seem to be 
separate beings. The prefix in fact does not seem to refer to 
the number three, but suggests ancestors in the third genera- 
tion or in a general sense (cf. 7rpa>T07raTG>p, TrpoTrdrcop). It is 
used in this sense in an inscription recently found in Delos 8 . 

1 Cf. Lobeck, Aglaophanais t 760. 

2 Comptes Eendus de VAcaMmie frangaise, 1907, p. 354 

A . . e . . 
The inscription dates from about 400 B.C. ; the ILvppaKtSat were an Attic 



The snake tails and the wings must refer to earth and 
air, but we can arrive at no more definite identity at 

The execution of the composition is of the finest poros 
technique, and can be discussed in connection with No. 36, 
with which it is entirely in harmony. For the bibliography 
cf. p. 86. 

36. Pedimental group in high relief of HEEAKLES AND 

Poros of good quality, though slightly inferior to No. 35. 

Length 3'535 m. Height -765 m. Height of relief -53 m. 

The group fills the left half of a pediment and is restored 
from several pieces. Missing are both heads, left shoulder 
and right hand of Triton, right shoulder of Herakles and 
both arms, except a fragment. Both hands of Herakles and 
the Triton's left elbow and hand exist in separate pieces in 
the wall-case. A piece of the Triton's fish body about '50 m. 
long is restored in plaster. 

Found in 1888 to the E. and S.E. of the Parthenon. 

Herakles is represented as gripping the Triton in a 
manner similar to the pediment No. , but in the opposite 
direction. There are however some differences in detail, e.g. it 
is the outer leg not the inner which is kneeling. The body 
of the hero is thrown more forward on the trunk of his 
antagonist ; the right knee is firmly on the ground, the left 
leg bent double and touching the ground only with the toes. 
The arms may be restored in the same position as No. , the 
right hand gripping the left, but here the left hand of the 
Triton is not outstretched. We see from the fragments of 


his elbow, and of his left hand gripping the arm of Herakles, 
that the arm is bent inwards in an attempt to pull apart the 
hands of the hero. Both heads are missing, but that of 
Herakles must have been in profile, that of the Triton 
probably, to judge from the collar-bone, in three-quarter 
view. Herakles is quite nude. In his strained pose and 
bent leg and foot we see the exertion he is undergoing, and 
his heroic proportions are indicated with sufficient vigour. 
The Triton's scaly body, beginning below the breast, narrows 
in three undulations to a divided fish tail. Each undulation 
is surmounted by a fin. The body is coloured with alternate 
bands of red and blue, each decorated with raised plain 
U-shaped scales, which only begin to diminish in size quite 
near the tail. The tail piece is made in one with a large 
block, which can only be explained as a step inserted in the 
pediment, probably to raise the composition better for 
spectators below. This step is *2 m. high. The human chest 
of the Triton is covered with fine incisions to indicate hair. 
There is a realistic bulge of flesh where the fish body joins 
the human. Both it and all Herakles' body are tinted a 
light red like the bodies of the monster in No. 35. 

The execution of Nos. 35 and 36 is distinctly superior to 
all the other poros groups with the possible exception of 
No. 3, and inasmuch as they depict the human form they 
are of a much higher artistic value. The torso of Herakles 
challenges comparison with the similarly posed giants of the 
marble gigantomachy pediment, and the heads of the three- 
bodied monster, especially the front right one, known as 
" Bluebeard," shew analogies with later marble work like the 
Moschophoros. Thus we possess in these groups material for 
a comparison between the early poros and the early marble 
art. Characteristic of the heads are the oblong eye with the 
round ball and the upper lid more arched than the lower, the 
mouth nearly straight and terminated sharply by vertical 
cuts, the nose broad at the nostrils and narrower above, 
arched brows, a deep head broad at the jaw, clumsy ears and 
high cheek-bones. These are points noticed already in the 
smaller poros heads, and traceable in greater or less degree 
in nearly all early heads of purely Attic origin. 

The treatment of the body is soft and rather indefinite. 



Large swellings for the biceps and calf,, shallow grooves to 
outline the more sinewy muscles of the lower arms and legs 
are the regular conventions of early Greek art. Collar-bones 
and shoulders are truthfully shewn, but the relief-treatment 
of the grouping has caused" the artist much trouble. Thus 
Herakles' left leg and the innermost of the monster's bodies 
have suffered a good deal of distortion, and the shoulders of 
the two back bodies are somewhat confused and appear to be 
growing out of each other. The further sides of the two 
back heads are rough and out of symmetry. The hands 
and feet, too, though shewing a marked advance on the 
Introduction pediment, are still a little stiff and formless. 
But apart from these defects inseparable from primitive art, 
both compositions are characterised by a vigour and life and 
even, one might say, a sympathy present to the same degree 
in no earlier work of art. There are the same touches of 
realism in the treatment of the flesh that we noticed in the 
lion group No. 3, and in the difficult arrangement of the six 
hands of the monster there is a truly artistic variety and 
skill. This mastery of technique and of artistic fitness is one 
of the strongest a priori reasons for rejecting Lechafs theory 
that work in marble is entirely posterior to work in poros. 
No one who has carefully examined this group can doubt its 
superior artistic development to the earliest almost shapeless 
marble figures. Cf. Introd. p. 14. 

Since the discovery of the fragments of these two com- 
positions and of the two snakes, there have been continual 
rearrangements of schemes for grouping them. On the 
primary question whether the Triton group and the monster 
belong to the same or different pediments, it has been argued 
on the one side that there is a difference in length, in 
material, and in depth of relief; on the other that the 
execution is the same, that the difference in material can be 
paralleled in other poros work, that the difference in length 
is of no matter if there was another figure to be accounted 
for, and that the difference in relief depth can be paralleled 
in the single group of the lioness and bull. 

The theories have alternated for a long time. Thus 
Kavvadias on discovery united the two, then Bruckner 
separated them. Lechat supported the single pediment, and 


was followed by Wiegand in his great work on the poros 
buildings. Furtwangler however preferred the separation in 
two pediments. After perhaps a longer and more careful 
study of the remains than any of his predecessors, Professor 
Heberdey has pronounced in favour of the single pediment. 
Furtwangler's and Bruckner^s schemes are at any rate demon- 
strably impossible, and Heberdey's restoration is the only one 
yet made which combines lucidity with the material facts of 
the fragments. 

It has proved possible to restore the order of the 
Hekatompedon with practical completeness, and from this 
restoration we know that the length of the pediments was 
ll*50m. We have seen that in the Triton pediment there 
was a step '&& m. high. This reduces the length of that 
pediment to 10 m., and that suits approximately the group 
of Triton and monster with a central flying Nereid as re- 
stored by Heberdey. The head of this figure he finds in 
No. 38 in the wall-case, and suggests that No. 25, a hand 
holding the fragment of a bird's claw, may also belong. The 
nymph is represented as flying in terror from the conflict to 
the protection of a benignant nature-deity. 

At the same time it seems impossible that the total 
height of this nymph can have exceeded *90 m. while the 
height of the pediment, reckoning from the top of the step, 
is l'40m. Also there would seem to be a space of at least 
2 m. between the elbow of the Triton and the wing of the 
monster. Allowing 1 m. for the nymph, there is still the 
centre of the pediment to be filled with a figure approximately 
1 -40m. high 1 . 

With regard to the other pediment, the restorations of 
Wiegand and Furtwangler supplied for the central group 
either three seated figures, or two seated figures and a stand- 
ing figure, including the Zeus and Hera (restored as Athena) 
of the Introduction pediment, and a third conjectural figure. 
All use of these figures for the Hekatompedon must now 
be abandoned, since Heberdey has restored without doubt 
the Zeus and Hera in a smaller pediment 6*60 m. long. 
Moreover the group of sitting figures could not exceed 

1 Heberdey now suggests a figure of Athena for the centre of the pediment, 
restored from the foot-fragment No. 81. 


*95 m. in height, whereas the height of the pediment would 
be 1-40 m. 

Heberdey at first argued from the treatment of the tails 
of the snakes, which he supplies like Wiegand for the corners 
of the second pediment, that there was no step, and con- 
sequently the pediment was ll*50m. long and r62m. high. 
For the corners his snakes occupied respectively about % m. 
and '50 m. This left approximately 7 m. to be filled by the 
central group, which he identified in the group of lion and 
lioness and bull, whose restored height and length conform 
to the limitations of space. 

Lately, however, Heberdey has discovered from the restor- 
ation of the red and blue snake that there was a step in this 
pediment also. He has therefore abandoned the idea that 
the lion and lioness both belong to this pediment. 

He is to be congratulated on this discovery, since it was 
impossible either to reconcile the style of the lioness with 
that of the snakes and of the other pediment, or to approve 
of a composition including subjects so discrepant in size. 

At present therefore the central group of this pediment 
is unidentified. 

If, as is not impossible, the lion group No. 3 belonged to 
a large temple not identified, this lion group may be part of 
the opposite pediment of that building. 

Ae\riov, 1888, Jan., p. 11, Feb., p. 31, March, p. 45, May, 
p. 82, June, p. 101, Nov., p. 203; Wolters, A.M., xn. (1887), 
p. 386; id. ib., xiii. (1888), pp. 107, 227, 386, 437; Lechat, 
S.C.H., 1888, pp. 239, 241, 332, 430; id. ib., 1889, 
p. 137; Jane Harrison, J.H.S., ix. (1888), pp. 120, 121, 
fig. 2; E. Gardner, ib., x. (1889), p. 262, fig. A; Bruckner, 
A.M., xiv. (1889), p. 67, xv. (1890), p. 86 ; Lechat, Melanges 
H. Weil, p. 249; id., An Mus., pp. 48, 120; id., Sc. Att., 
p. 41 ; id., Rev. Arch., xvii. (1890), p. 304, xvm. (1891), 
pis. xiii. and xiv. ; Wolters, Mz/^eZa, pp. 4 11, pis. n. and 
ni. ; Antike Denkmdler, L pi. xxx. ; B.-B., Nos. 456 A, 472 B ; 
'E<. 'A/?., 1891, pi. xm.; Collignon, i. p. 207, fig. 98, pi. n. ; 
Pavlovski, AeXr. Poxrcr., vm. (1895), n. p. 60; id., Sculpt. 
Att., p. 57, fig. 7; Perrot, vm. p. 537, figs. 274, 275, pi. m.; 
Springer-Michaelis 8 , pi. vn. ; E. Gardner, i. p. 159, fig. 27 ; 
Wilamowitz, Euripides Heracles 1 , n. p. 285, ib* n. p. 258; 


Overbeck 4 , i. p. 183; H. Brunn, Gr. Kunstgesch.^ u. p. 138; 
C. Brownson, AJ. A., vm. (1893), p. 28, pi. i. ; W. Miller, 
ib. p. 497; Wiegand, Porosarchitektur* p. 72; Klein, p. 88; 
Furtwangler, Munch. Sitzungsb., 1905,' p. 447; id. ib., 1906, 
p. 149. 

38. HEAD. 

H. -175m. 

Face much damaged. 

The hair falls in a heavy 
plait behind with horizontal 
divisions. A plain band en- 
circles it. It was facing right 
in profile in a pediment as 
only the right ear exists, and 
the left side is unworked. 
Attributed by Heberdey to 
the nymph in the large Triton 
pediment. A running figure 
restored on the scale of this 
head could not be more than 
90m. high. 

Wiegand, op. dt.^ p. 

fig. 243. 

39. Small HEAD from left side of pediment facing right 
in profile. 

H. (restored) about "11 m. 

The hair is shewn by incised 
lines from back to front witn 
a wreath of leaves with red 
central veins. At the back it 
falls in a simple mass. Of the 
face only the right eye and part 
of the cheek are preserved. 
The eye is triangular and slopes 
downwards. Traces of black 
on the eyes and of red on the 

Wolters, Mi^/4a, p. 4; 



Sophoulis, op. cit., p. 167, pi. xiv. 1 ; Lechat, Rev. 

xvm. % (1891), p. 280, note 3 ; Wiegand, op. dt., p. 05, 

fig. 223. 


H. (shoulder to middle of lower legs) 

Male torso, without head or feet, clad 
in a red himation which completely en- 
velops the figure. It is moving to the 
right in profile, and the right arm is 
bent under the himation, which it holds 
in front of the neck. This himation has 
a border of three bands left uncoloured. 
The flesh of the neck is pink. On the 
left side of the figure is a rough vertical 
strip, where it was once affixed to the 
tympanon wall of a j>ediment. It might belong either to 
the smaller Triton pediment No. 2, or to the Introduction of 
Herakles. It is too large for the " Erechtheum " pediment. 

Wolters, Mz/^eSa, p. 22 ; Wiegand, Porosarch., p. 205, 
No. 2, pi. xv. 

5O. Small HEAD. 

H. -11 m. 

The head is female, 
full face with hair waved 
in front and falling in 
mass behind. On it 
is a green cap which 
tapers slightly at the 
top, and so may have 
originally had a crest. 
The ears are clumsy 
but worked on both 
sides. The eyes are 
level and prominent, the mouth curved and surrounded 
by a groove. This treatment is unique among the poros 
heads, and is an Ionic not an Attic characteristic. Thus 
this head must be among the latest of the poros works 


8 9 

overlapping the earliest Ionic influence. It has been sug- 
gested that it might fit on to the band between Hera and 
Heracles in the Introduction pediment, cp. p. 65. Apart 
from grounds of date, the head seems too small, cf. pp. 13, 18. 
Wiegand, op. cit., p. 229, figs. 243, 244. 


H. (ear to above waist) *20 m. 
Part of head and chest of male 
figure in attitude similar to No. 48, in 
profile to right with rough band on 
the left side. The right hand is simi- 
larly bent under the great himation, 
while the left hand projects below it. 
The hair falls in a mass behind on to 
the neck with one short lock in front 
of the left ear. The face is fall, but 
body turned to the right (centre of the pediment). The 
himation has a border of two red bands with a blue band 
between, each outlined by a thin uncoloured stripe. 

The style of the figure is the same as that of the pre- 
ceding one, and it may belong to the same pediment. 

Wolters, Mvrjpeia, p. 22 ; Wiegand, op. cit., p. 205, No. 3, 
pi. xv. 

55. (With head formerly No. 51.) MALE FTGETBE. 

H. (crown to ankles) "465 m. 

Similar male figure in profile to right 
with rough band on left. The figure is 
bearded and clad in a heavy himation 
with a raised maeander border, plain on 
a blue ground. A head has been fitted 
on to this figure. The hair falls in a 
mass behind with a band round it, and 
in strands of square locks all over the 
head. The beard is shewn by vertical 
cuts. The eyes are prominent and tri- 
angular with black lids and pupils. The 
face is square, with prominent cheek bones 
and a straight mouth. The style is some- 
what different from the preceding two, in 


that the himation is not plain but covered with shallow 
grooves. It may belong therefore to a different pediment. 
Lechat, Rev. Arch., xvm. 2 (1891), p. 280, pi. xvi. ; 
Sophoulis, 'E<. 'A/?%., 1891, p. 167, pis. n. and xiv. 2; 
Wolters, Mz^eZa, p. 23 ; Pavlovski, op. cit., p. 55, fig. 6 ; 
Wiegand, op. dt., p. 205, No. 5, fig. 222, pi. xv. 

56. OWL. 

Good poros. 

H. '17m. 

The plumage is shewn by 
triangular chisel-cuts. There 
are traces of white colour on 
breast and black on the folded 
wings. The upper part of the 
left leg where it joins the body 
shews faint traces of red. 

Heberdey restores the owl 
with the figure of Athena in 
the centre of the large Triton 

Wiegand, op. cit., p. 
No. 6. 

4557. Relief shewing FEET OF MALE FIGURES. 

Length '48 m. H. -26 m. 
Relief height '07 m. 

Fragment of pediment shew- 
ing the lower part of two figures 
walking in profile to right. They 
appear to be male with bare feet, 
clad in heavy himatia like the 
preceding figures, and certainly 
belong to the same type. 
There are altogether three pediments, No. 2, the Intro- 
duction of Herakles, and the "Erechtheurn" pediments, where 
such figures might be expected. 

Wiegand, op. cit., p. 204, No. 1, pi. xv. 


120- Relief. 


Pentelic marble. 
H. -605 m. Br. -405 m. Plinth 
036 m. high, and -012 m. pro- 

Missing Athena's face, left 
arm from mid-biceps, right arm 
and shoulder except hand with 
spear-shaft, right leg, left knee 
and top of lower leg; giant's 
head, right shoulder, breast, and 
arm except hand with sword, 
top of left shoulder and hand, 
left lower leg below middle of 
shin, right foot, thigh and hip. 
Damaged surface generally. The back is broken away. 
Put together from six pieces. 

Athena strides forward from the left with left leg advanced 
and bent at knee, left arm extended with aegis, and right arm 
raised with spear like the figure in the pediment No. 631. 
In front of her lies a wounded giant, who kneels on the left 
knee, supporting himself by the shield on his left arm, while 
the right hand holding a sword hangs useless in front of the 

Athena wears Ionic chiton, himation, and aegis, in the 
same fashion as No. 631. She has a helmet and bare feet. 
Her left hand, and a trace of the spear-shaft, which was 
added in iron, are visible in front of her helmet. Her hair 
is red, her helmet has a green and blue decoration on the 
crest, the background is dark (once blue), the aegis has traces 
of green and red, and there was a pattern on the himation. 
The top of the plinth and the inside of the giant's shield are 
also red. The latter has a green holding-strap. The work 
is very hard and dry, and the poses stiff and angular. It is 
clearly an adaptation of the central scene of the pediment 
No. 631, and belongs to the end of the 6th century. 

Pavlovski, p. 293, fig. 105; Lechat, Sc. Atk, p. 300; 
Schrader, A.M., xxn. (1897), p. 106, fig. 12. 


121. Small relief of ATHENA PROMACHOS. 

Found 1865 S.E. of 
Pentelic marble. 
H. (preserved) '25m. 
Br. -285m. 

Frame visible above 
and at right side, width 
above *034 m., at right 
side -015 m. '016 m. 

Missing body be- 
low knees, and left side 
of shield. 

Athena Promachos 
striding to left. She 
is seen in three-quarter 
view from the back, 
with huge shield on extended left arm and right hand raised 
with spear. She wears Ionic chiton, himation (fastened on 
right shoulder), and aegis, with a helmet under which her 
hair streams out on to her right shoulder. The eyes are in 
front view, the chin and cheek-bones prominent. The head 
is pushed too far forward and the pose is clumsy, partly 
owing to the inferiority of the artist and partly to an early 
date. Red colour was at one time visible on the hair. 

Brunn, Decharme, and Pervanoglu, Bull. delY Inst., 1864, 
p. 87; Arch. Anz., 1865, p. 2; Heydemann, Arch. Zeit., 
1867, p. 114 ; Sybel, No. 5014 ; Schone, Griechische Reliefs, 
pi. xix. No. 84 ; "Furtwangler, A.M., in. (1878), p. 184. 

122. Plaque with LION'S HEAD. 

Hymettan marble. 

H. -26m. 

Damaged left part of neck, ends 
of ears. 

The eyes are set aslant, and are of 
nearly circular shape with the corners 
continued by incised lines. Two in- 
cised concentric circles and a central 
dot on the flat hollowed eyeballs 



served for coloured decoration. The ears are round with 
a crescent-shaped hollow. The mouth is a simple groove 
with a sharply incised centre. A vertical line marks a wrinkle 
on the forehead. The style is soft and careless, and the 
surface has never received a final polishing. 

The back is smoothed flat, and the head has clearly 
an architectural setting. It is not a gargoyle, as the mouth 
is unpierced, and Schrader rightly places it as the head of 
a side akroterion of the oldest Athena temple in a similar 
position to the leopard described on p. 113 (No. 552). 

There are remains of a fore paw and shoulder belonging to 
this lion or its companion (No. 555). 

Schrader, Arch. Marm., p. 12, figs. 11, 12. 


Found in 1864 in digging founda- 
tions of museum. 
Island marble. 

H. *895 m. (including plinth '04m. 

Right elbow and lower arm added by 

Missing head and neck, left arm 
from just below shoulder, right hand 
and wrist, front of right foot and corner 
of plinth. Traces of the fingers of the 
left hand are visible on the front of the 
left hip. 

Damaged aegis and ends of drapery. 
Inserted snakes on the fringe of the 

The goddess stands upright on a small round plinth, 
which was originally sunk in an inscribed base. Her weight 
rests on the left leg, and the right is a little advanced and 
slightly bent at the knee. The left hand rests on the hip, 
and the left shoulder is pushed forward. The right arm is 
extended upwards, and once rested on a long spear. The 
head is turned a little to the right, and was crowned with a 
helmet, traces of the crest of which are visible on the back. 
The pose is thus a converse of that of the mourning Athena. 


The costume consists of a short-sleeved under-chiton like 
that worn by the Nike No. 694, with a perfectly smooth 
surface, and an Ionic himation with overfall, fastened like a 
Doric peplos by a single brooch on each shoulder. Only 
the greater length of the overfall distinguishes it from the 
Doric garment, to which it is an intentional approximation. 
This is open down the right side so that the ends of the 
long hanging folds trail on the ground. The girdle is tied 
outside the overfall, and consists of a simple cord. Above 
the himation is worn an aegis of the usual early type, 
hanging low behind, and covering shoulders and bosom in 
front. On a slightly raised seven-sided medallion on the breast 
is the gorgoneion of a softened archaic type with long 
oblique cuts from each inner eye-corner. The aegis is quite 
smooth with a raised rim round the neck and the outer edge. 
In the outer edge holes are bored at intervals for the 
insertion of snakes. Traces of red are visible on the inside of 
the back of the aegis, and of a scale pattern (reproduced in 
Studniczka's publication) on the left shoulder in front, from 
which all colour has vanished. Light and dark patches still 
remain, however, and an incised line in the middle of each scale. 
The skirts hang in deep vertical folds clear of the feet, but 
are not undercut below. The right leg is carefully treated 
with the circular folds which it makes in front. The hanging 
folds of the hiraation are undercut with the drill, which is 
used also for the lower edge of the overfall. Curiously stiff 
short vertical incisions denote the folds of the himation 
above the girdle. The green stain in front is not colour, 
but a chance bronze stain. The goddess wears thick sandals. 

The hair appears in a square wavy mass behind, and 
there are no shoulder-locks. 

The feet are finely carved with the second toe longest, 
and the little toe curving markedly inwards. The right arm 
is well modelled and the collar-bone correctly shewn. The 
freedom of the pose and the turn of the body shews that 
the statue belongs .to the latest pre-Persian period. The 
standing type with one leg bent is borrowed from the 
Peloponnese, and Peloponnesian influence is clear in the 
broad and simple treatment of the drapery and the length 
of the second toe. The gorgoneion too shews an advance 


on the old purely brutal type like No. 701. At the same time 
the folds of the himation above the girdle are still archaic, 
and the use of the Ionic himation precludes a very late 
date. Studniczka connects the statue with the sculptures of 
the Olympian pediments, in particular the Oinomaos and 
Sterope, and sees in it the work of a Peloponnesian artist. 
He dates it before 480 in opposition to Furtwangler*s view 
that it is not earlier than 465. Lechat proposes the date 
460, and both he and Furtwangler see Attic work in the 
statue, as opposed to the Olympian theories of Wolters, 
Winter, Studniczka, and Graef. Furtwangler attaches great 
importance to the statue as a forerunner of the Lemnia, and 
maintains its purely Attic origin in details, e.g. the method 
of girdle. It was found together with the ephebe head 
No. 689 among dbris belonging to the Periclean Parthenon. 
The drapery connects it with the Nike in No. 694, which is 
pre-Persian, and it is clearly more archaic than the relief 
No. 695. The pre-Persian date of the statue is proved by 
the brilliance of the colouring which still survived on dis- 
covery, but has now almost entirely disappeared. It is 
probably a copy in miniature of some more famous statue. 
Postolakkas, Arch. Zeit., 1864, p. 34; Brunn, Decharme, 
and Pervanoglu, BuU. delT Inst., 1864, p. 85; Milchhofer, 
Museen Athens, p. 54; Lange, A.M., 1881,_ pp. 86, 93, 

note % ; Sybel, No. 5003 ; Schreiber, Arch. Zeit., 1883, p. 
213 foil.; Arch. Stud. H. Brunn dargeb., p. 85 ; Studniczka, 
Beitr. zur altgnech. Tracht, p. 142, fig. 47; id., 'E<. 'A/o^., 
1887, pp. 148 154, pi. VIIL 1 and 2; Furtwangler, Roscher's 
Lexicon, pp. 695, 1720; id., MeisterwerJce, pp. 36, 40, note 1; 
Wolters (Winter), Jb. 9 n., 1887, p. 233, note 53 ; Graef, 
A.M., xv., 1890, p. 22, No. 8; Lepsius, p. 70, No. 24; 
Lechat, Au Mus., p. 191, fig. 20; id., Sc. Ait., p. 466; 
Petersen, R.M., xii., 1897, p. 318 ; Lermann, pp. 57, 163. 

141. Fragment of prostrate GIANT attacked by Athena 
(No. 293). Found before 1881. 

Island marble. 

H. -295m. 

Missing head, under part of shield and left arm, right 
arm and side, body below waist. 

9 6 


The fragment shews the upper part 
of the chest of a warrior, whose shield 
covers the lower part. His red hair 
hangs behind in a semicircular mass 
with horizontal divisions. Two zigzag 
locks appear on each shoulder. The 
head was turned over the left shoulder. 
The left arm extends straight down 
carrying the weight of the body, and 
is not thrust through the shield-strap. 
The inside of the shield is painted red. 
The general attitude must have re- 
sembled that of Athena's opponent in 
No. 631, but the details shew some 
difference. Thus the warrior wears a 
cuirass with shoulder flaps, of which only the right one is 
visible, and the position of the shield is different. The work 
shews the same clumsiness as No. 293 and should clearly be 
grouped with it. The figure is curiously mistaken by Sybel 
for an Athena, if it is to this statue that he refers. 

Sybel, No. 5070; Martinelli, No. 262; Schrader, Arch. 
Marm.y p. 61, fig. 51. 

142. Torso of ATHENA. 

Found in Oct. 1888, S.W. of 

Island marble. 

H. -495m. 

Missing head, right shoulder 
and arm, left arm from below 
elbow with half of shield, legs 
from above knees. 

Damaged breasts, shoulder- 
locks, and edges of drapery. 

Inserted lower right arm, 
snakes on aegis border and above 

Put together from two pieces 
joining just above the hips. 

The pose is upright, with the 


left leg a little advanced, the left arm close by the side down 
to the elbow, and then extended sideways holding the shield, 
which covers the left side of the back/ The right arm was 
extended forwards from the elbow and probably held the 
spear upright. The head is turned a little towards the left 

The goddess wears Ionic chiton and himation with aegis 
above. The chiton is only visible at the neck border, and 
the himation is fastened on both shoulders in the same 
fashion as the Kore No. 673. The folds are very fine,, 
especially under the left arm, but are flat and not cut with 
the drill. The long folds on the right side shew a red 
maeander border. Above the himation the aegis is worn in 
the same fashion as Nos. 625 and 140. It is very long, 
reaching to the middle of the thigh behind and to the hips 
in front. The lower border shews the usual holes for in- 
serted snakes ; an incised line only divides it from the chiton 
on the neck. In front is the gorgoneion of archaic brutal 
type with spiky hair and beard and the typical protruding 
tongue and tusks. Three holes above it served for inserted 
snakes. The aegis has a scale pattern in green and red and 
a green border. 

The hair falls in a wavy combed mass behind and in 
three wavy locks of four strands each on either shoulder. 
Traces of red are visible at the back. The collar bone and 
the bosom are carefully modelled. On the shield is a painted 
design of which only traces of a great wing are visible above 
with faint signs of a body and possibly a bird's tail. The 
execution is very good, but there is no use of the drill, and 
the pose is stiff and archaic. Schrader combines the statue 
in a group with Nos. 160 and 168, but it is dubious if it 
could be connected with figures of so developed a technique. 
It should be noticed, however, that the drill is not used in 
the drapery of these figures. 

AeXW, Oct. 1888, p. 181 ; Wolters, A.M., 1888, p. 439 ; 
Lechat, B.C.H., 1889, pp. 1434; E. Gardner, J.H.S., 1889, 
p. 265 ; Schrader, Arch. Marm., p. 68, figs. 59, 60. 



143. DOG. 

Found N. of Parthenon. 

Island marble. 
L.l5m. H.-51m. 
Missing right ear 
and side of head, top 
of left ear, tail, left 
fore leg, lower part of 
hind legs, plinth except 
one corner. 

Put together from a 
large number of fragments. 

Inserted whole of right ear, top of left ear (the bronze 
pin still in situ). 

The muzzle and right fore leg have lately been added by 

The dog stood on an oblong plinth, of which only a small 
piece is preserved by the right fore paw, in a crouching 
position as if actually hunting. It is a smooth-haired dog 
of hound type. The lids and pupils are distinguished by 
black paint, and there is a streak of red colour under the left 
ear. The animal is very thin, so that its bony structure is 
quite clear. The eyes are strongly arched at the top, giving 
a very keen and life-like expression. The surface is finely 
finished, but the whole impression a little archaic. Schrader's 
discovery of the fragments of a counterpart facing left sug- 
gests a duplicate votive offering, as in the case of the lion 
No. 3832, probably in the precinct of Artemis Brauronia. 

Lepsius, p. 73, No. 51; Schrader, Arch. Marm., p. 77, 
figs. 6769. 

144. Statuette of A SCRIBE. 
Lower part found 1882. 
Pentelic marble. 

H. -45m. (seat -20m.). 

The upper part was known before, and the two were 
united by Studniczka. 

Missing head, right arm from middle of biceps, left 
hand except the fingers, front of the feet and part of the 
left shin. 



The figure is seated on a square block representing a 
four-legged stool. The legs and seat are uncoloured, and 
the interspaces are painted red. The 
outlines of the legs against the seat are 
also red. On the seat is a cushion which 
was red with a green stripe helow. The 
scribe sits stiffly with legs close together, 
body upright, and arms close to his sides. 
He is clad in a single garment, which 
leaves most of the chest and the right 
shoulder and side bare. It covers the 
body in front, passes behind over the left 
shoulder, is brought round under the 
right arm and flung again over the left 
shoulder. It spreaos out on the seat 
behind but clings tightly round the figure, 
defining clearly the outlines of the legs. 
The folds are shewn by regular incisions 
at some distance apart. Traces of a green and red border 
are to be distinguished. The flesh is red, though very little 
colour remains. No traces of hair, except a little red colour, 
are visible on neck or shoulders. On the feet are sandals 
painted red. The figure holds a rectangular writing-case or 
diptych on his knees with a flap hanging down in front and 
two side-flaps. A white rim is left on the surface over the 
flaps and the rest of the interior is coloured red. The left 
hand holds the case at one inner corner, the right is laid upon 
it at the other. The muscles of the chest and stomach are 
shewn in a conventional way. The outline of knees and legs 
is good, but the treatment is dry and hard and without life. 
The execution and surface-finish are good. For discussion 
of the type cf. No. 629. 

Studniczka, A.M., 1886, p. 358, No. 4; Lechat, Sc. 
p. 67; Lepsius, p. 74. 

145. Statue of WARRIOR. 

Found in 1883, E. of Parthenon. 
Parian marble. 
H. '63m. 




Missing head, raised right arm from 
mid-biceps, lowered left arm from below 
shoulder, left leg from a little below 
knee, right leg from top of thigh. 

Put together from two pieces, main 
fragment and left knee. 

On the left shoulder is the right hand 
of another figure, which is thought to 
be represented by the small fragment 
immediately following. 

37O. Part of BEARDED HEAD with the throat grasped by 


The scale is the same as that of the 
last figure, and the two hands are treated 
similarly. It is therefore practically 
certain that the complete group repre- 
sented a warrior fighting with a giant. 
The beard of the latter was once blue 
with vertical incisions, and was raised 
above the face like the beard of the 
Moschophoros No. 624. The hair was 
red, and the eyelids outlined in black. A hole on the top 
of the head served probably for fastening a helmet. The fore- 
head is deeply wrinkled, probably for the sake of expression 
as on the centaurs of the Olympian pediment, and the ridge 
at the corner of the eye is to be compared with the Moscho- 
phoros. Taken by itself, the head seems much more archaic 
than the torso, but if it represents a centaur or giant, that 
is not unsuitable. 

The torso clearly belongs to a warrior advancing to his 
left with a raised spear in the right hand and with the left 
grasping the throat of his opponent, who must be bent back 


in a crouching position like the giant in Gerhard, Au&erl. 
VasenbildeT) pi. vi., where Athena takes the place of the 

The right hand of the opponent rests on the left shoulder 
of the warrior in supplication before the impending spear- 
thrust. The left leg is a little forward, and the body swung 
to the right to strike. The treatment is hard and dry, 
as the figure is very slim and tall and the muscles flat and 
ridgy. The abdominal muscles above the navel are out- 
lined by a roughly grooved square with a central cross. 
The angle of the external oblique is slight. The navel is 
a raised button under an arched fold of flesh; the glutei 
have lateral depressions ; and the back is carefully modelled. 
The three divisions of the torso measure '07m., "-11 m., and 
*09 m., and the pubes is shewn by pointed chisel marks. 

The statue is from the Perserschutt, and therefore pre- 
Persian in date. We should perhaps see here another small 
copy of part of the marble pediment group like the Athena 
No. 293. In this case we have the deity on Athena's right 
with his giant antagonist, a group of which all save the feet 
has disappeared. The broad shoulders and narrow hips 
remind one of the archaic Apollo type, but its great height 
and the rather curious modelling suggest foreign influence. 
Delbriick compares it with No. 692 and ascribes it to his 
Parian school, but really the proportions are quite different 
and the treatment much harder and more muscular. The 
proportions of the three divisions of the torso, and the great 
size of the pectoral muscles suggest early influence from 
the Peloponnese, but the great height is borrowed from else- 
where. Taking into consideration the archaic face of the 
giant, we must attribute the group to a very eclectic artist. 
Schrader on the other hand sees in the group a struggle 
of Theseus and Prokrustes (cf. Klein, Euphronios, p. 194, 
and Museo Italiano di antichitd class.,, in. fig. 3), and gives 
the hero a mace rather than a spear. 

Mylonas, 'E<. 'A^., 1883, p. 45, No. 26; Lepsius, p. 71, 
No. 41; Studniczka, A.M., 1886, p. 193, note 3; Delbriick, 
A.M., 1900, p. 386, pi. xvi. 1 ; B.-B., No. 546 (right); Lechat, 
Sc. Att., p. 404, fig. 34; L. Curtius, Uber einen Apottokopfm 
Florenz, p. 12; Schrader, Arch. Harm., p. 62, figs. 5255. 



146. Statuette of A SCRIBE. 

Found 1836. 
Pentelic marble. 
H. -30 m. (seat -21 m.). 
Missing head and all body down to 

The statuette is identical with No. 
144 save that the diptych is thinner so 
that the left hand can grasp the whole 
of the inner corner. The right hand 
seems to be actually writing, and there 
is a hole through it for the stylus. The 
garment shews more folds on the shins 
and less on the thighs. The colour scheme is the same, 
but the left side of the seat is left rough and uncoloured. 
For discussion of the type cf. No. 629. 

Furtwangler, A.M., vi. 1881, p. 179; Lepsius, p. 74; 
Lechat, Sc. Att., p. 267; Ross, Arch. Aufiatze> i. iii.; Scholl, 
Mitth. aus Griechenland, p. 27, No. 16 ; Sybel, No. 5090. 

148. Fragment of EQUESTRIAN STATUE. 

Island marble. 
H. -41m. L. -53m. 
Missing (horse)head, 
legs, left shoulder, sur- 
face of hind-quarters and 
part of right flank, sup- 
port under belly. 

(man) body above hips, 
legs below centre of calf, 
back of right thigh. 

The horsXhas a mane 
similar to the second 
fragment in the outer court with white locks raised on a red 
ground. The neck is very much arched, curving right back 
in front. The main muscles are treated in a traditional way. 
Under the belly was a support which is broken away. The 
rider had his hands on his thighs ; the legs are well rounded 
but he sits too high above the horse like No. 690. The style 
in general approximates to the second courtyard fragment. 



Of the three statues, 148, 4119, and the courtyard statue 
B, all of which belong to a similar type quite distinct from 
the type marked by 606 and the other courtyard statue, this 
is clearly the most archaic, and in a chronological series would 
come next after the primitive Attic statue, No. 690. Cf. p. 51 
where it is suggested that 148, 4119, and B are Ionian work. 

Winter, Jb., vm. (1893), p. 140, No. 10; Lepsius, p. 73, 
No. 48 ; Lechat, B.C.H., 1889, p. 148. 

159, 4O7, 447, 488, 3526, 3533, 3535. NIXE(?). 

Parian marble. 
H. -56 m. 

Put together by Schrader 
from seven pieces. 

Remains of a figure on a 
plinth in a running attitude. 
The right foot, except for the 
toes, and parts of the body are 
restored in plaster. The body 
above the waist and the left 
leg from above the knee to the 
toes are missing. The right 
side is damaged and hacked 

The figure is clad in Ionic 
himation without chiton, and strides forward with left leg 
advanced and both knees bent. The legs are bare to the 
knee, and the himation folds are gathered together in two 
places, between the legs in front and on the right hip. The 
fastening was on the left shoulder. The legs are in profile, 
the body in three-quarter view. The feet are of the earlier 
Ionian type with big toe longest, and long and thin like those 
of No. 631. The himation folds are somewhat formal, but 
shew traces of the drill, and the zigzag folds are raised in 
the middle. There was a stripe round the hanging border, 
and a maeander on the front trapv^rj. 

The interpretation as a Nike depends on the resemblance 
to the ordinary attitude of Nike figures (cf. Nos. 690, 691, 
693, 694), and the baring of the lower legs, a usual feature 
for lesser divinities. At the same time it is curious that the 



feet are not represented clear of the ground in ordinary Nike- 
fashion, while the statue is supported by the hanging cfrapery. 

In execution the figure belongs to a fully developed 
period, probably later than 510 B.C., and the sense of motion 
and symmetry is admirably imparted to the drapery. The 
feet, however, shew that it is earlier than the period of Pelo- 
ponnesian influence. 

Schrader, Arch. Marm., p. 49, figs. 42, 43. 


probably little before 480. 

Parian marble. 

160. H. -275 m. 
without plinth. 

Plinth -03 -04m. 
Width -26 m. 

Foot Length -14 

'l68. H. -165 m. 
without plinth. 

Plinth -03m. 

Foot Length -16 

Remains of two 
figures in symmetrical 
positions crouching 
with one foot flat on 
ground, and the other 
leg doubled at the 
knee. At the sides 
are folds of the hima- 
tion hanging from the 
shoulders. That of 160 
is red, that of 168 

The feet and leg are 
beautifully carved and 
finished and the group 
belongs to the finest 
period of archaic art, 


Semicircular holes are cut in the plinths to admit of the 
insertion of another object in the centre. The similar figure 
on the throne of the priest of Dionysos in the theatre suggests 
that the figures might be cock-fighting, but Schrader presents 
an alternative theory that two heroes are represented playing 
chess or dice before a figure of Athena, a common subject 
on b. f. vases. He supplies the Athena No. 142 as the other 
figure. But although both figures come from similar groups 
it is dubious if they can belong to the same group as the 
sizes of the feet are different. If they are separated, the 
argument for two opposite figures is weaker, and they may 
be single cock-fighters. The style and execution certainly 
seem superior to that of the Athena, and are indeed unsur- 
passed by anything in the museum. It may also be objected 
to the chess-playing theory, that the heroes on the vases are 
usually seated, and are armed, with only one exception 
(Hartwig, Meisterschalen, p. 277, fig. 39). For instances of 
chess-playing heroes, cf. B. M. Cat. ofVases^ n. p. 27, fig. 35; 
Reinach, Repertoire des Vases Peints> n. p. 98 ; Gerhard, Ant. 
VasenUldei*) in. pis. 195, 919; Hartwig, Meisterschalen^ p. 
224, pi. xxvm. A cock-fighting scene is shewn in Daremberg 
and Saglio, Dictionna/ire, i. p. 180, and on the chair of the 
priest of Dionysos (Beule, Rev. Arch., 1862, pi. xx. p. 349). 

Schrader, Arch. Maivn., p. 67, figs. 56 60. 


Found before 1881. 

Parian marble. 

H. -Mm. (footstool -03m.). 

Missing body above hips, 
front of feet. 

The throne is represented by 
a square block of stone (H. 102 
ITU) with faded colours on it 
which shewed the distinction of 
seat and legs from background. 
The legs were apparently red 
with green stars above and green 
palmette decorations below. The seat is yellow, with a 
yellow cross-bar connecting the legs lower down, and the 



figure sits on a green cushion. The space between the legs 
representing the background is dark. 

The figure is clad in a red garment with a green border 
and broad green irapvfyr). It shews no folds, and fits 
tightly round the legs, spreading out on the seat behind. 
Two holes on the sides of the thighs probably served for 
the insertion of the lower arms. The figure is quite rigid, 
and shews a slight hollow between the legs, which are well 
rounded. The rudeness of execution is due rather to the 
small size and inferior artist, as the scheme of decoration is 


Pentelic marble. 
H. -65m. 

Missing body above waist behind, 
and top of thighs in front, arms except 
fingers of left hand, lees below knees 
except back of left cal 

The figure seems to have been clad 
in ordinary Ionic costume with himation 
fastened on the left shoulder. There is 
no Trapv^tj. The left hand holds the 
folds together on the left thigh, with 
the thumb and two fingers extended. 
The drapery hangs in flat folds, and 
is quite smooth behind. There is a 
green maeander border on the himation, 
from which the colour has almost entirely disappeared. The 
figure is thin and rigid, and the forms shew clearly through 
the drapery. The fingers are long and narrow, and very 
carefully worked. 

The marble betrays the Attic origin of the figure, but its 
stiffness and unmeaning drapery point to a very early origin, 
probably the work of a sculptor imitating Ionic dress without 
very sure knowledge, as in the case of No. 678. It is clearly 
earlier than the Chiot figures. Nos. 671 and 685 shew the 
type of drapery which the artist was imitating. 
Schroder, Arch. Marm., p. 81, figs. 27, 28. 



293, 452. Torso of ATHENA. 

Parian marble. 
H. -475 m. 

Missing head and neck, left arm 
from mid-biceps, right arm, shoulder, 
and part of breast and side, section of 
body at waist, right leg from knee, left 
leg from above knee. 

Damaged chest and neck much 
blackened and edges calcined by fire. 
Put together from two pieces joined 
by a band of plaster at the waist. 

The goddess advances to her left like 
the Athena of the Gigantomachy pedi- 
ment, with left arm extended towards 
an antagonist. The right arm is raised 
and must have held a spear in a mena- 
cing position. The left shoulder is lower, and the body leans 
forward from the waist. The motion however is badly ex- 
pressed, for the legs are stiff and unbent, and the folds do 
not hang vertically. The head was turned towards the left 

The costume consists of Ionic chiton, himation, and 
aegis. The chiton appears as a smooth surface on the left 
breast and shoulder, and the himation was apparently 
fastened on the right shoulder only like the KoraL Its top 
is hidden by the slanting triangular aegis which follows the 
same line across the body. The lower border of the aegis 
has a fringe of curling snakes. The himation follows the 
ordinary Ionic scheme with 7rapv<f>ri between the legs. No 
colour is preserved. 

The hair falls behind in a square mass of eight zigzag 
locks, and in three wavy locks on the left shoulder, four on 
the right. The modelling is clumsy, particularly of the 
bosom, and the right side of the body is much thicker than 
the left, a feature observable also in the prostrate giant 
No. 141, which clearly forms the other member of this 
group from its similarity in scale, material, and style. The 
group is a small copy of the central pair of the Giganto- 
machy pediment. Schrader has lately added to the torso the 



head No. 658, which shews similar workmanship and similar 
traces of damage by fire. 

Schrader, Arch. Marm., p. 60, fig. 49. 


Pentelic marble. 

H. 18m. 

Back broken away, surface 
below eyes weathered away. 

Head of later type with oval 
eyes between thict lids. 

The hair is in a fringe of 
spirals in two rows, and is con- 
fined by a thin ring round the 
head. On this ring side coils 
fall, passing over the ears. At 
the back a handkerchief covers 
the hair. The head was not 
found in the Perserschutt^ and 
must have had a long exposure 
to the weather. This fact com- 
bined with the unique coiffure and the later eyes suggests 
that it is archaistic and belongs to a much later period. 


Found S.E. of Acropolis in 1865. 
Parian marble. 
H. -315 m. 

Missing head, left hand and wrist, 
right arm and point of shoulder, body 
from waist downwards. 

Put together from two pieces most 
of the left arm and the rest of the torso. 
The figure is upright and faces full 
to the front. The right arm was raised, 
probably high above the shoulder, though the pectoral muscle 
is not affected, while the left arm hung by the side. The 
modelling is careful but dry and hard. A sharp ridge denotes 
the collar-bone, but the pectorals are better worked. The 
oval line of the false ribs is shewn, and a faint vertical groove 




down the centre of the abdomen, but the transverse folds and 
all signs of the ribs are omitted. The deltoids are outlined 
and the hollow of the backbone well shewn. The work is 
clearly of Attic type and earlier than either 692 or 698. The 
general pose suggests the figure of Harmodios, and we might 
suppose the torso a fragment of a small copy of the original 
group of the tyrannicides by Antenor. Schrader however 
has identified fragments of the legs in an unextended position 
(No. 8611). 

The statue is probably to be ascribed to the new school 
of Antenor which first began to study athletic art in Athens. 

Brunn, Decharme, and Pervanoglu, EvJl. deTT Inst., 1864, 
p. 85; Sybel, No. 5102; Furtwangler, A.M., v. p. 25. 

Part of small SEATED FIGURE. 

Island marble. 

H. -344 in. 

Missing head, whole of right 
side from centre of body, legs, 
front of left lower arm, left 

Damaged drapery on left 
side and back. 

Put together from two pieces 
joining below the breast. 

To this belongs the fragment 
immediately following. 



Island marble. 

H. '45 m. (including plinth '04 m.) ; width *9 m. ; 
broken away behind. The footstool is '165 m. wide, '12 m. 
-135 m. high, and -165 m. deep. 

The marble and the scale of the two fragments are 
identical, and in both the whole of the chiton is covered 
with a bright blue colour of an unusually bright shade. 



The figure is seated upright 
in a stiff attitude, with the feet 
close together. The left arm 
rests on the thigh. The cos- 
tume consists of Ionic chiton 
and himation. The chiton has 
a Jcolpos which is pulled up in 
the centre like No. 620 to shew 
a red girdle. It has crinkly 
folds above and vertical folds 
below with a irapvcfrij between 
the legs. The whole surface is 
coloured bright blue, and the 
shews a light maeander on a yellow ground. Only 
a ridge separates chiton from neck. The himation is worn 
like a shawl over both shoulders and covers the left arm. It 
is shewn by wide shallow folds, and has a red stripe on the 
border. The red stain near the neck comes from the hair. 
Sandals are worn. 

No hair appears, as there were no shoulder locks, and it 
was covered by the himation behind. 

The throne is solid, and like that of No. 620. The legs 
are only distinguished by relief, and by the red colour of 
the central part. The decoration of the feet is picked out 
in green. A horizontal dark stripe represents the original 
level, up to which the figure was inserted in its base. The 
footstool is hollowed out in front between its legs, and painted 
red like the central part of the throne. Red colour also 
appears on its upper surface. 

The toes are not completely separated, but the feet are 
carefully modelled. The bosom too is good, but the general 
appearance is a little stiff and the kolpos recalls No. 620. 
There is no use of the drill. These facts and the unusual 
amount of surface covered with colour suggest an early origin, 
somewhere between Nos. 620 and 618. It is probably an 
early imported statue. 

Lechat, Au Mus., p. 170, fig. 14. 

356. Island marble. 

H. '25 m. with plinth *04 m. high. 



Back foot of a figure 
moving in profile to 
the right 3 clad in a 
chiton with TrapvQrf 
like the charioteer No. 
1342, and treated in 
the same style. The 
slab is broken away 
behind, but it clearly 
belongs to the same 
frieze, cf. p. 275. 


Found in 1887, E. of Erech- 

Pentelic marble (?) 

H. -13m. 

Missing body above hips, 
front of feet. 

The fragment stands on a 
small plinth, and is clad in the 
usual Ionic costume of which 
only the skirts are visible, held 
up by the left hand in the usual 
way. A red stripe and a mae- 
ander pattern are visible round 
the hanging border of the hi- 

Petersen, A. M., 1887, p. 

43 1 . PLINTH. 

Parian marble. 

L. -19m. (foot -075m.). 

Plinth witih advanced left foot of male figure and part of 
right foot drawn back. Both are flat on the ground. There 
are also the four paws of an animal, probably a dog, on 



the left side of the human feet. A 
sloping hole is visible between the 
dog's fore-paws, and there are two 
holes through the plinth in front of 
the man^s left foot for the purpose of 
fastening it to a base. The foot is 
long but not narrow, and the length 
of the second toe points to a con- 
vention later than the marble pedi- 
ment, and probably due to Pelopon- 
nesian influence. 

449. Island marble. 

H. -25 m. 

Fragment of a female 
figure shewing four locks 
of hair and a sceptre or 
perhaps a hand holding 
a sceptre (?) in profile 
to the left with appar- 
ently a himation on the 
right shoulder. Schrader 
connects this fragment 
with the same frieze as 
Nos. 1342, 1343, etc. 
The style appears to be 
rather different from the frieze, but it might possibly belong. 

493. Cf. p. 262. 


Pentelic marble. 

H. (leg) -175 m. 

Plinth L. -38m.,Br. -24m., 
Th. -04 m. 

Length of foot *18 m. 

Inserted big toe of left foot. 

The feet, of later type with 
second toe longest, both rest 
flat on the ground, the left ad- 
vanced and turned to the left. The figure was male, and 


probably turned to the left. The work is very good, but the 
surface has not received the final polish. The interpretation 
of the figure is probably provided Iby No. 571, where a horse's 
fore leg is seen in front of the left foot. The attitude there- 
fore was of a man standing in front of a horse and holding 
it by the bridle. The plinth is broken and the horse has 
disappeared. No. 697 shews the horse belonging to such a 
group, and thus we have parts of three groups of a similar 
type. The style seems to be rather more archaic than Nos. 
697 or 571. 

552, 554. LEOPARD. 

Hymettan marble. 
H>50m. JLMOm. 

In two pieces whose 
connection is certain 
from identity of scale, 
material, and tech- 

Missing head, left 
fore paw, and section of body in centre. 

The leopard is in a couchant position facing right. The 
fore paws rest on a rough support which was inserted into a 
basis. The hinder part was made in a separate piece, and 
dove-tailed on to the forepart. Two small holes mark the 
position of rivets. There is no support under the hind legs, 
but two larger holes shew that the beast was fastened to a 
background. Traces of an iron stay are also visible at the 
back of the neck. 

From the character of the supports and the iron stay, 
Schrader has ingeniously suggested that this leopard and the 
existing fragments of another one (Nos. 551 and 553) formed 
a pair of akroteria on the roof of the oldest Athena temple. 
C also Nos. 122 and 701. 

The style of the carving is flat and primitive ; the spots 
are shewn by incised circles cut with a kind of drill. The 
outer and inner circles were distinguished by colour, though 
none now remains. The technique of dove-tailing the two 
pieces and the use of quite thin slabs of marble are curious. 

D. 8 


Schrader attributes these peculiarities to the influence of 

Schrader, Arch. Marm., p. 10, fig. 8. 


Parian marble. 
H. -385 m. 
Length of feet '14 m. 
Plinth L. -47 m., 
Br. -18 -19 m., Th. 

The feet are in a 
similar position to those 
of No. 499, but with the 
left foot rather more 
advanced and the right 
rather more turned to 
the left On the right a horse's fore leg is shewn pawing the 
ground. This is in the same attitude as the fore leg of No. 697, 
but is on a rather smaller scale, and is not so carefully worked. 
The back heel is raised from the ground, and supported, like 
the horse's hoof, by a small red basis. The modelling of the 
horse's leg is inferior to No. 697, but doubtless the motive 
of all three groups is the same, a man holding a horse by 
the bridle like one of the figures in the centre of the W. 
frieze of the Parthenon. 

Schrader, Arch. Marm^ p. 84, fig. 76. 


Hymettan marble. 

H. -49m. 

Missing back of head, muzzle, and legs. 

The head is turned over the left shoulder. The mane is 
shewn by a raised surface left flat for the application of colour. 
The surviving dark paint was once a bright blue. The breast- 
collar is in relief, and is divided by incisions into three bands 
once distinguished by colour. The bridle is merely shewn by 
incised lines and must once have been painted. " The head 


consists of three planes whose angles 
are hardly rounded. The chest muscles 
and the eye are quite conventional, the 
latter being an incised circle with two 
lines joining it like the eyes on early 
Attic vases. The back of the body 
is broken off from the background into 
which it was originally inserted by 
means of a tenon. 

576. FOREPART OF HORSE. Similar to 575. 

Hymettan marble. 

H. -35m. 

Head and legs missing. 

Rough at the back and sides. The 
breast-collar is larger and once had five 
bands. No colour left even on the 

Hymettan marble. 
H. -22m. 
Turned over the right shoulder and only worked on the 



left side. The mane is left 
rough for the application of 
colour but none has survived. 
The front of the head, like 
that of 575, is one flat plane. 
The eye has the same conven- 
tional form. The bridle is simi- 
larly incised, and a hole shews 
where the bit was inserted in 

579. Upper part of HORSED HEAD. 

Hymettan marble. 
H. -aSBm. 

Same scale. Very rough treatment. 
The head is turned in the same direction 
but is much less carefully worked. 


Hymettan marble. 
H. -20 m. 

Turned over left shoulder like No. 575 
and worked on right side only. It is the 
counterpart of No. 578, and belongs to 
the torso No. 576. No colour preserved. 
These fragments clearly come from a 
relief-group representing a TeOpiirTros. 
The sides of the horses are rough and 
damaged, so that their respective positions in the group 
cannot be determined. They projected from the background 
of the relief on which the chariot and driver would be 
portrayed. This might be a metope or small pediment. 


A similar treatment is to be observed in the fragment of a 
horse from the pediment of the Apollo temple at Delphi. 
Cf. B.C.H., 1901, pp. 47480, fig. 5, pis. xiv., xv. 

The style is very primitive, and the material used, 
Hymettan marble, points to the earliest period of Attic art. 
Cf. Introd. p. 17. 

Winter, Jb., 1893, pp. 136, 147; Lechat, Sc. Att., p. 124, 
note 1; Pavlovski, pp. 253, 54, figs. 88, 89; Homolle, B.C.H., 
xxv., 1901, pp. 476, 477, figs. 2 4. 

577. Relief. 


Two pieces on left hand 
found 30 years ago in house 
behind Erechtheum. Right- 
hand piece found before 1878. 
Pentelic marble. 
H. -575m. Br. '385m., with 
small plinth projecting "024m, 
and '078 m. high. 

Missing head, and lower left 
arm of Athena, head and left 
shoulder of worshipper. Put 
together from three pieces. 

Athena stands on left facing 
right on right foot, with left 
drawn back but flat on ground, 
left arm raised and leaning 
probably on a painted spear. Her right hand is extended 
towards a worshipper, who sits facing her on a chair with 
back, arms, and footstool. His left arm hangs by his side 
and the right is extended towards Athena. He appears to 
be handing her something. Between them is a table with 
only one leg carved, the others depending on paint, and with 
a round flat object resting on it. 

The goddess wears Ionic chiton, himation and aegis. The 
chiton falls in wavy folds and hangs round her feet, which 
are shod with sandals. The himation is fastened once on the 
left shoulder and has no overfall. The aegis covers both 
shoulders. The worshipper has a garment wrapped round 


his lower limbs, and is naked above the waist. His body 
seems to have been painted red all over, an unusual circum- 
stance for a marble relief. Red appears also on the chair, 
and on the object resting on the taole. The muscles of the 
man's body are well given, and the attitude of Athena is 
easy and free, resembling No. 695. But there are some 
mistakes in execution, e.g. the impossible length of the 
man's right arm. 

The relief may be later than 480 B.C. Its meaning has 
been largely discussed. Wolters supposed it to be Athena 
Hygieia visiting a sick man, Furtwangler a personification 
of Demos as treasurer of Athena, but the table is not ex 
plained by either theory. It is more probably, as Perdrizet 
suggests, Athena Ergane receiving an offering from a crafts- 
man of some kind. 

Sybel, No. 5013; Martinelli, 320; Schone, Griechische 
Reliefs, pi. xix., No. 83 ; Furtwangler, AM., m. 1878, p. 
184 ; v. 1880, p. 24 ; vi. 1881, p. 178 ; Friederichs-Wolters, 
No. 117 ; Lepsius, p. 75, No. 71 ; Perdrizet, Melanges Perrot, 
p. 261, fig. 2 ; Lechat, Sc. Ait., p. 300. 

581. Relief. 


Found E. of Par- 
thenon in 1883. 
Island marble. 
Height (as restored) 
665m. Breadth -655m. 
above, '64 m. below. 
Thickness '08 m. 

A small plinth pro- 
jects below, -04m. high, 
and '005 m. projecting. 
Missing right leg 
of Athena below knee, 
parts of drapery held 

in her left hand and 

hanging behind, small 
boys from below waist. Male worshipper from waist upwards, 


female from shoulders upwards with raised hands. Put 
together from five pieces. 

On the left stands Athena facing right with left leg 
advanced, holding up the folds of her drapery high in the 
left hand and with the right bent across the body. The 
fourth finger of the hand is extended, the rest closed. She 
is clad in Ionic chiton and himation worn in the usual way, 
with the latter fastened on the right shoulder. The hanging 
ends are curved outwards in the manner imitated on Graeco- 
Roman archaistic reliefs. She has no aegis, but wears a 
helmet with a crest painted on the background. A fringe 
of spirals represents the hair on the forehead, four wavy locks 
appear on the right shoulder, and one is visible on the left. 
A horizontally divided mass falls on the back. The head is 
very high at the back, the eye is shewn in full face and is of 
the protruding Ionic type, the lips are thick, and the lower 
part of the face recedes at a sharp angle from the line of fore- 
head and nose. The bare foot is long and archaic, and all the 
contours of the body large and soft. 

In front of Athena to the right stand two small boys 
shewn by a double profile. The further figure has the right 
hand raised, and an offering, left for paint, in the left, the 
nearer one a disc-shaped object in the right hand and the 
left broken away. They have short hair and eyes shewn full 
face. Further on the right is a male figure wrapped in a 
himation with right foot advanced ; to his right again 
advances a small girl in Attic costume with right hand raised 
and left by side. Her eye is shewn in front view and her 
mouth sharply curved. Finally comes a female figure with 
right foot advanced and both hands raised. She wears a 
himation like a shawl over her shoulders, and in front is 
visible the long Jcolpos of a chiton shewn by the usual fine 
wavy lines. Her bare feet are long and archaic. In the 
background is visible a large sow, which the worshippers are 
bringing to sacrifice. There is no colour preserved except 
red on the background. 

The whole work shews strong Ionic characteristics, and the 
fact that Island marble is used instead of Pentelic, which is 
usual in the case of the reliefs, points to a foreign origin. 
The Athena in particular is a stylised and elaborate figure 


of Ionic style in quite the manner of archaistic reliefs. At the 
same time the presence of a girl in Attic dress shews that the 
relief was made for the Attic market, and therefore prohahly 
hy an Ionian resident in Athens. 

Mylonas, 'E<. 'Ap X ., 1883, p. 42, No. 19; Stais, 'E0. 
'Ap%., 1886, p. 179, pi. ix. ; Botticher, Akropolis, pi. ix. ; 
B.-B., pi. xvn A; Lepsius, p. 71, No. 48; Collignon, i. 
p. 379, fig. 196; Perrot, vni. p. 681, fig. 314; Lechat, Sc. 
Att., p. 283. 


Kastriotis says of 582 587 that they 
were found on the north wall of the 
Acropolis. In that case the date of 
their discovery was 1886-7. 

Pentelic marble. 

H. -53 m. 

Lower part of xoanon on round plinth 
055 m. high. 

The fragment is rectangular in sec- 
tion with rounded corners and is only 
smoothed in front and on the right 
side. The drapery is quite flat except 
for three folds on each side. The feet 
protrude shod in sandals from the front. 
There is no trace of colour. The figure 
is of the most primitive type, and 
belongs to the earliest period of Attic art. Cf. Introd. p. 15. 

Pentelic marble. 

H. -20m. 

Missing head, left shoulder, body from hips downwards, 
back of right shoulder and arm. 

Clad in simple Attic peplos with girdle. The vertical 
stripe represents the end of the girdle. The right arm is 
bent across the body, and the hand holds an offering 
(originally painted) on the bosom. A long veil hangs down 
the back. Very primitive work. No folds of drapery in 


front, and the arms not separated from the body. Cf. 
Introd. p. 15. 


Found before 184& 
Island marble. 
H. '18 m. 

Missing head, body below 
waist, right arm, left lower arm 
and piece of upper arm. 

The figure is clad in Ionic 
chiton and epiblema without 
himation. The chiton is shewn 
by fine wavy lines, and the epi- 
blema by thick wavy folds. It 
is thrown over the left shoulder, 
round body at back, under right arm, across body and wound 
round outstretched left arm. The hair falls in a mass behind 
divided into squares, and in four locks cut with a double 
zigzag (above and at each side) on each shoulder. The left 
arm was extended and probably also the right, which was 
inserted by means of a dowel in a hole stiff visible. 

The work is careful and stylised and belongs to a de- 
veloped period of art. The bosom is well de 



Lechat, A.M., p. 18; Lebas-Waddington, Voy. Arch., 
Mons. figures, pi. m. 2 ; Lepsius, p. 69, No. 18 ; Sybei, No. 
5049; Friederichs-Wolters, No. 114; Miffler-SchoU, Arch. 
Mitt, aus Griech., p. 25, No. 9. 


Island marble. 

EL -54 m. 

Missing head, right arm, left side 
and arm from below elbow, legs from 
below knees. 

Wears Ionic chiton on which traces of 
green are visible, girt round waist, but 
quite without folds and fitting tightly 
to the body. Above it is a himation 
thrown over the shoulders like a shawl 
and decorated with a red border. The 
right arm was extended at right angles, 
while the left hung close by the side. 
The hair falls in a plain mass behind 
with a semicircular edge below and in 
three smooth wavy locks on each shoulder. 
The work relied for its effect largely on colour. 
Lechat, Au MILS., p. 170. 

586. FEMALE FIGURE in relief. 

Pentelic marble. 

H. -21m. Depth of relief 
075 m. 

Missing head, body below 
hips, left hand, part of left 
lower arm, and right lower arm 
much damaged. 

In high relief against a back- 
ground '04 m. to *05 m. thick. 

Wears Attic peplos with 
overfall covering the left arm, 
and himation on right shoulder. 
The garments are not properly 

understood. The himation should not be shewn on one 
shoulder only, and the overfall is too far round on the left 


arm. The peplos is girded at the waist, and the ends of 
the girdle hang down in front. The right arm is bent in 
front of the body, and the left is extended towards the side. 
Four plain locks of hair fall on each shoulder, and a mass 
behind. Schrader connects it with 587, and suggests that 
it forms part of a relief of a dancing group of Graces. 

The work is very primitive and rough. It belongs to the 
earliest period of Attic art. Cf. Latrod. p. 15. 

Lechat, Au Mus., fig. 18, p. 186. 

587. FEMALE FIGURE in relief. 

Pentelic marble. 

H. *#1 m. , background '055 m. 
thick, relief depth -066 m., base 

Lower part from above knees 
of herm-like figure in relief, 
dressed in long chiton and hi- 
mation with feet protruding. 
Practically rectangular with 
front corners rounded off. 

It clearly belongs to a figure 
similar to No. 586, though it 
does not actually fit the latter. We have thus two of the 
three female figures of an archaic group of Charites. Cf. 
Introd. p. 15. 


Island marble. 

H. -17 m. 

Missing head, right arm and side, 
left arm from below elbow, body below 
waist. Much damaged and calcined by 

The figure wears an Ionic wavy chiton, 
with himation in large flat folds over 
both shoulders. The hair is shewn in a 
flat semicircular mass behind with three wavy locks on each 
shoulder. Ordinary Ionic work. 




Island marble. 
H. -46m. 

Missing head, feet, and small section 
of legs. Arms and hands damaged. 

In two pieces divided at mid-thighs. 
The figure wears a flat Attic girded 
peplos, and himation like a shawl over 
both shoulders and down the back in 
heavy flat folds. The peplos is red, 
and the himation has a red and green 
border. The right arm is bent across 
the breast, and doubtless held an offer- 
ing ; the left hangs by the side and 
slightly in front. The hair hangs in 
a square mass behind with horizontal 
incisions, and in three beaded locks on 
each shoulder. The statue is of the primitive xoanon type, 
cut in four planes which are rounded at the corners. There 
is no division between the breasts or the legs, and the front 
is almost absolutely flat. Cf. Introd. p. 15. 
Lechat, Au Mus., p. 186, fig. 17. 

590. Fragments of EQUESTRIAN STATUE. 

Found W. ofErech- 
theum in 1886. 

Parian marble. 

H. -815m. 

Put together from six 
or more pieces compri- 
sing part of neck and 
chest of horse, and torso 
of rider to the middle 
of the thighs without 
the head or arms. The 
right hand, which has 
been added by Schrader, 
is visible on the right 

The stomach muscles 


of the rider resemble those of the Moschoph&ros (No. 624) 
in their artificial regularity, and shew the early date of the 
work. The treatment of the rest of the hody is very slight. 
The position also of the thighs, raised high above the back 
of the horse instead of gripping it, is impossible in reality. 
The muscles of the horse are quite conventional. The horse's 
mane is divided into two parallel fringes, like those of the 
Parthenon pediments. A hole at the base of the neck on the 
right side served to fasten the reins, and a corresponding hole 
in the rider's hand shews their further attachment. No traces 
of colour. The date of this statue is evidently before the 
influence of Ionia. Cf. Introd. p. 50. 

Mus. tfAih., xn. 1; W. Miller, J./.J., n., 1886, p. 62, 
No. 5; Sophoulis, 'E<. 'Ap % ., 1887, pi. n. 1-2, p. 40; Winter, 
J6., vm., 1893, pp. 137-8, fig. 7, and 147-8; Pavlovski, 
p. 89, fig. 18; Perrot, vm. p. 635, fig. 325; Lechat, Sc. AtL, 
p. 112; Lepsius, p. 73, No. 47; E. Gardner, p. 177. 


Found in 1888, S.W. of Parthenon. 

Naxian marble. 

H. -43 m. Diam. (above) '65 m., (below) -75 m. H. of 
base 12m. 

From feet to waist the figures measure -28 m. 

Put together from five pieces, and five other pieces of the 
figures have been joined on. 

The base consists of a round slab with the upper edge cut 


off by a slightly curved moulding, on which stand six female 
figures leaning back and supporting a large bowl, of which 
some fragments with remains of an inscription are preserved 
in the magazines of the museum. 

The female figures are quite stiff and square, wearing a 
single garment girt at the waist, which is shewn by heavy 
vertical folds in front, but is smooth at the sides and back. 
In the wall-case in Room IV. are other fragments, on one of 
which we can see the hair falling in a mass on the back and 
in three locks on each shoulder with horizontal incisions. 
Above the waist the garment is shewn by V-shaped incisions, 
and it seems to have short sleeves. It is in fact a simple 
sleeved chiton without Jcolpos. The feet are quite flat with 
incisions to separate the toes. 

Both material and style connect this base with the 
Naxian figures Nos. 619 and 677. Although we have here a 
work of less care and finish, the same rectangular xocunon- 
like figure is to be seen and the same heavy vertical folds 
completely hiding the figure. The material too is so rare as 
to point to a Naxian origin. 

Wolters, AM., 1888, p. 440; Lechat, B.C.H., 1889, 
p. 14$; E. Gardner, J.H.S., 1889, p. 265; Frothingham, 
A.J.A., 1889, p. 94; Lepsius, p. 66, No. 3; Sauer, A.M., 
1892, p. 41, No. 24, pi. vii.; Joergensen, p. 33, pi. vn. 1, 2; 
Schneider, Verh. der 40 Phil (Gorlitzer) Versamml, p. 355. 


Found E. of Erechtheum in 1887. 

Pentelic marble. 

H. 1-01 m. 

Missing head and feet. 

Clad in Attic chiton and peplos, with overfall shewing 
a red maeander border below and red stars, crosses, and 
swastikas in field. Another border of two red stripes ran 
round the neck. Above the peplos is worn a himation flung 
round both shoulders and over both arms like a shawl, with 
red maeander border and crosses in field. The left arm is 
then bent across the body inside the garment, bringing two 
corners, adorned with tassels, together in the front. Two 



folds are shewn by the wrist, 
but no others, and the edge 
over the bosom is omitted 

The himation looks as if it 
was split to admit the passage 
of the right arm, but, as the 
red maeander border pattern 
runs right round, it seems as 
if the artist intended to repre- 
sent the garment as caught up 
at the right elbow, with a seam 
coming down from the shoulder 
to the same place. In that case 
the two tassels should decorate 
the two falls of drapery on each 
side of the right arm, but, as 
a matter of fact they are placed 
together symmetrically with 
the left side, the second tassel 
hanging from an inner fold. 
This arrangement is quite im- 
possible. The sleeve of an 
under-chiton worn under the peplos is visible on the right 
arm. It is divided down the middle and caught together 
with brooches. The peplos is girded and the fringed ends of 
the girdle picked out in green hang down in front. Apart 
from the few folds mentioned and the gathers of the under- 
chiton, the garments are smooth and flat 

The hair is worn in three ringlets on each shoulder with 
a rough zigzag surface, and a square mass horizontally 
divided behind with a separate ringlet on each side of the 

The figure wears a necklace of small oblong ornaments, 
which are painted red. Two pendants on the neck, one 
plain, and one cut like a bunch of grapes, may be earrings. 

The left hand is bent across the body and holds a red 
pomegranate. The right hangs by the side and holds a 
plain wreath. Neither is at all separated from the body. 
The attitude is quite stiif and like a xoanon, without any 



traces of the legs, but the breasts are slightly raised, and 
the contour of the back is shewn. Cf. Introd. p. 15. This 
statue, like Nos. 582, 583, 586, 587, and 589, belongs to the 
earliest period of Attic sculpture. 

Petersen, A.M., xn., 1887, p. 145; J. Harrison, J.H.S., 
ix., 1888, p. 181, fig. 1; Sophoulis, 'E<. 'A/>y., 1891, p. 155, 
pi. XT.; Collignon, i. p. 353, fig. 78; Pavlovski, p. 161 , fig. 46; 
Lechat, Au Mus., pp. 186-8, fig. 19; Lepsius, p. 74, No. 57; 
Perrot, vm., fig. 288; Lermann, pi. I. 


Found E. of Erechtheum in 

Island marble. 
H. 1-23 m. 

Missing head, top of back, 
both arms from elbows, right 
leg from knee, left foot, part 
of left shin. The right arm 
was inserted as a separate piece 
in the same material, and its 
tenon still exists in place. 

This statue also wears drapery 
which is difficult to understand. 
Underneath is the Ionic chiton 
visible on neck and left arm and 
shoulder, and also in the left 
armpit, where the fulness of 
the sleeve projects above the 
cross-belt of the himation. It 
has a green and red maeander 
border round neck and down 
sleeve, and the projecting frag- 
ment has also a green stripe at 
the edge. Over this is a himation, with overfall of ordinary 
Ionic fashion crossing the body from the right shoulder 
and visible under the left arm. It is visible also under the 
right arm behind, and it can be distinguished by a green 
wavy pattern on the border. Over this again is thrown 
like a shawl an additional garment, the epiblema, which 


appears falling over the left shoulder and breast as far as 
the thigh. This passes in wide folds over the shoulders 
behind and covers the right shoulder and arm as far as the 
elbow, concealing the attachment of the himation. The end 
of the epiblema on this side is represented by the curved 
folds between the arm and the body, but it shews no corner 
as it ought to. The long fold of drapery over the right 
breast reaching to the knee and the straight folds under the 
right arm belong to the himation, but on the former for 
some reason the artist has abandoned the wavy patterned 
border of the himation and substituted the border of red and 
green squares which belongs to the epiblema. The irapv^ 
of the himation is decorated with a very complicated and 
delicate large green maeander. 

The hair, red as usual, falls in four locks on each shoulder, 
decorated with double zigzag incisions. Behind it falls in a 
mass of ten waved locks with separated ends. The ends of 
the three inner ringlets on each breast are marked by three 
small holes which originally served for the attachment of 
separate pieces for the extremities. 

The body is displayed clearly under the clinging drapery. 
The muscles of the left knee are carefully distinguished. The 
left leg is advanced and the left arm holds up the gathered 
folds of drapery. The right arm is extended with an offering. 
The hollow between the collar-bones is indicated. The work 
belongs to the period of greatest Ionian delicacy and elabora- 
tion, and the polychrome scheme is well preserved. The drill 
is used throughout. It should be compared with No. 682, 
as the two best examples of imported Ionian art. Cf. Introd. 
p. 21. 

Petersen, A.M., xii., 1887, p. 145, No. 1; Lepsius, p. 68, 
No. 12, fig. 2; Lechat, Au Mus., p. 180, % 16, p. 234; Sc. 
Att., p. 222; Perrot, vni. p. 585, pi. xn.; Lermann, pi. XIH. 


Found E. of Erechtheum in 1887. 

Island marble. 

H. -97m. 

Missing head, right arm, left arm from elbow, feet, 
ankles, and parts of drapery. No colour. 




Clad in ordinary Ionic costume of chiton 
and himation, which moulds the figure 
very closely and shews the calf-muscles 
with great clearness. This statue also 
shews well the series of fine folds which 
run from the fibulae of the himation 
across the right arm and shoulder. The 
front of the statue has been deliberately 
hacked at some period subsequent to its 
erection, probably during the sack of the 
Acropolis, cf. heel of No. 606, and the 
equestrian fragment in the courtyard. 
There are four locks of hair on each 
shoulder, with holes for free-hanging ends 
on the left breast only, but there is no 
mass of hair on the shoulders behind. The figure wears a 
necklace of two rows of pear-shaped ornaments. As usual 
the left foot is extended and the left hand holds the drapery, 
while the right arm is stretched out with the offering. 

Lechat, Au Mus., pp. 198, 236; Petersen, A.M., 1887, 
p. 144, No. 2. 

596. BASE with fragment of inscription. 

49m.x-49m. x'38m. 

An oval plinth '425 m. 
x "25 m. is run in with 
lead. On this stand two 

Island marble plinth 
with Pentelic basis. 

The back foot is broken 
atthe instep and restored 
in plaster. Schrader has 
identified the lower part 
of the left leg in No. 

The two feet are flat 
on the base and are pro- 
bably male, as no drapery 
is visible. They are long and well carved, but the toes are 


not completely separated. The big toe is longest, according 
to early convention, and the nails of trapezoid shape. The 
feet are life-size, and the base belongs without a doubt to 
No. 665. 

Fragments of an inscription are visible on the front of 
the base. 

Schrader, Arch. Marm^ p. 58, fig. 44. 


The greater part was 
found in 1887, S.R of 
Acropolis, the rider's 
torso in 1889. 
Island marble. 
H. '38 m. L. -46 m. 
Missing head, most 
of neck, ends of wings, 
and tail of the monster; 
head, neck, right arm 
and shoulder, left arm 
from below shoulder,feet 
and ankles of the rider, and most of the support. 

Put together from two pieces, the rider's torso having 
been added separately. 

The chest of the monster rests on a marble support, 
oblong in section, in the form of an Ionic pilaster, with the 
capital painted in green. The fore legs were represented as 
pawing the air, and the head was erect, the weight on the 
hind legs. The forepart is that of a horse, with the tail, 
wings, and hind legs of a cock. The mane shews traces of 
dark colour, and the tail and wings of a coloured design to 
indicate feathers. The tail-feathers are further distinguished 
by incisions. The rider sits back with his legs over the wings, 
and his hands on his thighs. The chest is well modelled, but 
shews no muscles, and the stomach only the Imea alba and 
one cross incision. In general style he resembles the rider of 
No. 148. 

The creature is known as a Hippalectryon from various 
passages of Aristophanes (Bvrds 800, Peace 1177, Frogs 932, 
937), usually in connection with the epithet fovflos, explained 



by the scholiast on Peace 1177 c!>9 fyowuca Trrepa 
The same scholiast preserves a phrase from The Myrmidons 
of Aeschylus, %ov6b$ iTT'jraX.eKTpvwv. It is used partly as a 
term of abuse, partly as a mythical animal like a Tragelaphos. 
There are no other sculptural representations, but it is well 
known in vase-paintings (Louvre inventory Nos. 562, 597) ; 
Pottier, Vases antiques du Louvre, pi. LXX., F 100, p. 102,, 
F 104; Gerhard, Tririkschalen, pi. i., and a few others referred 
to in Lechat, An Mus. 9 p. 458), Attic lead tesserae (Posto- 
lakkas, Annali, 1868, pp. 289, 290, Nos. 446, 458; Monument*, 
vin. pi. LIL), and some gems (S. Reinach, Plerres Grav&es, 
pi. xxv., 49 10 and 49 12 ; xxvi., 50 12 , 51 6 , 51 8 , 51 U the type is 
rather altered here). 

Such a composite monster must obviously have had an 
oriental origin, and Aristophanes hints at a derivation from 
Persia (Frogs 937, 8), where the cock was regarded as sacred. 
Unlike such other combinations as the sphinx, centaur, or 
griffin, it obtained no permanent place in Greek art owing to 
its too obvious monstrosity. The statue forms the subject 
of an article by Lechat in the Revue des University du Midi? 
republished in his Au Musee de FAcropok. It clearly belongs, 
to Period II (cf. Introd. p. 34). 

Wolters, A.M., 1887, pp. 265, 6; J. Harrison, J.H.S.+ 
1888, p. 124; Lepsius, p. 72, No. 45, fig. 4; Pavlovski, p. 264, 
fig. 93; Lechat, Revue des UniverslUs du Midi, n., 1896> 
pp. 121130 ; id., Au Mus., p. 453, fig. 47. 


Island marble. 

H. -68m. 

Missing head and neck, left arm from above elbows, 
half right lower arm, front of left foot Part of the plinth 
is preserved. The head and left lower arm were inserted. 
The tenon of the head is still in place. It is noticeable that 
it should be the left and not the right arm that is inserted in 
the case of this statue, since the left is made more naturally 
in one piece with the rest of the statue. This provides us. 
with a good example of breakage and subsequent restoration. 

The figure wears the ordinary Ionic costume and has the 
ordinary pose. The bottom of the hirnation spreads round 



the feet behind, and displays 
no sign of an under-garment. 
It has a green maeander pattern 
on the border, and a green hori- 
zontal stripe half-way down the 
lower legs. The irapvfyr) is de- 
corated in green and red, the 
border of the overfall is red, 
the chiton has a red ground 
and a green maeander border. 

The hair is worn with four 
spiral ringlets on each shoulder, 
and a square mass of parallel 
double zigzag locks behind. It 
is coloured red. The figure 
wears sandals with red straps. 
These are raised in front, but 
merely painted on the left heel. 
The plinth is cut roughly to 
the shape of the figure without 
much margin. 

Very careful and delicate 
work. It is one of the best 

examples of diaphanous drapery, since the muscles of the left 
knee are represented as if entirely uncovered. Lechat has 
compared the statue on this ground with No. 672, but the 
knee of the latter is not nearly so pronounced. There is no 
elaboration of the drapery, but the contours are very full 
and round. 

Lechat, Au Mus., p. 354, fig. 34; Sc. Att., p. 235; 
Lermann, pi. vn. 


Found by N. wall in 1886. 

Island marble. 

H. -57 m. 

Missing head, both arms from below shoulder, legs 
from top of thighs. 

Damaged surface slightly, and the colour is mostly 



Inserted right arm into a square 
socket in the shoulder. It was fastened 
by a pin passed vertically through the 
join. The penis was also inserted. 

The torso is full face towards the 
spectator, but the head is bent towards 
the left shoulder, and the left arm is 
extended in the same direction with the 
right arm bent across the body. The 
weight is on the right leg, and the legs 
would seem to be rather wide apart. 
The torso is in nearly the identical posi- 
tion of the knight No. 4 on the west 
frieze of the Parthenon, who is adjusting the bridle of his 
horse, but the condition of the stomach muscles shews that 
vigorous action is in progress, and therefore the usually 
accepted interpretation is an archer drawing his bow. But 
it would be difficult to shoot in Greek fashion with the torso 
at right angles to the position of the arm. The extended 
legs and tilt of the body would better suit a warrior striking 
with a double axe. 

The figure wears a short close-fitting jerkin shewn by a 
raised line on the stomach but distinguished by paint only 
on the neck. Traces of paint on the right thigh suggest that 
a light chiton was indicated by paint only underneath it. 
There are also three holes, one on each thigh and one just 
above the penis, which were connected with some drapery or 
armour, but their significance is doubtful. The torso is 
short and broad, especially across the shoulders. The muscles 
of the chest and stomach are shewn quite independently of 
the jerkin, even the navel being fully worked. The propor- 
tions of the three divisions are *14 m., '17 m., and *14 m., and 
the treatment is somewhat analogous to the Aeginetan 
pediment. The angle in the external oblique is prominent 
as in the Peloponnesian school of the 5th century, and the 
proportions of height and breadth are un- Attic. It might 
well be Aeginetan in origin and probably dates from the 
middle of the century. 

Kavvadias, Cat. des Mustes tfAih., 1895, p. 105, No. 599; 
B.-B., No. 546 (left) ; Lechat, Sc. Att., p. 456, fig. 39. , 



Found W. of Parthenon in 1882. 
Island marble. 
H. -59 m. 

Missing head and neck, lower right 
arm, left arm, right leg from knee, left 
leg from below knee. 

The head and neck, and the lower 
right arm were inserted in separate 
pieces. The arm was further secured 
by a metal pin run from the outside 
right through mortice and tenon. The 
tenon of the head remains in the socket. 
The figure wears the Ionic chiton and 
himation, but has the latter pinned on 
both shoulders. The position of arms 
and legs follows the usual type. There 
is a green pattern on the irapv^rj of the himation and the 
surface of the chiton is green. This surface is plainly visible 
between the fibulae of the himation on the right arm. Both 
himation and chiton had green borders. The hair falls in 
a semicircular mass behind with curving horizontal waves. 
Three locks fall on each shoulder cut in double zigzags. 
The left knee shews well through the drapery but not so 
clearly as No. 598. Careful work, but the drapery is still 
flat and rather formal, Lechat suggests that it is a direct 
imitation of No. 673. It certainly follows the same type, 
but these two are not unique, as he suggests, in having the 
himation fastened on both shoulders, cf. e.g. 605. 

Mylonas, 'E0. 'A^., 1883, p. 40, No. 1; Lechat, Au 
Mus., p. 176; Sc. AtL, p. 225. 


Found W. of Parthenon in 1882. 

Island marble. 

H. -44m. 

Missing head and neck, left arm, right arm, legs from 
knees. Broken at the waist and pieced together. The right 
arm was inserted separately. 



Clad in Ionic chiton and himation, 
with feet and arms as usual. 

The hair falls in a square mass 
behind with wide horizontal waves, and 
in three locks on each shoulder cut in 
double zigzags. It is coloured red. The 
colour on the drapery has vanished. 

Mvlonas, 'E0. *Apx-> 1883, p. 40, 
No. i. 


Island marble. 
H. '66m. 

Missing head, arms from elbows, 
feet from ankles. Lower part of legs 
added by Schrader. 

Clad in Ionic chiton only with kolpos. 
The extra folds of the skirt are not 
drawn to the side, but bunched in front 
of the body as in No. 670, and grasped 
by the right hand. The left hand is 
extended, and the feet seem to be quite 
level. Traces of a maeander and red 
stripes appear on the chiton borders on 
the right arm. The hair, which is 
painted red, is arranged in three locks 
on each shoulder, cut in flattish double 
zigzags, and in a square mass of fourteen similar locks behind. 
The shoulders are broad and the figure in general sturdy 
without elegance. The massive neck and shoulders resemble 
those of No. 625, the seated Athena. 

Lechat, Au Mus., pp. 157 and 167; Schrader, Arch. 
Marm., p. 4$, fig. 36. 




Island marble. 
H. -39m. 

Missing head, legs from mid- 
thighs, left arm, right arm from 
just in front of elbow. 

Wears Ionic chiton and hima- 
tion. The white ground of the 
chiton pattern on the left shoulder 
and on the Trapvc^f] is visible, but 
the colour has vanished. The 
ydvGMTis or, perhaps, weathering, 
leaves the ordinary surface of 
the marble darker. Lermann, 
pi. ii. below, on right, gives the 
colour scheme for 7rapv<f>y and 
girdle: girdle two blue stripes with simple red maeander; 
n-apvfyr) red with two blue vertical stripes and green squares. 
The hair falls behind in a semicircular mass of nine locks 
cut in double zigzags, and in three similar ringlets on each 
shoulder. It is coloured red. No insertions; good work of 
normal Attic-Ionic style. 

Lechat, B.C.H., 1889, p. 147, No. 4. 



Found W. of Parthenon in 1882. 

Island marble. 

H. '41 m. 

Missing head (and neck), both arms, 
and legs from knees. The head and 
right arm were inserted and fastened 
with cement. 

Clad in ordinary Ionic chiton and 
himation, with legs and arms as usual 

The hair falls in a square mass behind 
divided into horizontal waves, and in 
three ringlets cut in double zigzags on 
each shoulder. No trace of colour. 
Early, formal work. Even here the 
angle above the irapv^ is cut with a 


drill. That stage is not yet reached in No. 601 , but Nos. 
600 and 60S are drilled. 

Mylonas, 'E<. 'Ap%., 1883, p. 40, No. 5. 


Found W. of Parthenon in 

Island marble. 
H. -48m. 

Missing head, right arm from 
elbow, left arm from a little below 
elbow, legs from below knees, 
fragments of drapery. 

Clad in Ionic chiton and hi- 
mation. The folds of the skirt 
with Trapvipij hang between legs, 
and the himation is pinned on 
both shoulders and down both 
arms. Traces of a maeander 
pattern are visible on the irapv^ij 
and on the border of the hima- 
tion where the lines seem traced with a pen. There is blue 
on the border in front, and red behind, but otherwise the 
colour is gone. Vertical clinging folds. 

Hair in parallel double zigzag semicircular mass behind 
with free ends, and three wavy locks on each shoulder, 
coloured yellow ochre. 

Right leg slightly advanced, both arms extended, the left 
a little downwards, the right uncertain. No insertions; good 
ordinary work. 

Mylonas, 'Etf>. *Apy., 1883, p. 40, No. 2; Lechat, An 
Mus., pp. 156, 176. 

606. So-called PEBSIAN HORSEMAN. 
Found near Erechtheum in 1886. 
Island marble. 

H. 1-08 m. 

The existing figure was put together by Studniczka out 
of a large number of fragments. 

Preserved of rider, body below waist except in front. 



both legs except knees, and 
upper part of left shin with 
lower part of left thigh; of 
horse, head and neck except 
end of muzzle, top of fore legs, 
and several fragments of the 

The head looks full front and 
has a hogged mane shewn by 
red zigzag incisions on a blue 
ground. Bronze pins on the 
front shew that some kind of 
bronze forelock ornament was 
added. Bronze pins still re- 
main in the holes at the top of 
the head where the bridle was 
attached. A hole on the summit of the head served for 
the attachment of a menlskos. The chest muscles are still 
a little primitive, and the general effect about on a level with 
the torso A in the courtyard. The flesh folds are similarly 
shewn by incisions. The shape of skull and eye shews con- 
siderable advance on the earlier equestrian statues. The eye 
is triangular and without the long incision marking the duct. 
The rider is dressed in an oriental costume consisting of a close- 
fitting jerkin belted at the waist and long hose with leather 
shoes. He presents a gay scheme of colour in red, blue, and 
green, and shews a species of feather ornament on the jerkin 
with a maeander border, and a diamond lozenge pattern on the 
hose. His shoes are red, and bronze pins shew the remains of 
their fastenings. A series of holes on the left hip were probably 
for fastening a quiver, a portion of which is to be seen in a 
wall-case. A small red projection on the left thigh served 
for the attachment of the left hand holding the reins, while 
the right perhaps held the bow. The heel is hacked away 
behind. A good idea of the original statue is given by a 
vase in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford (P. Gardner, Cat. 
ofAshmokan Vases, p. 30, pi. xin.). 

This figure has been the subject of discussion by Stud- 
niczka and Winter. The former held that it represented a 
Persian archer, and formed part of a monument erected by 


Miltiades commemorating the battle of Marathon, among 
the figures of which he numbered the Nike No. 690. He 
argued that being obviously male it cannot represent an 
Amazon, nor Paris since the archer is mounted, nor was it 
likely to be a mere Scythian mercenary. It was certainly a 
Persian and could therefore only be a monument of Marathon. 
He adduced as further evidence the vase in the Ashmolean 
Museum already referred to, which shews a practical replica 
of our statue and bears the inscription Mt\TtaS?79 /cdkos. 
It was pointed out by Stuart Jones and Gardner that the 
vase resembled the work of Epiktetos, and must be much 
earlier than Marathon, and Winter, in a carefully reasoned 
article, proved that this is by no means the latest of the 
pre-Persian equestrian figures on the Acropolis. Also the 
Ka\6$ inscriptions refer naturally to young men. He there- 
fore associates the statue and vase, whose connection he 
admits, with Miltiades' reign in the Thracian Chersonese in 
the last decades of the 6th century. He further suggests 
its connection with the inscribed base set up by Diokleides, 
sou of Diokles. For this however the evidence seems in- 
sufficient. Winter compares this statue in style with the 
Koral of Ionic type, the seated figure of Athena (No. 625), 
and the marble figures of the Hekatompedon pediment. It 
would thus fall in the full Peisistratid age. In reality, how- 
ever, apart from the gay colouring of the riders garments, 
there is nothing whatever Ionian in the statue, and it is 
clearly later than the pediments. It falls in the last decade 
of the 6th century, and represents an Attic reaction against 
the equestrian type imported from Ionia. Cf. p. 50. 

With regard to this and to the other equestrian statues 
in the Acropolis, Helbig expresses the view that they were 
not the Hippeis or knights themselves, but the young 
vTrijperai of noble blood attached to hoplites. 

Kavvadias, 'E0. 'A w , 1886, p. 73 foil.; Mus. tfAth., xii. 
{horse's head only); Sophoulis, *E<. 'Ap%., 1887, pi. n.; 
Ant. Denhm., 1887, p. 8, pi. xix. ; Petersen, A.M., 1886, 
p. 382, pi. xi. c 2 (foot ascribed to Nike); Studniczka, B. P. W., 
1887, p. 966; id., /&., vi., 1891, p. 239; Theoxenou, Gaz. 
Arch., 1888, p. 38; Winter, Jb., vm., 1893, p. 135 foil. ; H. S. 
Jones, J.H.S., 1891, p. 329; P. Gardner, Cat. Ashmolean 



Vases, p. 30, pi. xm. ; Helbig, "Les Hippeis Ath.," Mem. Acad. 
Inscr., xxxvin. p. 198; Pavlovski, p. 57, fig. 90; Lepsius^ 
p. 73, No. 49; Lechat, Sc. Att., p. 76; Perrot, vm. p B 635, 
fig. 324; Collignon, i. p. 359; Overbeck 4 , i. 199; E. Gardner, 
pp. 169, 177, 178 ; Klein, p. 68. 

609. Cf. under No. 686. 


Found E. of the Parthenon in 1857. 

Pentelic marble. 

H. 1-17 m. Br. '56 m. Th. -5 m. 

Round the bottom is a leaf-and-dart moulding '10 m. 
high, round the top a palmette moulding -15 m. high. 

On the top are two shallow holes *07 m. square and '06 m. 
deep, with a larger hole between them, "13 m. long x -04m. 
*045 m. wide x *1 m. deep. Remains of lead-running are 
inside it. These holes served for the attachment of the 
statue or offering which stood on the base. Botticher sug- 
gested that the Zeus Polieus of Leochares stood on this base, 
but there is no confirmation of his idea, and the date of 
the base is disputed. He also wrongly interpreted Hermes 
and Dionysos as Zeus and Poseidon. 


All the top is badly damaged and the sides as well. 

The lower corner on the right has been broken and 

On the four sides are deities in low relief: in front 
Athena, on the left Hephaistos, at the back Hermes, and 
on the right Dionysos. All are badly weathered and difficult 
to distinguish. 

(a) Athena, distinguishable from the shoulders down- 
wards, advances to left on tip-toe, with the advanced right 
hand leaning on a spear, the left holding by the hip a 
helmet adorned with an elaborately curling crest. The 
goddess wears Ionic chiton and himation, arranged in formal 
folds with swallow-tail ends, and sandals on her feet. She 
is tall and very thin with prominent bust. 

(b) Hephaistos advances to the right on tip-toe with 
left foot forward. He holds in both hands a long-shafted 
double axe, and wears a single garment, the Ionic himation, 
thrown over the left shoulder under the right arm, and over 
the left arm behind the axe. He is bareheaded, barefooted, 
and bearded, with his hair arranged in a crobylw like the 
figure on No. 1343. 

(c) Hermes is almost entirely weathered away except 
at the back. He advances to the left also on tip-toe with 
his right leg forward, and the swallow-tail fold of his short 
chlamys is visible behind. His left hand rests on his hip, 
and on his ankle is to be seen the remains of a wing. The 
contours of his back are greatly exaggerated. 

(d) DionysoS) whose head and shoulders are weathered 
away, advances on tip-toe to the left with his left leg ad- 
vanced. He is clad in a long himation with the same 
swallow-tail folds, and his left hand, wrapped in the cloak, 
rests on his hip. His right arm is advanced and holds 
the thyrsos, which Botticher interpreted wrongly as a 

The style of the base is undoubtedly archaistic. The 
feet raised on tip-toe, the drapery folds, the slim waists, and 
exaggerated contours are all signs of imitative work. The 
date, however, is a matter of dispute. This basis with the 
Corinth well-head form a type of archaistic monument very 
different from the Graeco-Roman work of the Louvre altar 



of the Twelve Gods. Archaism appears in very early r. f. 
vases, and the figure of Athena may be compared with that 
on 4th century Panathenaic vases/ At the same time the 
exaggerated delicacy of the figures on this hasis seems to go 
farther than the Corinthian well-head, and a 4th century 
date is only conjectural. 

Pervanoglu, Brunn, Michaelis, BvM. delT Imt., I860, pp. 
53, 113; Welcker, Ant. Denkmaler, v. 101, pi. v. ; Annali, 
1860, p. 451; Monumenti, vi. 45; Botticher, Philologus, xxn. 
i. p. 96; Michaelis, A.M., i. 1876, p. 298, pi. xvi. 6; Sybel, 

No. 5010; Milchhofer, Museen Athens, p. 53; Friederichs- 
Wolters, 421; Overbeck 4 , i. p. 249, fig. 66; Lepsius, p. 75, 
No. 85. 


Found before 1881. 
Island marble. 
H. -51 m. 

Missing head and both arms, legs 
from mid-thighs; surface damaged. 

This figure is clad like No. 678. What 
is taken, e.g. in No. 605, to be the over- 
fall of the himation, goes all the way 
round the body without a join, fitting 
closely, without hanging folds under the 
arms. It is presumably brooched down 
the arms like No. 678. This cannot be 
the ordinary himation overfall or it 
would have long folds, and it does not 
seem possible to connect it with the 
skirts below. It would seem then, if a 
genuine garment, to be put on over the head like a sweater 
in one circular piece, and then brooched on shoulders and 
down upper arms. More probably however it is not genuine, 
but is a misunderstood imitation of the himation type of No. 
605 by an early Attic artist who had no experience of the 
garment in question, cf. notice of No. 678. The skirt folds 
and Trapv^r) are gathered between the legs and held by the 
right hand, while the left was outstretched. 


Hair in a semi-circular mass behind of twelve zigzag 
locks with free ends, and four locks on each shoulder of three 
wavy strands each. The three inner on each side had ends 
inserted on the breast. Left foot slightly advanced. No 
colour. Good ordinary work. The top of the chiton is not 
visible round the neck as in No. 678. 

Lechat, Au Mus., pp. 154, 166 and 235; Sybel, No. 5009. 


Parian marble. 
H. -Mm. 

Missing face and front of head, 
shoulders and arms, left breast, right 
leg from hip, left leg from above knee, 
all surface of back and fragments in 
front. The right arm was inserted. 
Ordinary dress and pose. 

The hair falls in a free-hanging 
wavy mass behind without ringlets in 
front, and is combed forward from the 
crown to a thick stephane along top of 
head. Round earrings. Hair and chiton 
were red, but the colour has run all over 
the neck and down the himation, which 
shews no trace of its own colour. The 
left hand holding the drapery gathers it in front of, not to 
side of, the left thigh. The front folds of himation are 
very oblique. Hasty but not early work. The angle above 
the Trapvfyr) is not drilled. 
Lechat, Au Mus., p. 197. 


Island marble. 

H. -84m. 

Missing head, right arm, left arm from mid-lower arm, 
ends of drapery in front. Right arm inserted. Usual dress 
and pose. 

Hair oblong beaded mass behind of ten locks; three 



double zigzag locks in front; the red 
colour has run down the hi mat ion. 

Green maeander on 7rapv(pij and bor- 
der of himation and sleeve-border of 
chiton. The folds are vertical, and the 
figure is smooth and flat on the shoulders 
with rigid legs and prominent bosom. 
Early work. The angle above the -rra- 
pv(f>tj is not drilled. 

Lermann, pi. n. (middle), gives no 


Island marble. 

H. *38 m. 

Missing head, lower arms, feet from 
above ankles. Both lower arms were 
inserted. The tenons of the arms 
remain in the mortices in the same 

Clad in ordinary Ionic chiton and 
himation, but the upper edge of the 
himation is not shewn behind, and there 
is no Trapvfyr) nor any folds at all on 
the chiton or lower part of himation. 
No trace of brooches down the right 
arm, and the folds hanging under it are 
meaningless and erroneous. 

Hair in semi-circular horizontal wavy 

mass behind and three flat zigzag locks on each shoulder. 
It is coloured red. 

Both arms are outstretched. 






Island marble. 
H. -98m. 

Missing head and neck, 
right arm, fingers of left hand, 
right leg from ankle, left leg 
from a little above ankle. 

Put together from several 
pieces. The head and the right 
arm were inserted in square 
mortices. The tenon of the 
arm still remains in the same 
material. The lower part of 
the legs, the hanging ends of 
drapery, and the left lower 
arm were added by Schrader. 
The figure is clad in a red 
chiton with a green maeander 
border, plain foldless himation, 
with 7rapv<f>rj between the legs, 
and an epiblema hanging over 
the left shoulder as far as the 
knee, across the back, round 
the right hip and across the 
body in front, to be wound 
over the left lower arm. The himation folds project above 
it under the right breast. A green pattern is visible down 
the right sleeve of the himation. At both elbows the chiton 
folds appear above those of himation or epiblema, which 
balance each other on either side. 

The hair falls in four wavy ringlets of three strands each 
on either shoulder, and in an oblong wavy mass behind. Its 
colour is yellow ochre. 

The arms are both extended and the left foot advanced. 
The outlines of the figure are smooth and rounded, but there 
is little fine detail except in the hair. The undercutting of 
tbe zigzag hanging folds with the drill shews that the statue 
is of a well-developed period, but the work is rather formal. 

Kalkmann, J6., XL (1896), p. 39; Lechat, Au Miis., pp. 156, 
180 ; Schrader, Arch. Harm., p. 38, fig. 35. 



Island marble. 
H. (chin to crown) - 16 m. 
Missing end of nose. The 
neck is broken off below. 

The hair is waved on the 
forehead, and falls in loops of 
beaded locks on each shoulder. 
A brilliant red in colour, it is 
confined by a stephane with 
green pattern. The face is oval 
with sharply cut brows, and 
level oval eyes treated in a way 
very usual in these heads. The 
surface of the eye is flat, and 
its lower edge makes an angle 
with the cheek. The upper 
edge however projects considerably from the eye-socket, and 
the flat surface thus formed represents the upper eyelid. 
This convention appears repeatedly among the smaller 
beads. The eyes have red pupils with black centres, and 
once -possessed a black rim to shew the lashes. The cheek- 
bones and cleft chin are prominent. The ears are well 
placed and cut delicately. Circular earrings with a cen- 
tral boss decorate them. The mouth is bent into a smile, 
and the red lips terminated by rectangular cuts which form 
a noticeable dimple. While hasty, the work is delicate and 
good, and belongs in type to a group of statues and heads 
of which No. 680 is the best example. These belong to 
the Attic-Ionic school discussed in the Introduction, p. 22. 

Gaz. des Beaux Arts? 1892, n. p. 105; Mi/^eZa, pL 
xxxii. 2 (below); Pavlovski, p. 232, fig. 81 ; Lechat, Au Mus., 
p. 308, % 27; Sc. AU., p. 227. 


Found S.E. of Erechtheum in 1887. 

Island marble. 

H. -17m. 

Cut off sharply under the chin. The nose is much 
damaged. The hair falls in a mass behind divided by 




horizontal waves. A flat taenia, 
once decorated with a pattern, 
runs round the head, and the 
hair above it is flat. In front 
it lies in a flat scalloped fringe, 
and beaded locks fall on the 

The head is round with a 
square bony face. The eyes 
are slightly sloping, triangular 
in form with sharp pointed 
corners. The mouth is curved 
in a bow with rectangular cuts 
to terminate the lips. 

The head is obviously ar- 
chaic in style. Its Attic cha- 
racter is shewn by its shape, the circular taenia instead of 
the Ionic stephane, the hair treatment resembling the heads 
Nos. 6 and 637, the triangular eye and the mouth-corners. 
At the same time it is slightly influenced by Ionian charac- 
teristics in the sloping eyes and acute smile. Later than 
the Moschophoros, for it has lost some of the archaisms of 
eye and mouth, it is yet previous to the inrush of Chiot art 
in the age of the Peisistratidae, and belongs to the second 
part of the Period I in the chronological table on p. 9. 

Winter, A.M., 1888, p. 120; Mj/^efo, pi. xxxi. % (below); 
Lechat, Sc. Att., p. 198, flg. 12; Deonna, Les " ApoUons 
' No. 14, p. 140. 

618. Lower part of SEATED FIGURE. 

Found in 1887 N.E. of Acropolis. 

The left arm has been added more recently. 

Island marble. 

H. '695m. (including plinth -06 m. -096 m.). 

Missing body from above hips, right arm, left upper 
arm, legs of chair, drapery in left hand and part of fingers. 

Put together from three pieces main part of statue, left 
lower arm, feet and front of plinth. 

The edge of the cushion was probably inserted in two 
holes on each side of the seat. Two slanting holes above 



the corners of the seat helped 
to secure the legs of the throne, 
which were added separately, 

The figure is seated on a 
throne of the same type as No, 
625 with feet planted symmetri- 
cally in front. The front legs 
of the throne were carved se- 
parately, the back legs were 
slabs which fitted into mortices. 
'There is no footstool, the feet 
resting on a projecting piece 
of the plinth. The left arm, 
adorned with a carved bracelet, 
grasps the gathered drapery to 
the side of the left knee, the 
right is extended with an offering or attribute, according 
as the statue represents a mortal or divinity. The resem- 
blance to No. 329 however suggests here that a mortal is 

The figure wears Ionic chiton and himation like the 
majority of the Korai. The raised crinkly folds of the 
skirts radiate from the left hand, from which also hangs 
the irapv^rj in symmetrical folds. The hanging folds of 
the himation are vertical, appearing one on the right knee, 
and one on the seat under the right leg. They are treated in 
the later manner with a raised wavy edge well undercut by 
the drill. On the left side the himation is quite smooth. 
The colour scheme is well preserved like the whole surface. 
On the Travcij is a heavy maeander pattern in red and green, 

now mostly washed out; a green border with a zigzag edge 
runs right round the lower edge of the himation. There is 
also a red and green maeander on the remains of the left 
sleeve of the chiton. Midway up the shins in front appears the 
typical horizontal green stripe, and a stripe and maeander 
pattern appears on the hanging folds of the himation. Red 
paint is visible on the left side of the throne. Red sandals 
are worn with the straps shewn by red paint. The fingers 
and toes are of a bony type with triangular nails. The 
toes are finely modelled, but the fingers are clumsy, and the 



outline of the legs is conventional In general the figure is 
finely executed, and shews all the characteristics of Ionian 

Petersen, A.M., 1887, p. 145 (feet), p. 65 (rest of 
statue); Lepsius, p. 71, No. 33; Pavlovski, p. 167, fig. 49; 
Perrot, vui. p. 619, fig. 313; Lechat, Au Mus., pp. 196, 
438, fig. 81; Sc. AtL, p. 396; Lermann, p. 68, fig. 30, pi. ix. 


Found together with No. 593 
in 1887, E. of Erechtheum. 
Naxian marble. 
H. l-43m. 

Missing head, back of shoul- 
ders, left arm and hand from 
mid-biceps except the ends of 
two fingers, feet, and bottom 
of dress. The surface of the 
breasts and the left hand are 
badly damaged. 

The figure is clad in Ionic chi- 
ton and himation. The former 
appears only on the left shoulder, 
but, judging from the similar 
figure in the Louvre dedicated 
by Cheramyes, its lower border 
would have been visible just 
above the feet. Both garments 
alike are covered with close 
vertical incisions to represent 
the texture, and there are no 
folds, decorations, or any trace 
of colour. 

The figure is in fact shaped like a primitive xoanon, 
being square in section with the corners rounded off. The 
lower part tapers very slightly towards the ankles, but the 
shape of the legs is entirely obscured. The indication of a 
waist however is an advance on the similar figure in the 
Louvre, The bosom is indicated by a swelling, but there 


is no central division. The arm and shoulders are merely 
rounded rectangular planes. The arms are not separated 
from the body. The clenched right hand hangs by the side, 
the left arm is bent at the elbow and holds a round object 
between the breasts. The folds of the himation shew less 
truth to nature than No. 677, which is a work of similar 
style, and therefore we may consider this statue a little more 
archaic than that work and a little more developed than the 
offering of Cheramyes. 

It has for long been held that these three works belong 
to a Samian school of art, because the figure of Cheramyes 
was found in Samos. An Apollo from the Ptoon is usually 
classified with them on the strength of its resemblance, anH 
attributed to the same school But the presence of one of 
these statues in the Heraion of Samos is no more proof of 
Samian origin than the presence of two on the Acropolis is 
a proof of Attic origin, or of one at the Ptoon of Boeotian 
origin. Furthermore recent discoveries in Samos [L. Curtius, 
A.M.) 1906, p. 151, pis. x. xii., xiv. XVL] tend to shew 
a connection between Samian art and the art of Miletos, 
as might be expected, rather than a resemblance to this 
unique style of workmanship. It is to be noticed that these 
figures are all made in Naxian marble, a material found 
elsewhere on the Acropolis only in the fragments of a large 
bronze bowl supported by female figures of not altogether 
dissimilar appearance (cf. No. 592). The clue given by the 
material and taken up by Sauer is at once confirmed by 
a comparison of the Naxian Sphinx at Delphi, which is 
made in the same coarse-grained local marble, and whose 
resemblance to the head of No. 677 is so complete as to 
exclude all doubt that both figures belong to the same 
school. We may therefore assume with certainty that 
these three works on the Acropolis are dedications from 

Sophoulis, 'Ef 'A/>%., 1888, pp. 109, 112, pi. vi. ; 
Jane Harrison, J.H.S., 1888, p. 120; Petersen, AM,, 1887, 
p. 146, No. 4; Lepsius, p. 66, No. 2; Lechat, Au Mus.> 
p. 397, fig. 45; Sauer, A.M., 1892, p. 37 foil.; Coflignon, 
i. p. 164, fig. 74; Pavlovski, p. 169, fig. 50; Perrot, vni. 
p. 395, fig. 120; Klein, i. p. 186. 



6 2O. Lower part of SEATED FIGURE. 

Found in March 1838, N. of the 
Island marble. 

H. *88 m. (including plinth '09 

Missing body above hips and 
surface of lap above the middle of 
the thighs, both arms except part 
of the left hand. 

Damaged the surface generally 
is much weathered, and the knees 
and throne are damaged by fire. 
Inserted ornaments of throne. 
The figure is seated stiffly with 
both hands on the knees and the 
feet together in a rigid and sym- 
metrical attitude. The throne has a back and arms, the feet 
rest on a footstool. The throne legs are decorated like the 
throne of Zeus in the Introduction pediment. Holes at the 
end of the arms shew that ornaments were inserted above. 
The figure sits on a thick cushion. The throne legs are 
not detached, but simply raised in relief from the general 
mass. The footstool is moulded with a hollow groove in 

It is dubious whether the person represented is Athena 
like No. 625 or a mortal like No. 329. 

The costume consists of Ionic chiton and himation. The 
former has a kolpos with triangular outline in front and is 
shewn above by the usual wavy lines. The frapv^tj hangs 
as usual between the legs with heavy parallel folds on either 
side. The himation is worn like a shawl on the shoulders, 
the ends falling symmetrically on the knees. The folds are 
mere incisions clumsily cut, and no use is made of the drill. 
No colour is preserved. The feet are heavy and shapeless, 
the toes clumsily incised, and shod with sandals. The line 
dividing them from the skirts is incised into the feet them- 

The work is highly conventional and there is no effort to 
delineate the legs. As compared with the later Branchidai 



figures the execution is somewhat inferior, but there is more 
distinction between the figure and the throne. Here we have 
a figure which, like 625, survived in fragments the Persian 
sack. Earlier than No. 625, it must also have stood near the 
Erechtheum. No. 618 too was not far away, but that was 
found in the Perserschutt. Pausanias mentions in this neigh- 
bourhood a group of archaic figures blackened by fire, but 
calls them bronze. It is not impossible that he~ may have 
made a mistake as to the material, not of course at the 
time, but in writing up his account afterwards. The statue 
is probably of the period of earliest Ionic influence in Attica, 
and represents a local copy of the Branchidai type. 

Pittakis, 'E<. 'Ap#, 1839, p. 225, pis. 18371842, p. 45, 
No. 253; Lebas-Waddington, Voy. Arch., Mons. Figs.^ pi. 
III. 1 ; Sybel, No. 5001; Muller-Scholl, op. dt., p. 24, No. 4; 
Beule, Sculpture av. Pheid., p. 101 ; Lepsius, p. 68, No. 11 ; 
Pavlovski, p, 167, fig. 47; Lechat, Au Mus., p. 438, fig. 46. 

621. MALE HEAD. 

Found S.W. of Parthenon, 

Island marble. 
H. -175 m. 

Damaged nose, lips, beard, 
left ear. 

Hair left plain above, with 
a large hole on the top of the 
head and some smaller holes 
behind it of which one is filled 
with bronze. No band is round 
it. This makes it highly pro- 
bable that the head originally 
wore a helmet. Only the visible 
side-locks of the back hair are 
carved in double zigzags, and 
the fringe has two superimposed rows of spiral buckles 
(like the statue of the Kore No. 681). The beard is shewn 
by wavy incisions. Plentiful traces of green, probably 
once blue, are preserved on hair and beard. The eyes pro- 
trude above and are level with cheek below. The mouth 

1 54 


is small and nearly straight, meeting the moustache at the 
lip corners. The head is not of the ordinary Ionic type 
with curved mouth and prominent cheek bones, but the 
characteristic Attic eye is also absent. The ears are also 
un- Attic, set aslant and with the earhole bored. The head 
shews Peloponnesian influence and possibly reflects the work 
of Ageladas. Lechat compares it with the bronze head from 
the Acropolis (Mi/^eZa, pi. v.) usually ascribed to an Aegi- 
netan artist. But the deep flat head is hardly typical of 
Aeginetan art. At the same time the pointed chin and 
prominent eyebrows found in other heads of Peloponnesian 
origin (e.g. Nos. 644 and 657) are absent. Nor do we see 
here the flat cheek of the Peloponnesian artist. Consequently, 
while recognising some foreign influence in the mouth and 
shape of head, we must accept the head as a work of Attic art. 

As to the person represented it is perhaps too early in 
date to suggest a Strategos in his typical helmet, and the 
shoulder locks are usually taken to indicate a deity. 

AeXr/oz/, Oct. 1888, p. 181; Lechat, B.C.H., 1889, p. 197; 
Wolters, A.M., 1888, p. 440; Uwrjpela, xxxn. 2 (below); 
Pavlovski, p. 143, fig. 40; Lechat, Sc. Att., p. 273, fig. 23, 
p. 402. 

622. MALE FIGURE in relief. 

Found on S. wall, S.E. of 
Parthenon in Jan. 1888. 

Pentelic marble. 

H. -225 m. 

Missing right arm from 
shoulder to wrist, front of elbow 
of left arm, body from waist. 

Damaged nose. 

Relief depth -075m. 

The figure is clad in a tight- 
fitting short-sleeved chiton with 
a skin over it like the Iris of 
the Introduction pediment and 
a conical hat. He appears to 
be moving to the right, but 
the body and head face the 


spectator. The right arm is bent across the body and holds 
a syrinx, the left arm is extended and bent double at the 
elbow. The hair falls in a heavy mass on the shoulders, 
divided vertically in four locks on each side, and coloured 
red. A flat waved fringe appears under the hat in front. 
The features are typically archaic Attic: high ears with 
large upper part, straight flat eyes with ridge from the outer 
corners and arched upper lid, straight mouth ending in 
vertical cuts from the upper lip, and square face. 

The muscles of the throat are attempted but the body is 
smooth. There is a painted border on the sleeve of the 
chiton. The figure must be connected with Nos. 586, 587, 
and 637, which represent women in Attic costume also 
moving to right with left arm extended. The material, 
scale and relief-depth are the same. In style, however, 
No. 622 and the face No. 637 are, in Schrader^s opinion, 
superior to Nos. 586 and 587, He would restore two groups, 
one of the three Charites alone, like the later group of 
Sokrates in Jthe Entrance Hall, and the other of the three 
Charites led by Hermes like the relief No. 702. In No. 622 
we have undoubtedly Hermes. The conical cap is paralleled 
in the Thasian relief; the syrinx corresponds with the flutes 
of the relief No. 702. 

AcXiwis Jan. 1888, p. 12; Lechat, B.C.H., 1888, p. 243; 
I^epsius, p. 75, No. 74; Mi/^/ieia, pi. xxxii. 1 (above); Pav- 
Ibvski, p. 95, fig. 21; Lechat, Au Mus., p. 109, fig. 6; Sc. 
AtL, p. 104. 


Found S.W. of Parthenon, 1888. 

Island marble. 

H. -20m. 

Missing arms from below shoulders, body from below 

Damaged hair and nose. 

The head is bent forward and a little towards the right 
shoulder. The arms hang by the side. Lermann suggested 
that he may be a rider. The pose is suitable, and Schraderk 
combination with fragment No. 4119 is in every way probable. 

I S 6 


The hair is flat on the top and 
back of the head, and combed 
forward in front to lie on the 
forehead in a row of spirals. It 
hangs in a horizontally divided 
mass behind. There is a hole 
in the top of the head, either 
for a meniskos or for some kind 
of hat like a petasos. The head 
is of the egg-shape observed in 
Ionian figures, the eyes project 
above and are flush with cheek 
below ; the chin and cheek-bones 
are prominent, the mouth is 
bent upwards, the ears are large. 
The body is well rounded, but 

the muscles are not emphasized. Pectorals and collar-bones 
are however correctly indicated. Clearly a work of Ionic- 
parentage and characterised by grace and superficiality. Cf. 
No. 4119. 

Lechat, B.C.H., 1889, p. 148; Lepsius, p. 72, fig. 5, No. 
46; MvrjfjLela, pi. xxxii. % (above); Pavlovski, p. 139, fig. 38; 
Lermann, figs. 7 and 8; Schrader, Arch. Marm., p. 78, figs. 
70 and 71. 


Greater part found in 1864 in digging foundations of 
museum, base and feet in 1887 in same region. Winter 
established the connection. 

Hymettan marble. 

H. above small plinth r65m. Plinth '45 ra. x '21 m. 
x -025 m. 

Schrader has lately added two fragments of the thighs 
and thus prolonged the legs nearly to the knees. The figure 
now appears taller and thinner than before. 

Missing right leg between knee and ankle, left leg below 
knee, front of left thigh, and a great part of front of right 
thigh (now restored in plaster), front of hands, point of 
beard, part of calf s neck and right ear. Small pieces of 
the rest of the surface are restored in plaster. 



The nose and back are dam- 
aged. The statue is put 
together from a large number 
of pieces. 

The statue represents a 
bearded man standing upright 
with the left leg advanced and 
both feet flat on the ground. 
On the shoulders he carries a 
calf, whose legs are held by 
both hands on the breast. He 
wears a chlamys or loose cloak 
over both shoulders, which fits 
tightly to the body, hanging 
nearly as low as the* knees, and 
leaving the chest and stomach 
bare. It is only distinguish- 
able from the flesh by its flatter 
surface and the two incisions 
which mark its border. At 
the lower corner a small tassel 
is visible. On the head is a 
small circular close-fitting cap, 

under which in front is seen the hair in square buckles. Three 
similar locks fall on the shoulders from behind each ear. The 
hole on the top of the head is probably intended for the 
meniskos. The beard is left smooth but raised sharply from 
the cheeks, and is designed for the addition of colour. There 
is no moustache. The eyes lie flat in the head, and conse- 
quently form a sharp angle at their outer corners, which are 
smoothed off by means of ridges running back towards the 
ears. The upper eyelid is a little more arched than the 
lower. These lids are incised, and the pupils are hollowed 
out for the insertion of glass. A small hole marks the centre 
of each hollow. The mouth, which is slightly curved, is 
terminated by semicircular grooves, which are carried on 
round the nostrils. The ears are low and clumsy. On the 
right shoulder appears the head of the calf, which is of the 
male sex. Its eye is modelled in the same way as those of 
the bull in the pediment but more simply. The anatomy 


of the animal is not understood, and its fore legs are twisted 
in an impossible manner. Traces of green colour are visible 
behind. The arms of the man are not fully separated from 
the sides, and are connected by means of the chlamys. The 
navel consists of a raised ring. The muscles of the arm are 
fairly rendered, and the traditional lines of the stomach are 
shewn, meeting in a point on the breastbone. The back is 
smooth and unmodelled because it is covered by the chlamys. 
The toes are straight and not completely divided, the big 
toe being the longest. The statue stands on a small oval 
plinth of the same material let into, and projecting above, 
a square block of poros measuring '93 m. x '89 m. x "435 m. 
with the dedicatory inscription of [PJONBOS. 

The type of a male figure carrying an animal on his 
shoulders is of course much older than this statue, cf. Perrot 
and Chipiez, m. pp. 428, 433, 589, figs. 295, 307, 308, 402; 
iv. p. 87, fig. 88; Annali delT Inst., 1800, p. 313 seq.; Tav. 
(T agg. 5. It appears later also in the statue of Kalamis, cf. 
Gaz. Arch, 1878, p. 101. 

The statue was at first called a Hermes Kriophoros or 
Apollo Nomios, and, on the subsequent addition of the calf's 
head, a Hermes Moschophoros (cf. statue of Onatas at Olympia, 
Paus. v. 7. 8, and of Kalamis at Tanagra, Paus. ix. %Q. 1). 
Theseus with the Marathonian bull has also been suggested. 
Winter joined the base to the torso, and dealt with the statue 
at length. He recognised it as a work of native Attic art and 
the clue to all discussion of early Attic marble work. He 
connected it with a number of other monuments, which he 
classed very justly as the early Attic style before the intro- 
duction of Ionian influence. This style is derived from older 
poros work in his theory, though it is perhaps more correct 
to say that it shews the same technique as poros work. The 
subject is probably not Hermes but a mortal worshipper, per- 
haps Rhombos himself, represented not as a portrait but typi- 
cally like the Hippeis, and Grammateis. Cf. Introd., p. 33. 

The main interest of the statue lies in its style and its 
chronological position. Obviously of the pre-Chiot period, 
and closely analogous to the style of the poros figures, it yet 
shews some differences, hardly sufficiently noted by Winter, 
which give it a rather unique position. 


The eyes with their curious corner ridges are neither the 
sloping Ionic eyes nor yet the rounded triangular Attic eyes, 
and the other distinctive feature, the mouth, combines an 
Ionic curve with utterly un-Ionic grooves to terminate the 
lips. Definite Attic features are the local marble, the shape 
of the head, and the treatment of the beard, not however 
the pure Attic of Nos. 622 and 637, but a style affected by 
external influence in the eyes and mouth. The ridge at 
the corners of the eyes is an Egyptian convention, and the 
mouth might be compared with some heads of Samian origin. 
The insertion of the eyeball is un-Attic. 

The figure therefore belongs to what we have stvled the 
period of earliest Ionic influence, the influence being in this 
case probably Samian. Schrader's recent restoration gives 
the figure a height and slimness of Ionic rather than Attic 
type. In all essentials however the statue is purely Attic 
like the rest of this class, the imitation being rigidly confined 
to a few features. 

Brunn, Decharme, and Pervanoglu, Bull. deW Inst., 1864, 
pp. 83, 86, 132, 133; 1866, p. 132; 1867, pp. 76, 79; Conze, 
Arch. Zeit., 1864, pp. 169 73, pi. CLXXXVII. 1 (which shews 
the fragment first found); Kohler, Arch. Anz., 1866, p. 167; 
Stephani, Comptes Rendus, 1869, p. 7, 1877, p. 30; Marti- 
nelli, p. 53; Botticher, ErJcL Verzeichn. der Abgusse, 42 45; 
A. S. Murray, p. 188, fig. 31; Milchhofer, Museen Athens, 
p. 55; Sybel, No. 5005; Weltgesch. der Kunst, pL xcvi.; 
Veyries, Figs. Criophores, 4, 16, 31; Polites, 'E<. 'Ap#, 1883, 

p, 242; Purgold, 'E<. 'Apy.,1885, p.251; Friederichs-Wolters, 
No. 109; v. Jan, Baumeister's Denhmdler, i. p. 338; Klein, 
Arch.-Epig. Mitt., 1885, pp. 152, 3; Furtwangler, CoU. Sa- 
bourqff, i. 4, 5, n. pi. 146, 1; Meisterwerke, pp. 709, 717; 
B.-B., No. 6; Sophoulis, Att. Ergast., pp. 15, 51; Korai, 
p. 41 ; Lolling, Sitzber. d. Berl Akad., 1888, p. 319; Jane 
Harrison, J.H.S., ix. (1888), pp. 123, 4; Winter, A.M., 
1888, p. 113; Schneider, Verhand. d. 40. Phttokgenvers., 
p. 349; Lepsius, p. 76, No. 95; Scherer, Roscher's Lexicon, 
i. p. 2397; Overbeck 4 , i. pp. 186, 7, 293 123 , fig. 38; Ber. u. d. 
Verh. d. Sachs. Ges. d. Wiss., 1892, pp. 21, 2; Collignon, i. 
p. 215; Gaz. Arch., 1887, p. 89; Kekule von Stradonitz, Bae- 
deker's Greece, 189S, p. Ixxii., 1905, p. IxxxviL ; Michaelis, 



Altattische Kunst, pp. 13, 38; Sittl, v. Mutters Handbuch, 
Arch'dologw, vi. pp. 532, 537; E. Gardner, p. 175, fig. 32; 
Brunn (Flasch), n. (1897), pp. 192, 5; Leonardos, Mvypeia, 
pp. 4960, pk xni., xm. A; Perrot, vm. p. 627, fig. 100; 
Lechat, Au Mus., p. 106; Sc. Att., p. 106; Klein, p. 39; 
Schrader, Arch. Mann., fig. 4. 


Found on the N. slope of 
the Acropolis below the Erech- 
theum in 1821. 
Island marble. 
H. 1 '47 m. (including plinth 
09m.)- H. of seat '645 m. 

Missing head, both lower 
arms from in front of elbows, 
front of left foot, right side of 
chair, legs of chair except top 
of two legs on the left, most 
of the edge of the plinth. 

Damaged the whole sur- 
face is badly damaged by 
weathering owing to long ex- 
posure in the open air, and 
the gorgoneion on the breast 
and the toes of the right foot 
are quite worn away. 

Inserted the right side of 
the chair was fastened on by 
a wide clamp, of. which the 
socket is visible. Snakes on 
the border of the aegis. 

Put together from three pieces the main part of the 
statue and the two elbows. 

The statue represents Athena sitting upright on an un- 
backed, four-legged chair or stool without arms, which is 
supported by a large block under the seat like the stools of 
the Scribes. The four legs are carved in the round and stood 
well out from the rest of the seat. There is no footstool, but 
a thin cushion is visible, hanging on the left side of the seat. 


The goddess is in a slightly twisted position, as the legs 
are turned a little to the right and the body a little to the 
left of the centre. She extends both lower arms apparently 
without supports, perhaps originally holding spear and patera. 
The right foot is drawn back and the heel raised from the 
ground. This pose of the feet is an innovation on the 
ordinary archaic sitting type, but appears also on the frieze 
of the fcaidian treasury at Delphi. The head is bent a little 

The costume consists of an Ionic chiton with a deep 
Tcolpos reaching to the knees and Trapvfyrj between the legs, 
and an aegis covering shoulders and breast in front and 
falling on to the seat behind. The loose material of the 
Tcolpos is shewn as usual by wavy lines, which are omitted 
on the skirts. The jrapvfyr) consists of four vertical folds 
sharply separated from the advanced left leg. The aegis 
appears as a smooth heavy garment apparently put on over 
the head and depending on colour for its "surface. An 
incised line separates it from the neck. The gorgoneion on 
a raised medallion on the breast is entirely weathered away. 
Along the lower border are holes for the attachment of small 
bronze snakes. The holes on the left of the seat probably 
served the same purpose. The goddess wore thick sandals. 
All colour has disappeared. 

The hair falls in a flat square mass behind, apparently 
quite smooth except for the locks just at the side, which are 
cut in flat zigzags (cf. No. 593). Four zigzag locks fall on 
each shoulder, and the triangular space above the shoulders 
between front and back hair is also incised with zigzag locks. 

The present condition of the statue makes criticism of 
the execution difficult. The shoulders are broad and the 
hips narrow; the legs are correctly modelled and shew plainly 
through the skirts; the bosom is well outlined, and the 
collar-bone indicated. Archaic traces are the clumsy neck, 
the curious line of the Tcolpos following the length of the 
thigh, the sharp cut between 7rapv<j>Tj and left leg, and the 
absence of the drill. On the other hand the innovation of 
the twisted pose and drawn-back right foot (cf. also the 
deities on the frieze of the Knidian treasury in Delphi) and 
the good modelling of the legs point to an original and 

D. 11 


capable artist. It is clearly later than the hieratic and 
conventional No. 620, and probably about contemporary 
with the elaborate but equally conventional No. 618 on which 
the drill is used. Its superiority in effect over the latter 
shews that it belongs to a first-rate artist, possibly, if we 
may judge from the Attic proportions and new pose, belonging 
to the Attic revival associated with the name of Antenor and 
dating from the expulsion of the tyrants. But in this case 
the absence of the drill is curious. 

The weathering of the statue shews that it stood for 
centuries in the open air, and therefore it never belonged 
to the Perserschutt. That however is no argument against a 
pre-Persian date, as it may either have been overthrown and 
re-erected, or may have escaped destruction altogether. It 
was found on the surface of the slope below the Erechtheum, 
and therefore must at some time have been rolled over the 
edge of the Acropolis. 

This statue has frequently been connected with a statue 
of Endoios mentioned by Pausanias (i. 26. 4). That traveller 
saw a seated statue of Athena near the Erechtheum made by 
Endoios and dedicated by Kallias. It has usually been 
supposed that Endoios worked in the latter part of the 
6th century, and that the Kallias here mentioned was the 
contemporary son of Phainippos. Lechat however has 
attempted to prove that Endoios worked after 480 B.C. and 
that the Kallias is the Aa/e/co7r\ovTO$, who lived in the first 
half of the 5th century and dedicated the Aphrodite of 
Kalamis. At the same time he is prepared to accept this 
statue as his work, arguing that, as Pausanias saw it, it could 
not be pre-Persian. But Pausanias actually saw pre-Persian 
statues on the Acropolis, and could surely not have called 
Endoios a pupil of Daidalos if his work was post-Persian in 
date. Two inscriptions of Endoios in Athens point to a date 
in the last quarter of the 6th century. In any case this 
statue is clearly pre-Persian in style, and if the traditional 
date of Endoios be preserved, as seems to be infinitely more 
reasonable, it may with great probability be ascribed to him 
in consideration of its style and of its finding-place. For a 
further discussion of Endoios cf. Introd. p. 24 (note). 

Lebas-Waddington, Voy. Arch.> Mons. Figs., pi. n. 3 ; 


Lebas-Reinach, p. 51; Muller-Scholl, Arch. Mitt, am Griech., 
1843, p. 24, pL I 1 ; Saulcy, Rev. Arch., 1845, p. 271 ; Gerhard, 
Akad. Abhand., pi. xxn/4; id., Annali, 1837, p. 106; Newton, 
Transactions of the Roy. Soc., 2nd series, v. p. 73; Scharf, Mus. 
of Class. Antiq., i. p. 190; Lenormant, Chefs-tTceiivre de TArt. 
Ant., n., 2 e ser., iv. p. 77; Liibke, Gesch. der Plastik, i. p. 106; 
Heydemann, Die Antike Marmorbildw. zu Athen, 624; Beule, 
La Sculpt, av. Pheid., p. 100; O. Jahn, De Ant. Mm. Alt. Sim., 
p. 5, HI. 1. 2, 3; Sybel, No. 5002; Milchhofer, Die Mu*een 
Athens, p. 53; Boetticher, Die ATcropolis, p. 84, fig. 31; Bau- 
meister, Denkmdler, i. p. 339, fig. 355 ; Collignon, ArcheoL 
grecque, p. 129; id., Histoire, i. p. 338; Overbeck 4 , i. p. 190, 
%. 40; B.-B., No. 145; A. S. Murray, i. p. 197, %. 35; 
Lange, DarsteUung de# Menschen, p. 19; Lechat, Rev. Gr., 
v., 1892, p. 400; id., Au Mus., p. 434; Sc. Att., p. 460; 
Lepsius, p. 70, No. 21 ; Jane Harrison, Ancient Athens, 
p. 479 foil.; J. G. Frazer, Pausanias, n. p. 330; E. Gardner, 
pp. 180, 181; Six, Rev. Arch., 1909, i. p. 92; Winter, 
A.M., 1888, p. 134; Schrader, Arch. Harm., p. 44, fig. 37. 
Further references for Endoios: Stephani, Rheinisches Mu- 
seum, N. R 4 (1846), pp. 13; H. Brunn, Gesch. d. Gritch. 
Kunstler, i. pp. 98101 ; id., Zur Chronotogie der aUesten 
Griech. Kiinstler, Munchener Sitzungsberichte, June, 1871, 
p. 544; Loeschke, A.M., iv. (1879), p. 305; Klein, Arch.- 
Epig. Mitt, aus Oesterrelch, v. (1881), p. 88; id., Gesch. der 
Griech. Kunst, i. p. 82, 


Island marble. 

H. -70m. 

Missing head, left shoulder and arm, right arm, feet 
from above ankles, drapery fragments on left side, and a 
large piece of drapery on right side. Put together from 
three pieces. 

Ordinary costume and pose. The himation had a red 
stripe on the border of its overfall. 

The statue is interesting for the fixing of the head, which 
was made separately and inserted. This is not uncommon, 
but it was afterwards fastened in two other ways as welL 
A pin was run right through the neck and tenon of the head 




from back to front, and lead was run in 
from a hole in the right shoulder all 
round the head mortice. 

There is no trace of the hair either 
behind or on the shoulders. But three 
small holes by the lead-running hole on 
the right collar-bone and three more 
wider apart above the right breast pro- 
bably served to fasten locks of hair, which 
were applied separately. Another hole 
on the break of the drapery on the right- 
hand side served for some further addition. 
Doubtless all or some of these additions 
were due to ancient breakages and repairs. 
The head would not be fixed originally 
in that way. The drill is not used for 

the undercutting of the himation border. 

Partly described in Sybel, No. 5084; Studniczka, J..M., 

1887, p. 357, No. 3; Lechat, Au Mus., pp.^L98, 236. 

627. FEMALE 

Pentelic marble. 
H. -55m. 

Missing head, arms, surface 
of sides, and body from below the 

Clad in ordinary Ionic costume, 
but with the overfall of the hima- 
tion very narrow in the middle. 

The pins of the chiton on the 
left shoulder were inserted, pro- 
bably in bronze. The fine ma- 
terial of the chiton is shewn by 
very close wavy lines, and the 
slack, where it is caught up by 
the cross-band of the himation, 
instead of appearing only in the 
armpit, starts to hang over the himation from the middle 
of the chest. The top border of the himation over the cross- 
belt is also very elaborate, and it is undercut very deeply 



with the drill in the centre. The arms were probably both 
extended from the elbow. 

Two holes in front of the neck served to attach a necklace. 
There are no traces of hair on shoulders or back, and no 
colour is visible. The figure is very finely worked, and be- 
longs to a developed period of Attic-Ionian art. 

Lechat, Au Mus., pp. 197, 198, 13, 380. 


Found W. of Par- 
thenon in 1888. 
Parian marble. 
H. -29m. 

Missing head and 
neck, left arm, sur- 
face of back, right 
arm from mid-biceps, 
body from waist down- 

Clad in ordinary 
Ionic costume with- 
out colour. The hi- 
mation shews regular 
vertical folds and four 
equal folds for the 
cross-band, the chiton 

the usual wavy lines. The hair falls in an oblong mass 
behind, of which the surface is quite gone, and in three 
wavy locks of several strands on each shoulder. 

The right hand holds an object with a flat top, probably 
a small box, under the right breast, and the left hand was 
perhaps extended. 

PMylonas, TEty. 'A/^., 1883, p. 40, No. 3. 

629. Statuette of A SCEIBE. 

Found in 1865 near site of museum. 

Pentelic marble. 

H. (to neck) '65m. 

Many fragments have been added by Studniczka. 

Missing head, all right side below the waist except the 


back chair leg, left hand, diptych, and 
piece of right arm above the elbow. The 
outside of the left upper arm, which was 
made in a separate piece, is missing. The 
lower part of the statue is missing from 
the ankles downwards. The statuette was 
made originally in several pieces ; the junc- 
tion of two of these may be seen on the 
chest and stomach. 

The attitude and drapery are similar to 
Nos. 1 44 and 146 but both are freer. Thus 
we find the edge of the garment turned 
back in zigzag folds, with a green stripe 
for decoration, and folds between the legs of the chair, and 
the body, instead of being stiff and upright, leans to the right, 
and pushes the left shoulder forward. The drapery also 
exists apart from the body and extra folds are visible by the 
left leg. The writing-case was added separately. Two holes 
served for dowels to secure it. The chair is also raised from 
the red ground and shews a moulded outline. The colour 
scheme is the same, the hands hold the diptych by the outer 
corners, and the right hand is again pierced for the insertion 
of a stylus. The body-forms are better and more advanced, 
and less emphasis is laid on the muscles. The nipple is 
shewn by a small flat raised circle. The red colour on the 
neck comes from the hair, of which it is the only trace. 

These three statuettes form a separate class of dedica- 
tions, as No. 69 is clearly a later adaptation of the original 
type Nos. 144 and 146. 

Ross said No. 144 was female and Egyptianizing, but he 
only ! knew the lower half. Scholl described the diptych 
as a small chest. Furtwangler first pointed out their true 
significance, and compared them with a terra-cotta in the 
Collection Sabouroff (n. 86). He says the legs of the chair 
were green. The statue must represent a rypajj,fjt,a,TV$, and 
thus falls in line with other dedications of private individuals, 
cf. p. 34, and the inscription of Mechanion, C.I. A. i. 399. 
Heberdey, on the other hand, thinks that the object on the 
lap is not a diptych but a small chest, and that therefore the 
figure is not a ^/pa^p^arev^ at all. He maintains that a 


stylus would not be held in the manner shewn. But we 
have here to deal with the capacities of a primitive artist, 
and the thin object on the lap of No. 146 could hardly be 
a chest. 

These are the only sculptures on the Acropolis in which 
Egyptian influence can be directly traced. This influence is 
shewn partly in the rigid attitude so characteristic of 
Egyptian figures, and partly in the garment This garment 
is neither pure Greek nor pure Egyptian. Its nearest 
analogues are perhaps the figure in the frontispiece to 
Flinders Petrie, Tanis, pt. i., 1883-4, which is however 
Ptolemaic, and the seated figure in a relief (von Bissing- 
Bruckmann, Denkmaler Aegypt. Sculptur, Lief. 10, No. 101). 
Heir von Bissing definitely styles this garment as un- 
Egyptian, and probably an adaptation of Greek dress. He 
suggests influence from Naukratis, and it is probably there 
that we should seek the origin of this type of statue. 
Doubtless traders from Naukratis brought the original to 

Excluding No. 629 as a later adaptation, the type of 
Nos. 144 and 146 can only have originated in the manner 
suggested. The material shews their Attic origin, and this 
Attic imitation of a foreign type is parallelled by No. 678. 
These two must belong to tide period of earliest foreign 
influence, while No. 629 belongs to the Attic-Ionic epoch. 

Furtwangler, A.M., vi., 1881, p. 179; Lepsius, p. 74, 
Nos. 68-70; Lechat, Sc. Att., p. 267; Studniczka, A.M., 
1886, p. 358; Pavlovski, p. 97, fig. 22; Perrot, vin. pp. 630-2, 
figs. 322, 323 ; Overbeck 4 , p. 187; Collignon, i. p. 357. 


Body found March 30th, 1883, near N.W. corner of 

Head found April 10th, 1883, in the same locality. 

Wings found winter 1882-3, E. of Parthenon, together 
with No. 632. 

Island marble. 

H. -73m. 

Missing legs except top of right fore leg, upper left side 
of head and ear, part of left wing and left side of body. 



Damaged right eye, nose, 
left cheek, chin. 

Put together from the follow- 
ing fragments head, hair on 
left shoulder, left shoulder and 
chest, left side of hind quarters, 
body and right side, wings. 

The sphinx is shewn seated 
and raised on the fore paws. It 
has a lion's body, a woman's 
head, and bird's wings erect on 
the back and curling upwards 
in archaic style. The head is 
erect and faces the front, the 
tail is twisted underneath the 

The hair falls in thick locks with cross divisions so as to 
form square buckles, and there is no fringe. Four locks fall 
on each shoulder, the rest on the shoulders and ridge of the 
wings, confined by a band from ear to ear behind. Red 
paint is visible on the edge of this band, which probably is 
the remains of the hair colouring. The face is long and thin, 
the head egg-shaped. The forehead is flat, the chin and 
cheek-bones prominent. The eyes are aslant and pointed, 
the upper lid more arched than the lower. A simple groove 
separates lids and brows. The acutely curved mouth ends in 
dimples. The ears are flat and large. The body is smooth 
and flat, without muscles, though the ribs are shewn by 
parallel grooves. On the chest are traces of a scale pattern 
in red to imitate feathers, and red stripes with a red lozenge 
pattern appear on the wings. 

In general treatment the figure seems more archaic than 
No. 632, but the shape of the body seems rather superior. 
Of considerable antiquity, it is compared by Winter with the 
Moschoplwros and the head No. 617. Lechat, on the other 
hand, notices the distinction from the Moschophoros in the 
treatment of the eyes, and compares the head with one in 
the British Museum (Brit. Mus. Cat. of Greek Sculpt. (1892), 
150; Ancient Marbles (1812), ix., pi. 40, fig. 4, p. 183; 
Pavlovski, p. 21, fig. 2 ; Lechat, Au Mus., p. 384, fig. 41). 


Lechat is certainly more correct, as the figure is undoubtedly 
of Ionic type, and is probably a direct importation. 

Mylonas, 'Ef 'Ap^., 1883, p. 43, No. 24; Polites, z&., 
p. 238, pi. xii. b; Winter. A.M., 1888, pp. 121, 2; Pavlovsku 
p. 270, fig. 296; Lepsius, p. 71, No. 43; Lechat, An Mus., 
p. 384, fig. 42; id., Sc. Ait., p. 202; Lennann, pp. 35, 111. 



Head of Athena found in digging the foundations of the 
museum in 1863. 

Left shoulder and aegis with fragments of the giant E. of 
the Parthenon in 1882. 

A few fragments E. of Erechtheum and E. of Parthenon 
in 1887. 

Giant's right shoulder and leg S.E. of Parthenon in 1888. 
Rearranged by Schrader in 1897. 

Island marble. 

H. 2 m. Plinth 1 '61 m. x '90 m. x -08 m. 

Missing right shoulder, arm, and nearly all breast of 
Athena, left arm between shoulder and hand, and considerable 


portions of the legs. Of the giant the head, right hand, and 
lower left arm with shield are gone. Both figures are con- 
siderably patched with plaster. 

Athena is shewn upright, striding to the left with left leg 
advanced and bent sharply at the knee. The heel of her 
right foot is raised from the ground. Her left arm is extended 
beneath the aegis, and the hand holds a tubular object 
variously interpreted as the shaft of the crest of the giant's 
helmet (Schrader), or a snake from the fringe of the aegis 
(Furtwangler). From the right shoulder we can see that 
this arm was raised in the act of thrusting a spear at the 
prostrate foe. The head is pushed forward looking down- 
wards at the giant, who lies extended on the ground to the 
left of the deity (the spectator's right). He has been success- 
fully restored from a number of fragments, and supports his 
reclining form on the shield which he wears on his left arm. 
His head and body are turned from the goddess, and 
his failing right arm holds a sword obliquely across his 
body. A rough projection shews where the sword was 
attached. The hole on the right breast was probably for 
the insertion of the nipple. His legs are stretched out 
along the front of the plinth, the right knee being raised the 

The giant is nude, with long hair coloured dark blue or 
green falling on his back. His body is clumsily turned so 
that the muscles of the stomach are treated quite incorrectly. 
The goddess wears Ionic chiton and himation in the same 
way as the Korai> with the himation fastened on the right 
shoulder only, and above both garments the aegis, which is 
stretched out on the left arm. On her head she wears a 
helmet with a hole on the top for the insertion of the crest. 
Round it is a band with holes for the addition of bronze 
ornaments. Under the helmet her hair falls in a flat mass 
on her back, and in four wavy locks on each shoulder in front, 
appearing on the forehead as a fringe of zigzag waves. She 
is barefooted, and wears circular earrings pierced in the 
centre for an additional ornament. Her hair shews traces 
of red, the aegis of a blue or green scale pattern, and the 
helmet of a blue or green patterned border. The garments 
shew no visible colour. 


The head is round with square face and heavy chin. The 
eyes are very slightly aslant and oval, but with the upper lid 
perceptibly more arched ; the mouth is bow-shaped, and the 
lips terminated by vertical cuts; chin and cheek-bones are 

Thus the features shew little trace of Ionian influence 
(cf. p. 21), and are closely parallel with the truly Attic 
type of head. A remarkably close resemblance can l>e traced 
to the beautifully preserved head of Boreas or Theseus in the 
museum at Eretria (Furtwangler, Aegina> p. 323, figs. 59 

At the back the work is flat and smooth, with shallow 
incisions to carry round the folds. Both figures are com- 
pletely worked at the back. A circular hole by Athena's 
right foot may have served for slinging a rope to raise the 

Schrader has found traces of a similar hole in a fragment 
of the left foot 

The relative positions of the two figures were at first fixed 
by Studniczka from a consideration of red and blue paint- 
marks on the thigh of the giant, which he interpreted as 
droppings from the coloured hair and aegis of Athena. This 
would entail moving the giant further from the goddess, but 
Schrader, in his restoration, rejected this evidence and brought 
the figures closer together, supposing that Athena held the 
giant's helmet in her left hand. Furtwangler, on the other 
hand, by the analogy of a vase, suggested that what Athena 
held was a snake from the fringe of her own aegis, and con- 
sequently that there was nothing to prevent the giant being 
moved further away to suit the paint-marks. But Schrader 
still maintains his original view. Traces of paint still appear 
on the lower leg of the left-hand giant, which must come from 
the sima and not from Athena's aegis. Also on the top of 
Athena's hand there is a working away of the surface which 
he explains by the fact that the under part of the crest of the 
helmet rested upon it The composition of the pediment, 
however, certainly favours Furtwangler's view, which is now 
adopted by Heberdey. 

The small relief, No. 120, also supports the position 
holding the aegis. 


B. PROSTRATE GIANT from right corner of pediment. 

Found mostly in 1882, E. of Parthenon and put together 
by Schrader. 

Island marble. 

Length %'% m. H. (with plinth) '89. 

Missing face and greater part of front of body, part of 
right leg, right knee, and right shin. 

A fragment of plinth with a gigantic right hand has 
recently been found by Schrader, which probably belongs to 
this figure. The hand is open and rests on the ground. 

The figure is considerably restored with plaster. 

The giant is extended venire a terre with left leg stretched 
out, and right leg bent under the body. He supports him- 
self on the ground with his right arm, and with his left holds 
up a shield over his head to protect himself from attack. 
The face looks upwards in profile ; the body is twisted so as 
to face the spectator. The giant is nude, with short hair 
worn in thick locks under a band going round the head, and 
is unbearded. The front of the figure is much damaged, but 
was originally worked to a very fine surface, while the top 
and back still shew the marks of the toothed chisel. There 
are dubious traces of dark blue on the hair. 

C. PROSTRATE GIANT from left corner of pediment. 

Found mostly in 1882 E. of the Parthenon. 

Island marble. 

H. 1;05 m. L.l-99m. 

Missing forehead and most of face, with the whole of the 
front of the body and both feet, since the left is wrongly 
restored. Also the top of the shoulders behind, and the left 


As set up in the museum the giant presents his back to 
the spectator. He has the right leg stretched out backwards, 
and the left bent double resting on the knee. His left arm 
rests on the ground, and his right, probably holding a sword, 
is extended to guard his head. Thus his attitude is practically 
symmetrical with the giant on the other corner. 

His head was at first thought to be female because of the 
hair, which is arranged in spiral curls on the forehead and 
hangs low on the back and shoulders in zigzag locks. Traces 
of dark blue colour are visible on it. There is no doubt 
however that it fits the torso owing to the large socket cut 
in the torso for the insertion of the head and shoulders, and 
for fastening to the cornice above. 

The surviving forehead and eyes shew similar treatment 
to Athena's. This giant also is nude and exhibits a treat- 
ment parallel with that of the other two. We see fine finish 
in front, and modelling carried all the way round. The 
knowledge of anatomy is very superficial, and the limbs are 
fleshy and clumsy. The feet are best understood, and shew 
the Attic convention of the big toe longest. 

Ot]ier surviving fragments of the pediment are : 

D. 4O97 and 4O98. A PAIR OF FEET smaller in scale 
than Athena's, facing the right corner of the pediment and 
with the left foot raised at the heel. The absence of drapery 
about the ankles proves them to be male. They are long ancl 
sinewy, and very finely worked. (Cut on following page.) 

Length of feet Athena *31 m. Giant '84? m. (average). 
D. -28m. -9 m. 

E. 41OO. A LEFT FOOT raised at the heel facing the 


left corner of the pediment, of the same 
scale and also male. 


P. 3O74. A LEFT FOOT slightly 
larger in scale than Athena's, facing 
the left corner and also raised at the 

Besides these feet there is yet another 
left foot facing the left corner in the 
left foot of C. This cannot belong to 
him because it is polished on the left 
side and rough on the right. It might 
belong to B instead of his left foot, but 
in any case we are left with an addi- 
tional left foot. 

Thus we have evidence for at least 
four more figures in the pediment. 

Schrader's first arrangement of the composition consisted 
of a central group of Athena and her giant, then a pair of 
fighting gods and giants on each side, and a wounded giant 
without antagonist in each corner. Furtwangler pointed out 
that the giants are clearly defending themselves, and held 
that Athena and her giant should be separated to a greater 
distance. Room could not be found for two more gods, and 
so he abolished the two supposed giants of Schrader and left 
a pediment of six figures only, Athena and her giant in the 
centre, and a god with a prostrate giant on each side. 

This scheme however leaves the pediment too empty and 
fails to account for two left feet, one equal to a giant's and 
one rather larger than Athena's. 

Heberdey now proposes a new restoration, according to 
which Zeus (with the left foot slightly larger than Athena's) 
fights against a recumbent giant (with the gigantic left foot) 
on the left of Athena and her giant. He removes Athena 
from the centre of the pediment, leaving the actual centre 
empty, but with Athena and Zeus on either side of the 
central point, with their back legs and the axes of their 
bodies crossing one another. Thus their lines balance hi 
a similar way to the Athena and Poseidon of the W. pedi- 
ment of the Parthenon. He argues as follows : Athena is 


only 2 m. high, or with crest restored about 2*25 m., while 
the centre of the pediment is from % 45 m. to 2*60 m. high. 
Also the front line of her legs and drapery form a triangle 
in section with the apex facing the spectator. The space on 
one side of the apex he fills with the feet of Athena^s giant, 
and considers the space on the other side most suitably filled 
by the drawn-back left foot of Zeus, who strides forward in 
an attitude symmetrical with AthenaV On either side of 
the central group of four figures is a god despatching a 
wounded foe. 

This scheme accounts for all the fragments and for the 
dimensions of the pediment, and gives a better composition 
as a whole. The position of Zeus 1 prostrate opponent with 
a left foot facing to the left is still however rather difficult 
to imagine. Against this view Schrader urges that such a 
division into two halves is unparalleled in an ancient pedi- 
ment of this date. He attributes the gigantic left foot to 
one of the supplementary gods. 

In general the style of the pediment exhibits deficiency 
in anatomical skill but great delicacy of surface-finish. The 
sculptor is not yet capable of dealing adequately with a 
body which is twisted out of its normal position. His 
flesh too is heavy and not muscular. But there is a very 
perceptible advance upon the limbs of the poros Heracles 
of No. 35, and the feet and knees in particular have attained 
a very adequate expression. 

It is easy however to see that the Ionian importations, 
which intervened between Nos. 35 and 36 and this pediment, 
taught the Attic sculptors a great deal more in regard to 
surface-treatment and beauty of detail than they did in 
regard to the nude male form. We have seen (p. 26) 
that the anatomy of the male form at Athens is not 
properly understood until the period of Peloponnesian 

In composition, in technique, and in execution the group 
is one of the masterpieces of archaic sculpture. 

Head of Athena Brunn, Decharme, and Pervanoglu, 
Butt, deir Inst., 1864, p. 85; Martinelli, 54; Arch. Anz., 
xxii. 1864, p. 234*; KoWer, Arch. Anz., xxrv. 1866, p. 169* ; 
Sybel, No. 5004; Lucy Mitchell, History of Greek Sculpture, 



p. 214; Baumeister, Denkmdler, i. p. 338; Friederichs-Wolters, 
No. 106; Philios, 'E<. 'A/%-, 1888, p. 93, pL iv. 

Rest of group Mylonas, 'E. 'Ap%., 1883, p. 41, No. 9 ; 
Studniczka, A.M., xi/1886, pp. 185199; Petersen, A.M., 
1887, pp. 145, 387; Welters, A.M., 1888, pp. 108, 225; 
Lechat, B.C.H., 1888, pp. 436, 437; Overbeck 4 , i. p. 193, 
fig. 42; Collignon, i. p. 375, fig. 193; E. Gardner, p. 163; 
Perrot, vm. p. 552, figs. 279281 ; B.-B., Nos. 471 and 472 ; 
Lechat, Sc. Att., p. 303 foil. ; Schrader, A.M., xxn. 1897, 
pp. 59 112, pis. m., iv., v.; id., Mvypeia, p. 60, pis. xiv., 
xiv A, xiv B; id., Porosarch. (Wiegand), p. 126, pis. xvi., xvn.; 
Klein, p. 249; Furtwangler, Munch. Sitzber., 1905, p. 

632. SPHINX. 

Found during winter 
1882-3, E. of Parthe- 

Island marble. 
H. -55m. 

Missing fore legs, 
body from waist down- 

Damaged nose. 
All in one piece. 
The pose and type 
of thesphinx are similar 
to No. 630, except that 
the head is turned over 
the right shoulder in- 
stead of facing fall 
front. The turn of the neck however produces no effect 
on the position of the chest, and no muscles are indi- 

The hair is confined by a plain band round the head, 
above which are smooth horizontal waves. On the top of 
the head is a raised pattern with a deep hole in it. This 
probably held the curving ornament sometimes worn by 
sphinxes in vase-paintings (cf. B.C.H., 1895, p. 74, fig. 2; 


'E<. 'A/ay., 1894, pp. 225, 236), and on coins (B. Jf. Cat., 
Cyprus, Idalium; Babelon, Traite, pi. xxvm. 24), which may 
be the remains of the Egyptian royal head-dress. It is note- 
worthy that this ornament occurs predominantly in Ionian 
or oriental representations of sphinxes. 

Polites suggests that the sphinx is wearing a close-fitting 
cap, of which the band is the lower edge. Probably, however, 
a cap would be represented as quite flat, like that of the 
MoscJiophoros. On the forehead the hair is waved hori- 
zontally, and falls behind the ears in masses of ten and six 
locks, on left and right shoulder respectively. From the 
front only six are visible on each side. The rest of the hair 
falls in a horizontally-ridged mass behind with spiky ends. 
The individual locks on the shoulders do not get thinner 
towards the top, as the whole mass gets thinner, but diminish 
in number, appearing to vanish into the neck. 

The face is rather more developed in type than No. 630. 
It is neither so long nor so flat. The eyes are nearly straight, 
and there is an incised line between lids and brows. The 
chin and cheeks are better modelled. The body however is 
equally primitive. There are remains of red on the hair, red 
painted earrings, a red necklace, and red traces of a feather- 
pattern on the chest and wings both back and front. The 
edges of the wings are chipped at intervals to give a rougher 
and more naturalistic edge. The groove between them is 
painted dark blue with white stripes. Formerly three lines 
could be distinguished separating the wing from the body in 
front, and the three separate rows of feathers could be more 
clearly observed. 

The sphinx, though perhaps a little later than No. 630 
in date, seems from the character of the features to be clearly 
earlier than the two sphinxes from Spata and Piraeus in the 
National Museum. 

Mylonas, 'Ety. 'Apx, 1883, p. 43, No. 23 (illustrated); 

Polites, &., p. 238, pi. xn. a; Petersen, A.M., 1886, p. 376; 
Winter, A.M., 1888, pp. 121, 2; Pavlovski, p. 270, fig. 96; 
Lepsius, p. 72, No. 44; Lechat, Sc. Att., p. 203, fig. 14; 
Lermann, pp. 35, 111 ; Klein, p. 246. 

D. 12 




Torso found N. of Acropolis 
near Erechtheum in 1886. 

Head found before 1881 
(Sybel, No. 5077), and trans- 
ferred by Schrader from No. 
692. " 

Island marble. 
H. 1-21 m. 

Missing right hand, feet 
and ankles, left hand, neck, and 
back of head, right knee and 
large piece each side of it. 

Damaged whole of fea- 
tures, and drapery generally. 
Put together from six pieces: 
head fragment, back from right 
shoulder to middle of left 
shoulder, body to knees, lower 
legs, two pieces of drapery 
hanging from left hand. 

Inserted lower right arm 
(in situ\ missing left hand. 

The pose is upright, with 
left leg advanced, left hand holding gathered drapery to 
side, and right hand extended with offering. The pose thus 
corresponds exactly with the usual pose for the KoraL 

The costume consists of Ionic chiton and himation. The 
chiton resembles that worn by the KoraL It appears on 
right chest and arm, and is sewn down the arm. It also 
appears below the himation above the feet. It has vertical 
incisions for the folds, not crinkly like the KoraL It was 
originally red, and had a blue border with red squares round 
neck and down right arm. The himation is not fastened 
like that of the Korai, but thrown over the left shoulder 
from behind, brought round the body, and thrown over the 
same shoulder from the front. It shews a green stripe border 
on the upper and lower edges. The drill seems to be used 
for some of the hanging folds. 

The hair is combed forward from the crown, and falls on 


the forehead in three superimposed rows of buckles. It was 
short behind, and probably twisted round a ring like the 
plaster restoration. Faint yellow ochre colour is visible. 
There is a hole above the top of the fringe, probably for a 

The head is egg-shaped and of Ionic type. It was at 
first placed on the torso No. 692, where it was quite un- 
suitable. Schroder's restoration, though there is no actually 
joining surface, is perfectly satisfactory. 

The eyes are straight with large tear-ducts, in which 
traces of red are visible. The mouth is also straight, the 
face oval and the cheek-bones prominent. When whole, the 
face probably resembled No. 685. 

The muscles of the neck are shewn and the torso muscles 
appear under the chiton. The sex is also evident. The 
muscles of the calf are prominent, but the right forearm is 
small and weakly. 

Although the effeminate costume has been taken as a 
sign of Ionian origin, the face appears to be of a modified 
type, with Ionian head and mouth but some Attic features. 
The muscles of the torso are treated with more than Ionic 
carefulness. The statue therefore probably belongs to the 
later part of Period II. 

B.-B., No. 551; Lepsius, p. 70, No. 19; Collignon, p. 59, 
fig. 127; Pavlovski,p. 100,% 24; Lechat, Sc. Att., pp. 267, 8; 

Perrot, vin. p. 651, fig. 321; Joergensen, p. 181, note 1; 
Lerrnann, p. 67, fig. 29, pi. vui.; Schrader, Arch. Marm., 
p. 55, figs. 46 and 47. 

634. HEAD (? ATHENA). 

This and the following heads were mostly found in 1887, 
N.W. of the Erechtheum, cf. Petersen, A.M., 1887, p. 145. 

Island marble. 

H. -075m. 

Broken across right cheek and eyebrow, left eye and 
cheek. Nose damaged. Flat at the back with a dowel hole 
for fixing. There is also a flat horizontal surface cut into the 
back with another hole. Probably these served for the 
attachment of a helmet, and we may have here an Athena 
head. The mouth and. eyes are straight, the latter with 




red pupils. The chin is 
heavy and the profile dis- 
tinctly Pheidian in type. 
Surface and modelling are 
good but hard. The work 
probably belongs to the latter 
half of the 5th century. 

Schrader suggests that 
the head may be male and 
earlier than 480, because of 
its good surface. He com- 
pares it with a head in 
Strassburg (Michaelis, Fest- 

zur Phttokgen-Versamrnlung in Strassburg^ 1901, p. 10, 
8 and 4), but in both cases Pheidian influence seems 
iear. The sex is doubtful. 
Sybel, No. 5058. 


Found before 1881. 

Parian marble. 

H. -095 m. 

Missing top of helmet. 

The goddess wears a helmet 
with two side flaps. Under- 
neath it the hair appears in 
thick buckles. Only the front 
is worked with care, but the 
marble is very finely polished. 
The type is Pheidian, with 
thick pointed lips, the nose 
making a straight line with the 
forehead, wide open eyes with 
heavy lids, long oval face and 
deep head. A horizontal fold 
appears on the neck. No colour. Clearly a copy of one 
of the Pheidian Athenas, and nearly contemporary in date. 
Sybel, No. 5057 1 ; Furtwangler, A.M., 1881, p. 187, pi. vn 2 . 




Parian marble. 

H. -085 m. 

Point of chin, nose, and 
right side of neck broken. 

The hair is combed in hori- 
zontal waves all over the head, 
and falls in a horizontally di- 
vided mass on the back. The 
fringe is waved, and three zig- 
zag locks fall on each shoulder. 
It is coloured red. 

The eyes are raised and pro- 
truding, the cheek bones high, 
and the smile acute. Ordinary 
work of Ionic type. 

637. Part of FEMALE HEAD. 

Pentelic marble. 
H. -07m. 

Missing all back from crown, 
ears and lower part from nose 

A flat band with a green 
pattern runs round the head. 
Above this the hair is flat but 
parted. On the forehead it 
forms a scalloped fringe like 
Nos. 62 and 617. A slight 
incision marks the eyebrows. 
The eyes are of triangular shape with pointed corners. The 
nose is thick with nostrils hardly indicated. 

In general the resemblance to No. 622 is very marked, 
and we are justified with Schrader in connecting the two 
in a group of Hermes and the Charites. 

This group is among the earliest remains of purely Attic 
sculpture on the Acropolis. Cf. p. 16. 




Island marble. 

H. -102m. 

Missing head and arms, body 
from waist. 

The red hair falls in a pointed 
mass behind with wavy incisions. 
The figure wears a lion^s skin with 
paws tied in front on the chest and 
tail visible behind. Beneath it he 
wears a red chiton with wavy folds. 
Ordinary archaic work, evidently re- 
presenting Herakles. 


Island marble. 
H. -095 m. 

Missing end of nose. 
Hair in four zigzag waves 
round forehead, and three simi- 
lar ringlets on each shoulder. 
Above the high stephane the 
hair is flat, and at the back it 
falls in a mass of ten double 
zigzag locks. Traces of yellow 
colour are preserved. 

The ears are high with round 
earrings, the eyes raised and 
flat in the same way as No. 616, 
the mouth with moderate smile, 
chin and cheek-bones moderately prominent. The head is 
very high behind, the face long and oval. These are Ionic 
characteristics, but the head is probably due to an Attic 
artist following more closely than usual the foreign mode. 
So small an offering must clearly be of native origin. 

Island marble. 

EL -Mm. 

Missing added ringlets. 



The hair falls on the fore- 
head in a wavy fringe with 
spiral ends. Zigzag locks are 
combed over this fringe from 
the crown, and after covering 
the temples are tucked in be- 
hind the ears. The back hair 
falls over the xtephane in a 
square mass of fourteen double 
zigzag locks. The stephane has 
a red and green pattern. The 
shoulder-ringlets were added 
separately in three holes behind 
each ear with bronze pins, two 
of which remain m #itu 

Round head with long face 

and neck, prominent chin and cheek-bones, raised eyes of the 

type of No. 616, and oblique mouth ending in vertical cuts. 

The ears are carefully carved without earrings. 

The head belongs to the general group of Attic-Ionic 

heads, e.g. 616, 639, 648, etc., but shews a good deal more 

Attic character than No. 639 in the shape of the head, the 

mouth, and the ears. 

Gaz. des Beaux Arts, 1892, n. p. 113; Pavlovski, p. 197, 

fig. 60; Lechat, Au Mus., p. 236, fig. 240; Sc. Att., p. 228; 

Perrot, vin., fig. 296. 


Pentelic marble, 

H. -072m. 

Damaged nose and right side of neck. 

The hair is in four zigzag waves over the forehead, covered 
on the temples by similar locks combed down from the crown. 
The back hair falls over the stephane behind, and is confined 
by a band from ear to ear like Nos. 648, 678 and 679. It 
falls in long zigzag locks on the back and shoulders, three 
locks appearing in front of each shoulder. It is coloured red, 
and there are traces of green on the xtephane. 

The head is rather raised at the back in Ionic style, but 
the face and features are markedly Attic. The oval level 

1 84 


eyes have dark pupils and finely 
carved lids; the ears are care- 
fully moulded with circular ear- 
rings; the mouth shews a simple 
curve with a slight downward 
turn at the corners. The work 
is very fine, and the resemblance 
to No. 684 very remarkable. It 
is clear from this resemblance, 
especially in the lip-corners, 
that the head belongs to the 
latest phase of Attic-Ionic 
workmanship in Period III. 
Cf. Introd. p. 27. 

Schrader, Arch. Mann., p. 37 
(Heliogravure on p. 1). 

642. MALE HEAD. 

Parian marble. 
H. -10m. 

Missing top of head, left 
temple with part of eye, frag- 
ments of nose and beard. 

The hair is arranged in a 
heavy double fringe of spirals 
in front and a flat horizontally 
ridged mass behind. Aflatbancl 
runs round the head, and the 
hair above it is in flat ridges. 
Beard and moustache are shewn 
by zigzag incisions. The eyes 
protrude and are only roughly 
modelled, the nose is thick, 
and the mouth ends with a slight upward curl under the 
moustache. Chin and cheek-bones are prominent, and the 
head is narrow in comparison with its height and depth. 
It neither shews distinctively Attic features nor Peloponnesian 
influence, and must belong to the Attic-Ionic period. 
Lechat, Sc. Att., p. 274. 




Pentelic marble. 
H. -13m. 

Missing back and top of 
head, end of nose, and neck. 

The top and back were evi- 
dently broken in antiquity and 
worked over for the addition of 
a restored piece. Part of this 
restoration has been fortunately 
found by Schrader (No. 307) in 
a different material Parian 
marble. It joins directly on to 
the side-masses of hair in front 
of the ears, but it is studded 
with holes in front under the 
high stephane for the separate 

attachment of the locks of the fringe. Above these holes 
are six others at regular intervals for the attachment of 
bronze ornaments. Behind these is a hole for the menlskos. 

The fringe is in flat scalloped waves with zigzag locks 
over the temples. The back is broken even in the added 
piece. Traces of red colour are visible. 

The face is oval with prominent dimpled chin and cheek- 
bones, very narrow oval eyes largely covered by the lids, 
and a curved mouth of which the corners are worked off 
imperceptibly into the cheeks. Brows and eyelids are 
distinguished by black lines with an incised line between 
them at the top of the eye. 

The work is very good and the resemblance to No. 672 so 
marked that it can hardly be by a different artist. The 
fringe, the eyes, the shape of the cheek-bones, and the mouth 
are all practically identical. The style, too, is curious, since 
nearly every feature is markedly Ionic, but yet the material 
is Pentelic marble. 

It would seem that we have here either a case of a foreign 
sculptor working in local material, or a more faithful copying 
of an Ionian type than in any other example known to us. 

MZ^AM&I, xxxi. 1 (above) ; Lepsius, p. 73, No. 56, fig. 6 ; 
Pavlovski, p. 1811, fig. 69. 

1 86 


644. MALE HEAD. 

Parian marble. 
H. -115 m. 

Damaged forehead, left side, 
nose, lips, and chin. 

The hair is left quite smooth, 
and was once distinguished by 
paint. A flat taenia runs round 
the head, and is tied in a knot 
behind. A hole above the fore- 
head served to attach either an 
ornament on the taenia or pos- 
sibly a knot of hair. Below it 
the taenia makes an angle instead 
of running straight round. 

The eyes are low in the head, 
narrow and oval, with thick lids ; 

the nose is thin; the mouth small and straight turning 
down a little at the corners. The chin is light, the head 
very deep and flat above. This is clearly a type of head 
utterly different from either the Attic or Ionic. Flat, 
instead of being round or egg-shaped, with small features and 
light chin, and flat cheeks instead of the usual prominent 
chin and cheek-bones, it shews a different scheme of pro- 
portions, the three divisions of forehead, nose, and chin being 
approximately equal. The half-shut eye with its heavy lids 
and lines between lids and brows is very distinctive. Ob- 
viously the type is foreign, and its close resemblance to 
the later work of Polykleitos both in appearance and in 
measurements renders it certain that that type is Argive. 
Attic sculptors in the early fifth century were beginning to 
turn to Argos for inspiration, as we know not only from 
dubious stories of Pheidias 1 apprenticeship to Ageladas, but 
from the clear evidence of such figures as the so-called 
Theseus of the Parthenon, and here without doubt we see 
an imported Argive model. There is further a close re- 
semblance to No. 699, a head which is nearly connected 
with Pheidias, and which demonstrates clearly the Argive 
tendencies of his school. 

Winter connected this head with the equestrian fragment 


I8 7 

No. 697, and composed a group analogous to scene* from the 
W. frieze of the Parthenon. But the suggestion rests on 
conjecture only. Cf. Introduction, p. 25. 

Mvwela, pi. xxxi. 4 (below); Winter, Jb., 1893, p. 146- 


. . 
Lechat, Sc. Att., p. 479, fig. 42. 


Parian marble. 
H, -14m. 

Damaged cheek-bones, end 
of nose, upper lip, and chin. 

The hair is arranged in wide 
horizontal waves over the head 
above the curved stephane^ and 
in a horizontally divided square 
mass behind. Three zigzag locks 
fall on each shoulder, and the 
fringe consists of two super- 
imposed rows of wedge-shaped 
locks falling flat on the fore- 
head with horizontal incisions. 
The hair is red, the stephane 
green, and no other colour is 

The head is round with long oval face. The ears are 
high with round earrings. The heavy protruding eyes and 
slightly curved mouth are Attic characteristics, but the work 
is not carefully executed. 


Pentelic marble. 

H. -12m. 

Damaged all the face except 
top of forehead. 

The head is cut flat below for 
attachment to a torso. 

The goddess wears a green 
helmet fitting closely to head 
and neck. There were probably 
four red zigzag locks on each 
shoulder. A fringe also appears 


under the helmet, which has a hole above and a rough ridge 
shewing where the crest was attached. The lips were red, 
the cheek-bones prominent. The head is heavy and round, 
and of Attic type. 


Pentelic marble. 
H. -06m. 

Damaged crests of helmet, 
nose, chin, and eyelids. The 
neck is broken off close under 
the chin on the right side. 

The goddess wears an elabo- 
rate helmet with double raised 
rim, side flaps, and three crests 
in the form of animals. Rough 
buckles of red hair appear in 
front of the ears, which are set 
low on the head. The eyes 
have traces of red pupils and 
heavy lids; the mouth is curved 
down at the corners. Chin and 
general aspect of the face are heavy. The work is clumsy, 
the helmet not being straight, nor the eyes symmetrical. 
The surface is polished very smoothly. A late, probably 
Roman, copy of the Parthenos in miniature. 


Parian marble. 

H. -12 m. 

Surface much damaged. 

The hair is plain above the curving stephane^ and falls 
over it at the back in a square horizontally divided mass with 
a confining band between the ears. In front it forms a 
waved fringe with zigzag masses coming down to cover the 
temples. Hair, lips, and pupils of eyes are all red. 

The eyes are treated in the same way as those of No. 616, 
and the lips are similarly terminated by sharp cuts. The 



ears are adorned with circular 
earrings, concave in shape with a 
central boss. Lechat has rightly 
pointed out the resemblances of 
the two heads. At the same 
time No. 64*8 is clearly the earlier 
both from the fashion of the 
hair and the more bony and 
awkward structure of the face. 
The shape of the head too is 
more Ionian in type. 

Lechat, Au MM., p. 308, fig. 
28 ; Sc. AtL, p. 227. 


Parian marble. 

H. -14 m. 

Nose and chin damaged. 

The hair is in a zigzag fringe 
below, and in flat horizontal 
waves above the stephane. Be- 
hind falls a mass of zigzag 
locks, and three ringlets on 
each shoulder. It is coloured 
red, and the stephcme has a 
green maeander pattern. 

The eyes are treated like 
those of No. 616, the mouth is 
slightly curved; and the face 
is oval. Flat round earrings 
decorate the ears. The head 

is a type similar to Nos. 64*8 and 616, but of less careful 
execution. 'g 




Island marble. 

H. -116 m. 

Damaged nose, mouth,eyes, 
and left cheek. 

The hair is left rough above 
the curving stephane, which is 
decorated with a green stripe. 
It falls in a semicircular hori- 
zontally waved mass behind, 
and in three zigzag locks on 
each shoulder. Traces of red 
are visible. 

The face is heavy with mas- 
sive -chin and small slightly 
curved mouth. The round 
earrings are green with a red 
pattern. The head belongs to the same type as the last 
two and as No. 616, and is a work of the ordinary Attic- 
Ionic school. 


Found W. of Parthenon in 1882. 

Parian marble. 

H. -16 m. 

Damaged left side, forehead, 
nose, and chin. Cut for insertion 
into a torso with a tenon below. 

The hair is in a deeply arched 
wavy fringe on the forehead, and in 
horizontal rolls above the stephane. 
It falls in a parted mass on the 
back with horizontal waves, and in 
three zigzag locks on each shoulder. 
It is coloured red, with a green- 
patterned stepkane* 

The colour of the left eye is 
well preserved, and consists of the 

normal black dot in a red ring with a black outline, and 
black lines for the eyebrows and lashes. 



The face is long and pointed, with prominent chin and 
cheek-bones. The mouth is a finely cut bow in shape, and is 
terminated by deep cuts. The neck is long, and the gaze 
directed downwards. The earrings are round and hollowed, 
with traces of a green pattern. 

The head belongs to the normal Attic-Ionic type. 

Mylonas, 'E. *A/>^., 1883, p. 42, No. 11. " 


Parian marble. 

H. -IS m. 

Face much damaged. 

The hair is combed straight 
back from the stephane and falls 
over the back in zigzag locks. 
Three similar locks on each 
shoulder. The fringe consists 
of similar short locks with traces 
of coils over them at the temples. 

The stephane is decorated 
with a green maeander, and 
the ears have circular hollowed 

The eyes are narrow and 
very much pointed, with finely 

carved lids. Chin and cheek-bones are prominent, and the 
smile is acute. Good early work of pronounced Ionian type. 

653. MALE HEAD. 

Island marble. 

H. -13m. 

Surface much damaged by fire. 

The hair is in smooth horizontal waves above the ring 
which runs round the head. In front a short fringe of 
21 straight spiral locks hangs on the forehead, while 14 
larger similar locks hang on the neck behind. There is a 
hole on the top of the head for a merdskos. 



The eyes protrude consider- 
ably, the mouth is straight, 
and the lips terminate in long 
vertical grooves, which make the 
chin narrow, and give a melan- 
choly expression to the face. 
The ears are large and flat. 
The round heavy head shews 
no Ionian influence and is 
thoroughly Attic. 

Deonna, Les "Apollons archa- 
'iques? No. 16, p. 41. 


Found near the Erech- 
theum before 1829. 
Parian marble. 
H. -14m. 

Missing back of head and 
left part of polos crown. 

The cheeks and chin are 

The hair has a fringe of 
flat waves in front, parted 
in the middle, and shewing 
traces of red. The object 
on the head is too massive 
for the st&phane^ and is a 
form of crown. For this 
diadem, cf. No. 696. It is 

perhaps a sign of divinity and is sometimes attributed to 

There are no earrings, but in front of each ear is a curious 
lump. The eyes are oval, pointed, and sloping ; the smile is 
acute; the nose thin; the chin pointed, with the jawbone 
outlined by a groove. 



The expressionless and conventional type is typically 
Ionian, and we have here an undoubtedly early example of 
imported Chiot art. 

Milchhofer, A.M., iv., 1879, p. 71, pi. vi., No. 1; Mvypela, 
xxxi. 4 (above) ; Sybel, No. 5135 ; Hofmann, Untersuchungen 
uber die Darstdlung des Haares, n. 16; Lepsius, p. 70, 
No. 26; Lechat, Au Mm., p. 09; Sc. Att., p. 200, % 13. 

655. Small SEATED FIGURE. 

Found N.E. of Acropolis in 1887. 
Pentelic marble. 
H- -285 m. 

Missing head, lap, most of surface 
of right leg, lower right arm, right 
shoulder, fingers of left hand, front of 

The statuette is blackened by fire, 
and the surface has never received a 
final polish. 

The figure is carved out of a square 
block of marble, of which the sides and 
back are left plain. The legs and arms 
of the throne are not distinguished. 
There is no footstool. 

The figure is female, and clad in Ionic 

chiton and himation, which are both left quite smooth. 
The left hand rests on the thigh palm upwards and open. 
Probably both hands supported some long rectangular object 
on the lap. The irapvfyij is shewn by a flat double fold 
between the legs. The himation is worn like a shawl and 
falls symmetrically on the legs. Apparently sandals are worn. 
No colour is preseVved. 

The appearance of the statuette is very archaic and rude, 
like the earliest Branchidai figures. This however may be 
due more to the small scale and inferior workmanship than to 
great antiquity. A cheap votive offering of the Attic-Ionic 

Petersen, A.M., 1887, p. 145. 






Parian marble. 
H. -105m. 

Missing head, except lower jaw on 
left side, left arm from elbow, part of 
right lower arm, front of object held in 
right hand, all body below waist. 

The red hair falls in a flat square mass 

The figure wears an Attic peplos with 
overfall fastened down both arms. This is shewn quite flat 
with traces of green colour. The figure holds a red tablet- 
shaped object against the right breast. The modelling of the 
bosom is correct, but otherwise the figure is flat. The style 
is primitive, but there are no signs of a very early date, so 
the statuette is probably Attic-Ionian. 
Lechat, Au Mus., p. 190. 

657. MALE HEAD. 

Found before 1881. 
Parian marble. 
H. -lm. 

Damaged above the forehead and on the nose. On the 
forehead are 45 holes for the insertion of fringe-locks. 



The hair is plain, twisted over an encircling ring like 
No. 698, and the details left to colour, while a fringe was 
inserted in bronze. The left side is not worked, and therefore 
the head belonged to a figure or group in high relief. For 
the same reason the fringe-holes do not extend further to the 
left than the temple. 

Regarded in profile, the head has a very vigorous and 
attractive air. It has been published by Lange, who calls 
attention to its bony structure as contrasted with Ionic work. 
He thinks that it" cannot be Attic, and ascribes it to a 
Sikyonian-Aeginetan school. Clearly it shews many points 
of resemblance to the Argive type of Nos. 644 and 6$9. We 
see the same narrow eye with thick lids, the same small mouth 
with parted lips, the same flat cheeks and crescent-shaped ear, 
and the same light chin. The head, however, is rounder, and 
does not shew so marked a swelling of the occiput. Probably 
the varieties, which are Attic in character, point only to a 
native artist in this case, whereas No. 644 is certainly foreign 

Mpiftueeo, pi. xxxi. 1 (below); Lepsius, p. 71, No. 38; 
Sybel, No. 5061; Lange, A.M., 1882, p. 193, pi. ix. 1; Graef, 
A.M. 9 1890, p. 20, No. 4 ; Lechat, Sc. Att., p. 480, fig. 48. 


Parian marble. 

H. -115m. 

Right side much damaged by 
fire, and top broken off. 

The goddess wears a close- 
fitting helmet with a hole for 
the shaft of the crest. A triple 
zigzag fringe appears on the 
forehead, and three similar locks 
on each shoulder, with a hori- 
zontally-ridged mass behind. 
The eyes and mouth are of 
Attic-Ionic type. The ears are 
high, with round earrings. No 
traces of colour. 

This head is attributed by 



Schrader with practical certainty to the torso No. 293 (452), 
which represents Athena in combat with a giant. 

Lange, AM., vn., 1882, p. 193, pi. ix. 2; Schrader, 
Arch. Marm., p. 60, fig. 50. 


Parian marble. 
H. -24 m. 

Missing nose, mouth, left 
cheek, and top of head ; the left 
eve and neck are damaged. 

The fringe consists of deeply 
arched waves on the forehead, with 
small flat spirals lying above them 
in front of the stephane. Semi- 
circular zigzag masses cover the 
fringe on the temples. Behind 
falls a mass of zigzag locks, on 
the shoulders three wavy locks of 
three strands each. In front of 
the ears the masses of hair are 
deeply undercut, and the centres 
of the flat spirals are bored for inserted ornaments. Holes, 
013 m. broad, pierce the shoulder locks at the neck to admit 
the passage of a necklace. 

This complicated coiflure is painted a bright red. It is 
crowned with a curving st&phane, and a chaplet of pearls in 
front of the stephane, both of which are coloured green. 

The ears are sloping and are bored for inserted earrings. 
The narrow half-closed eyes have red pupils and two fine 
incised lines in the hollow between lid and brow. The cheek- 
bones are prominent, and the lips are terminated by a marked 

This curious and elaborate head bears some resemblance 
to Nos. 643 and 672 in the shape of the eyes and the 
prominent cheek-bones. But both these features and more 
particularly the hair are of a more elaborate and later 
development, and the Ionian corners of the mouth are re- 
placed by the Attic dimple. The work then is Attic, but it 
is also very obviously Ionizing, and it may therefore belong 


to the latest Attic-Ionic period of Nos. 684 and 641, Cf. also 
No. 661. The head belongs to a full-size Kore statue. 

Pavlovski, p. 247, fig. 87; Lechat, Ait Jtfiw., p. 10, 
fig. 23 ; Sc. Ait., p. 225. 


Parian marble. 
H. -165m. 

The nose and left eye are 
damaged,andthe chin is broken 
away. Put together from two 

The hair is in a fringe of 
waves with two rows of spiral 
ringlets below, and with side- 
coils on the temples. Above 
the stephane it lies in the usual 
horizontal waves, and in three 
locks on each shoulder. The 
back hair is not visible. Both 
hair and stephane are red, the 
latter with a maeander pattern, 
from which the colour has disappeared. On the crown is a 
hole for the Tnenlskos. 

The ears are sloping and hollow with round earrings, on 
which traces of a pattern survive without colour. The 
eyes are sloping, the nose thin, the mouth raised with sharply 
cut lips. The head shews some resemblance to No. 674, but 
is much less carefully worked. The mouth is rather unique, 
as the cuts at the corner of the lips are carried up to join 
oblique grooves from the nostrils. 

Mvrjpela, pL xxxi. 3 (below) ; Pavlovski, p. 203, fig. 62 ; 
Hofmann, UidersucJiungen, pi. u. 34. 

Pentelic marble. 

H. -24m. 

Damaged top, back, and side of helmet, nose, chin, and 



A tenon below shews that the 
head was intended for insertion 
into a torso. 

The goddess wears a helmet 
with a ridge round it like a ste- 
pliane> bearing also a typical green 
pattern. Above is a hole for the 
shaft of the crest. A wavy fringe 
appears in front, and four locks 
of wavy strands on each shoulder. 
The eyes are small and protrud- 
ing, the mouth well-shaped with 
lips in form of a bow, the chin 
and cheek-bones prominent, and 
there are heavy lateral grooves 
from the nostrils. The expression is curious, and resembles 
Nos. 659 and 672, though not very closely. The head 
probably belongs to the same late Attic-Ionic period, a 
time when the sculptors were trying to add variety to the 
conventional type. 

662. FEMALE HEAD. ' 

in the museum. 

Parian marble. 

H. -185 m. 

Missing whole of face from 
ear to ear, and lower part of 

The hair is arranged in a 
chignon on the neck with a 
small loop behind each ear, and 
is finely combed in front under 
the stephane, with masses falling 
on the temples. Above the ste- 
phane circular waves of hair run 
round the head, and fine; wavy 
incised lines are combed down 
from the crown. The colour is 
the most brilliant red preserved 


The xtephane is curved behind the ears and coloured 
green. Behind it are marks of a bronze wreath as well. 
The delicate ears are adorned with green-patterned earrings. 
The head is round in type, and therefore probably Attic- 

663. MALE HEAD. 

Island marble. 
H. -17m. 

Damaged nose, chin, and 

The hair falls in a fringe of 
thick spiral locks in front of a 
thin ring running round the 
head. Above the ring circular 
waves denote the hair, at the back 
zigzag locks ending in spirals on 
the nape of the neck. The red 
colour is very well preserved. 
The menlskos is also preserved 
entire, a rectangular bronze rod 
flattened at the end, and pro- 
jecting about -10 m. above the 

head. The eyes are narrow with broad upper lids, and shew 
red rings for the pupils. The ears are set very much aslant, 
the cheek-bones are prominent, the mouth curved in an acute 
smile. The head is very high behind, and shews all the Ionic 
characteristics except slanting eyes. Lechat remarks the 
resemblance to the latest of the Ptoon heads (jB.C.jfiT., XL, 
1887, pis. XIIL, xiv.). It is a fine piece of work and clearly 
of the best Chiot period. A later more Atticized variant 
of the type is to be seen in the Apollo in the Collection 
Barracco at Rome. 

Mvrjpela, pi. xxxi. % (above) ; Pavlovski, p. 13, fig. 34 ; 
Perrot, vin. p. 607, fig. 305 ; Lechat, Au Mus., p. 377, % 40; 
Sc. Ait., p. 57 ; Deonna, Les "Apollons archdiques? No. 15, 

pp. 140, 353. 

, p 
, 3 




Parian marble. 
H. -14m. 

Forehead, nose, and chin 
damaged. Surface much de- 

The hair is combed in fine 
wavy lines from the crown down- 
wards, and falls in zigzag locks 
behind and on the shoulders 
(apparently only two on each 
side). The fringe consists of six 
flat wedges on the forehead, with 
the fine comb-marks waving right 
across them. The place of the 
stephane is taken by a plaited 
fillet. The colour is yellow 
ochre. The head belongs to the Attic-Ionic type with 
moderately curved lips terminated by cuts, and prominent 
chin and cheek-bones. The ears are flat with circular ear- 

The work is less fresh than most of these heads, and the 
hair and fillet point to a fairly late date. 

Mvijpeia, xxxi. 3 (above); Hofmann, Untermchungen, 
pi. i. 15; Lechat, Au Mus., p. 10. 

665. MALE FIGURE of "Early Apollo" type. 
Found in 1887 E. of Erechtheum. 

Island marble. 

H. -96 m. 

Missing head, left arm from just below shoulder, right 
leg from knee, left leg from above knee. 

Damaged all the front surface is split and calcined by 
fire. The middle of the back and thumb and first finger of 
the right hand are also injured and broken. 

Put together from three pieces body, right lower arm, 
right hand. The latter two pieces were added by Schrader, 
who has also identified parts of the left arm. 

The pose is the usual one for this type with both hands 
hanging by the sides and the left leg advanced. The arms 



are separated from the body 
from just above the elbow and 
the legs from the middle of 
the thighs. The right hand is 
clenched. The hair falls on the 
nape of the neck in a square 
mass with horizontal divisions. 
The three divisions of the torso 
measure -15 m., $ m., -15 m. 
The pectorals and external ob- 
lique or hip muscle are well 
shewn, the collar-bones indi- 
cated, and the deltoids and la- 
tlmmus dorsl correctly modelled 
on the back. The glutel are 
prominent and quite flat at the 
side. The thighs are thick and 
rounded in front, the sides and 
abdomen flat. The arm and 
hand are very good, clearly 
superior for instance to the 
Naxian torso No. 619. The 
line of the false ribs is carried 

to a point like Nos. 624 and 690. The right knee is carefully 
worked, and the swelling of the hip muscle very perceptible. 
This puts it in a later or more developed class than most 
of the " Apollos " of the National Museum, and it should be 
compared rather with the later figures from the Ptoon, As 
compared with the giant of No. 631 the arm is similar, but 
the neck is more primitive, and we should therefore be inclined 
to attribute it to an earlier period. Possibly however it is 
not Attic, and therefore may belong to a different system of 

The base No. 596 certainly belongs to this statue. 
M. Deonna in his recent work on the archaic " Apollos "" 
dates this statue in the last quarter of the sixth century 
among the later members of the class owing to the developed 
treatment of the muscles, especially of the arm, and to the 
great convexity of the back. He sees in it the work of an 
Attic artist. 



Welters, A.M., 1887, p. 267; Lepsius, p. 70, No. 20; 
Lechat, Sc. Att^ p 255, fig. 16 ; Schrader, Arch. Marm*, 
p. 53, fig. 45; Deonna, Les "Apollons archa'iques (Geneva, 
1909), No. 13, fig. 18, pp. 139, f~ 


Island marble. 
H. -33 m. 

Missing body below hips, lower 
right arm and sicle drapery, lower left 

Both the lower arms were inserted 

The figure is in the usual pose, clad 
in Ionic chiton and himation worn like 
a shawl loosely over both shoulders. 
As both arms were extended, the dra- 
pery hangs in straight folds round the 

The hair is rough above the stephane, 
with a fringe of semicircular overlapping 
zigzag waves. It falls behind in the 
usual mass with free ends, and in three wavy locks on each 
shoulder. There are traces of green on stephane and earrings, 
but no other colour. The figure is quite smooth behind. 

The eyes are raised and level, the mouth straight with a 
heavy chin. The cheek-bones stand out prominently. Ordinary 
work of markedly Attic type. 

Pavlovski, p. 193, fig. 57; Lechat, An Mu$., p. 170. 


Pentelic marble. 

H. -225m. 

Missing head, both lower arms, legs from knees, ends of 
drapery on right side. 



The right lower arm was inserted. 

Ordinary Ionic costume and pose. 
The hanging folds on the himation over- 
fall are oblique. The chiton shews 
traces of green. 

The red hair falls in eight zigzag 
locks behind and in three on each 

The work shews no special distinc- 


Found W. of Parthenon in 1882. 
Parian marble. 
H. -275 m. 

Missing lower arms, right leg from 
knee, left leg from mid-thigh, top of 
head which has been smoothed off flat, 
probably after a breakage, with a dowel- 
hole in the centre to fasten a new piece. 
The right arm was inserted. 
In ordinary Ionic costume and pose. 
The chiton is green with a lighter green 
or blue border. A similar border ap- 
pears on the hanging folds of the hima- 
tion in front. Traces of red and blue 
on himation border behind. 

The hair is of the usual zigzag type 
with a waved fringe, coloured red with a green maeander on 
the stephane. 

The pupils and lips are red, the eyelids and brows black, 
the ears very high with round earrings and a spot of blue, 
perhaps to denote some pendant, below the right earring. 
The mouth droops a little at the corners, and the general type 



of the face belongs to the Attic-Ionic school of Nos. 616 and 
648. The shoulders are broad, and a green painted necklace 
is worn. 

Mylonas, 'E<. 'A w , 1883, pi. vm. 3, p. 40, No. SI, p. 94; 
Lepsius, p. 70, No. 31 ; Lechat, Au Mus., p. 13. 


Found E. of the Erechtheum in 1887. 
Parian marble. 

The two fragments, respectively '68 m. 
and 1*04 m. high, have been united by 

The upper fragment consists of five 
pieces head and neck, right shoulder 
and back, left shoulder and top of chest, 
section across body from right shoulder 
to left breast, and left elbow. The nose, 
mouth, chin, and left cheek are much 
damaged. The lower fragment consists 
of the right hip and pieces of both legs 
down to ankles restored with plaster. 
Similar treatment of drapery and iden- 
tity of scale justify the union of the two 

The figure is in the ordinary Ionic 
pose and costume. The chiton is repre- 
sented by the ordinary fine, wavy lines, 
while the folds of the himation are cut 
in very deeply. The brooches of both 
chiton- and himation-sleeves were inserted 
separately. The shape of the legs is clearly outlined, and 
the folds falling from the drapery gathered on the left thigh 
are notably fine and regular owing to the use of the saw. 
There is a green stripe on the himation border and on the 
7rapv<fyrj; an uncoloured maeander pattern on the left arm 
is all that can be distinguished on the upper fragment. 

The hair is very formal in appearance. It falls behind in 
a square flat mass of zigzag IOCKS, and in three such locks on 
each shoulder, but their appearance is unusually hard and 
rectangular. In this as in other points the statue resembles 


No. 681. On the forehead is a fringe of flat zigzag locks 
ending in spirals. On the left breast the end of the ringlets 
were inserted in separate pieces. The colour of the hair is 
red. Instead of the curving stephane the statue wears a kind 
of diadem consisting of a round ring with a high band upon 
it, on the top of which are holes for bronze ornaments. It is 
decorated by a pattern of red alternate double spirals picked 
out in green. On the crown of the head is a hole for a 
meniskos with remains of lead in iL 

The head is round, the face flat and square. The eyes 
are only slightly incised, and are quite flat with the face. 
They are markedly triangular. The brows are picked out 
with black lines. The ears are flat and shapeless with holes 
pierced for earrings. The mouth is a simple curve, with red 
lips terminated by broad dimples. Holes on the neck served 
for the attachment of a necklace. The shoulders are very 
broad, and the drapery displays the effective use of drill ancl 
saw in the deeply-cut 'folds. 

Diadem, eye, shape of face, broad shoulders, and treatment 
of drapery are all points of close connection with No. 681, and 
afford evidence of strong Attic feeling in reaction against 
lonism. On the other hand it is impossible to follow Lechat 
in ascribing both statues to a single artist. The peculiar 
flatness of the face of No. 669 and its rather lifeless expres- 
sion mark it as the work of an artist inferior in ability and 
power to the creator of No. 681. On the style, cf. p. 24. 

Wolters, AM., 1887, pp. 264, 5 ; Graef, A.M., 1890, 
p. 5; Studniczka, R.M., in., 1888, p. 286, note 30; Lepsius, 
p. 71, No. 32; Perrot, vin. p. 605; Lechat, Au Mus., 
pp. 236, 242, fig. 33; Lermann, pi. IL (above); Schrader, 
Arch. Mairm., p. 26, figs. 2226. 


Found N.W. of Erechtheum, 5th and 6th Feb. 1886. 

Island marble (right sleeve Pentelic). 

H. 1;15 m. 

Missing right hand and feet. 

Damaged nose, fringe, chin, left hand, right breast. 

Put together from three fragments head and neck, body 
and thighs, lower legs and knees. 



Inserted right sleeve and 
right hand. The hole for the 
dowel is visible. 

The figure stands upright with 
left foot advanced, right arm 
extended from elbow with offer- 
ing, left arm holding gathered 
folds of chiton in front between 
the legs. She is clad in an Ionic 
chiton only, with Jcolpos falling 
over the girdle. The folds of 
the skirts are drawn together in 
the middle so as to outline the 
legs. The texture of the lower 
part of the chiton is shewn by 
incised lines radiating from the 
left hand, the upper part by 
alternate wavy grooves and folds, 
the latter divided by a wavy in- 
cised line. The chiton is pinned, 
not sewn, down the arms, and 
the pins are painted green. A 
red maeander pattern on a green 

ground round the neck, and green stars with red circles 
decorate the field of the chiton, appearing in large numbers 
on the 7rapv(j>ij. Halfway between Knees and feet is a hori- 
zontal green stripe. A moulded green serpentine bracelet is 
worn on the left arm, a green painted necklace, and round 
earrings with a pattern of red rosettes on a green ground. 

At first Lechat, and afterwards Collignon, suggested that 
the upper part of the chiton was a separate garment, XIT&V- 
ta-tcos, owing to its different texture, but it is now generally 
accepted that the whole is one garment, and that the difference 
in representation is due only to the fact that it is loose above 
the girdle and stretched tight below it It is noteworthy 
however that the skirts of the chiton here are treated in just 
the same way as the skirt of the himation, when one is worn, 
e.g. in the presence of the green stripe and wapv^ij. On 
this question, cf. Introd. p. 44. 

The hair above the sharply curved stephane is in concentric 


waves and falls in twelve zigzag locks on the back, and in four 
similar locks on each shoulder in front. The deeply arched 
wavy fringe is covered in the centre by a small coil of zigzag 
locks. The red colour is well preserved. " The gtephane, decorated 
with a red palmette and lotus pattern on a green ground, has 
fourteen holes on its upper rim for bronze ornaments. In five 
of these remains of bronze nails are visible. At the back it 
is narrower and decorated with a single green stripe. The 
meniskos is broken off level with the top of the head. 

The head is high at the back, and the face a long oval. 
The eyes, with large tear-ducts, are narrow and set aslant, 
the lids indicated by a black line, the pupils by a black 
dot with a red ring round it outlined with black. The mouth 
is small, acutely bent, with red lips ending softly on the 
cheek without dimples or vertical cuts. Seen in profile the 
chin recedes from the line of forehead and nose. The ears 
are high, the nostrils narrow. The breasts are high and small, 
the shoulders narrow and sloping. In short the treatment 
of every part is markedly Ionic, cf. p. 21, and the statue 
clearly belongs to the period of direct Chiot importation. It 
shews a close resemblance to No. 673, and might reasonably be 
attributed to the same author. Compare the identity of 
treatment in shape of head, mouth, eyes, and cheek-bones. 
The insertion of the right sleeve in Pentelic marble points to 
an ancient breakage and restoration, not impossibly in transit, 
if the statue was imported. 

E. Gardner, J.H.S., 1887, p. 168, fig. 2; Mus. tfAth., 
pi. v. ; Gaz. Arch., 1888, pi. x 2 . ; MvweZa, pi. xxv. 1 ; 
B,-B., No. 556 ; Lepsius, p. 69, No. 13; Collignon, i. p. 343, 
fig. 172 ; Pavlovski, p. 191, fig. 56 ; K Gardner, p. 168, fig. 29; 
Perrot, vm. p. 578, fig, 290; Joergensen, p. 18, fig. 5; 
Lechat, Au Mus., p. 296, fig. 8 ; Sc. Att., p. 225 ; Kalkmann, 
Jb. 9 XL, 1896, pp. 29, 36 ; Lermann, pi. xix. 


Found in the latter months of 1886 W. of Erechtheum. 

Pentelic marble. 

H. 1*67 m. 

Missing lower arms, left leg from a little above ankle, 
right leg from middle of shin, back of neck. 



Damaged nose, ends of hanging 
drapery, back of head, right cheek. The 
statue is hacked away in two places at 
the back to make it flat, possibly when 
packed in the Perserschutt, cf. Nos. B, 
595, 606, and 680. The right side is 
much weathered. 

Put together from four pieces head, 
neck, small piece at bottom of left leg, 
and rest of figure. 

Inserted both lower arms. Part of 
the left lower arm is in situ, and the 
dowel-hole is visible from the outside 
of the elbow. 

The pose is stiff and rigid with the 
left foot advanced, the right arm ex- 
tended straight from the elbow, the left 
arm lowered. The figure wears an Ionic 
chiton with kolpos of the same type as 
No. 670. The lower folds are not held 
by the hand, but fall in straight vertical 
lines with a broad 7rapv<f>rj between the 
legs. Though hanging free, the drapery 
clings tightly to the legs. In addition to lite chiton a hima- 
tion is worn like a shawl over both shoulders, hanging down 
behind and covering the hair. It is not fastened anywhere, 
but forms two hanging folds on either side of the outstretched 
right arm, and, although the left arm is lowered, the sculptor 
has shewn similar hanging folds on that side also. The 
texture of the chiton is rendered as in No. 670. The himation 
is treated in broader folds, and at the back is quite smooth. 
A green maeander pattern with red squares and red stripes 
decorates the Trapuiq, a red and green maeander the border 
of the himation, ana red swastikas and green crosses its field. 
The hair is left rough in horizontal waves above the 
xtephane, and falls in a wavy mass behind under the himation 
and in three zigzag locks on each shoulder. The fringe is 
wavv with side-coils on the temples. The hair is red, the 
ytepkane decorated with a red and green palmette pattern. 
The menidkos is broken off level with the top of the head. 


The face is long with high cheek-bones and downward 
gaze. The eyes are coloured in the usual way (c No* 670), 
and are flat and oval in shape. The lips shew a simple curve, 
and are terminated by deep grooves. The ears are high, and 
are pierced for earrings. The hollow of the neck between the 
collar-bones is shewn, an advance on Nos. 670 and 673. The 
heavy chin is another difference, and the straighter, more oval 
eyes shew clear Attic influence. The body is flat and form- 
less and the right elbow too high. Winter, without due 
evidence, would attribute the figure to Endoios, Lechat 
compares it with the head No. 696, and the Jacobsen head. 
But it does not possess the marked Attic eye and face of 
the latter, belonging rather to the mixed Attic-Ionic school, 
cf. Introd. p. 22. The workmanship is primitive, and the 
drapery, e.g. of the legs, hardly true to life. It probably 
comes from the earlier period of the school when the Ionian 
drapery is not fully understood. 

Wolters, A.M., 1886, p. 452; Mz^^Za, pi. xxi.; B.-B., 
No. 556; Lepsius, p. 73, No. 53; Winter, A.M., 1888, p. 135; 
Collignon, i. p. 344, %. 173; Overbeck 4 , i. p. 189, fig. 39; 
Pavlovski, p. 226, fig. 77; Perrot, vrn. p. 581, %. 292; 
Kalkmann, Jb. 9 XL, 1896, p. 46; Lechat, Au Mus., p. 356, 
fig. 9 ; Sc. Att., p. 240; Lermann, pi. IIL; Klein, p. 251. 


Found 5th and 6th Feb., 1886, W. of Erechtheum. 

Island marble. 

H. 1-03 m. above plinth. Plinth -02 m. 

Missing left lower arm below elbow, right arm from 
above elbow with the gathered drapery on the right side, the 
front of the right foot, and the ends of the hanging folds 
under the left arm. 

Damaged stephane, nose, mouth, right shoulder, and 
surface generally. The left shoulder is much weathered 
away and blackened by fire. 

Inserted left lower arm, which was fastened with a 
dowel, the hole for which is visible; and the hanging ends of 
drapery on the left side. These are restored in Pentelic 
marble, doubtless after an ancient accident. Three dowel- 
holes run right through the restored piece, of which the 

D. 14 



lower is broken away, the upper 
is filled with the remains of chalk 
cement, and the middle one is 
still closed with a marble stud. 

The figure is put together 
from two large pieces, the join 
being at the knees, and in ad- 
dition the right arm and shoulder 
have been restored by Schrader 
from a number of small frag- 

It stands with head erect on 
a small irregularly-cut plinth 
just large enough to hold it, 
which was originally sunk in a 
larger inscribed basis. 

The usual pose is in this statue 
reversed. The right foot is ad- 
vanced, the left arm extended 
with the offering, and the right 
arm lowered to hold the gathered 
folds of drapery at the side of 
the leg. 

The costume consists of Ionic chiton and himation of 
normal type but with the position of the himation reversed. 
Thus it is pinned on the left shoulder and down the left arm, 
and passes round the body under the right arm and breast. 
The chiton has a seam down the right arm with green borders 
of squares. Probably the colour of the whole garment was 
green. The himation has the ordinary overfall hanging in 
vertical folds with zigzag folds on the cross band, and an 
overfall border of red and green maeander pattern in front, 
red and green stripes with red spots behind. The lower part 
is pulled tightly round the legs, outlining their form exactly 
according to the normal Ionic convention. The irapv^rj has 
a red and green square pattern, and is pulled round very high 
on the right leg. A green stripe is visible across the legs a 
little below the knee. The garment reaches over the ankles, 
and spreads like a fan on the plinth behind the feet. It shews 
here a red and green maeander border. 


On the feet are sandals fastened by a strap passing right 
across the foot from the little toe, under the big toe and up 
between it and the second toe to fasten round the ankle and 
join the heel-strap. On the right foot the upper strap is 
only partially carved, and must have been finished in paint. 

The hair is in concentric waves above the ytephajic^ which 
has a green and red maeander pattern in front carried round 
by a stripe at the back. Twelve zigzag locks with free carved 
ends fall behind, and four over each shoulder in front. The 
wavy fringe has a row of zigzag spikes above it. On the 
crown is a hole for the menlskos with the bronze spike still in 
it, broken off level with the head. The hair is rea. 

The head is erect and high with level half-closed eyes like 
No. 643. The mouth is nearly level shewing three curves 
with five points ending in vertical incisions. Prominent chin 
and cheek-bones with squarely-built face. No colour pre- 
served on face. Ordinary round earrings. The shoulders 
are high and straight, and the bosom prominent, the figure 
tall and thin. The outline of the knees suggested to Lechat 
a common origin with No. 598, but this feature is too usual 
to serve as evidence. The close resemblance to the head of 
No. 643 has however been already noticed. The only differ- 
ence is slightly more Attic influence in the rounder chin and 
more prominent dimple at the lip-corners. It is noticeable 
that the incisions between lid and brow visible here and in 
Nos. 643 and 659 occur also on the Naxian Kore No. 677. 
The statue seems to be an early Attic-Ionian work. 

Mvrjfiela, xxv. 2; E. Gardner, J.H.S., 1887, p. 167, fig. 3; 
Lepsius, p. 69, No. 15; Pavlovski, p. 209, fig. 67b; Lechat, 
Au Mus., p. 351, fig. 15; Sc. Ait., p. 234; Lermann, pi. v. 

Found 5th and 6th of Feb., 1886, W. of Erechtheum. 

Island marble. 

H. -91 m. 

Missing right lower arm, left arm from mid-biceps, legs 
from knees, lower end of drapery under right arm, ends of 
ringlets on bosom, gathered folds on left side. 

Damaged nose, and back of right leg. The surface is 
blackened by fire at the back of head and shoulders, and on 
the right shoulder and arm. 




Inserted lower right arm. 
The end of the tenon remains 
in situ with a dowel-hole through 
it from the outside. 

The head has been fitted on. 
The figure is in the ordinary 
pose with the gaze directed 
downwards. The chiton is shewn 
as usual, and is sewn down the 
left arm. The surface is green, 
with a pattern of blue squares 
on a red ground down the arm. 
The himation is fastened as usual 
on the right shoulder and arm, 
but instead of passing under the 
left ami, it is caught up by a 
single brooch on that shoulder 
also. Cf. No. 600 for a similar 
fashion. Also it is pulled up in 
the centre over the neck-border 
so as to produce the usual out- 
line of the overfall in front. 
This overfall shews a border- 
pattern of stripes, maeanders, and dots in red, green, and 
blue, and the irapv<f)tj has a complicated maeander pattern in 
the same colours. 

The hair lies in concentric waves above the stephane. 
Ten zigzag locks fall in a mass behind with free ends, and 
four similar locks on each shoulder. The inner three on 
each side had free-hanging ends added in square holes on the 
breasts. The triangular space above the shoulders between 
back hair and shoulder ringlets is filled with wavy incisions 
to represent an under-layer of hair. The fringe consists of 
thin straight-hanging zigzag locks ending in spirals. There 
are no remains of colour on the hair, but the stephane has a 
red and green maeander pattern in front carried round by a 
green stripe at the back. On the top of it are fourteen holes 
with the remains of added bronze ornaments. The meniskos 
is preserved entire and is *13 m. high above the head. It is 
square in section with a flat pointed end. 


The head is high at the back, and the face a long oval. 
The high carefully-worked ears carry round earrings with a 
red and green rosette on them. The narrow eyes are set 
aslant and display large tear-ducts. They shew *the normal 
black brows and lids and painted pupilk The up-curved 
lips end softly in the cheek without vertical cuts. The chin 
recedes well in profile from the line of forehead and nose. 
The shoulders are narrow, the body slender and well-propor- 
tioned. The resemblance to No. 670 has already been 
pointed out. Such a small detail as the ears shews complete 
identity of treatment, and the statues are probably from the 
same hand. The artist, as suggested already, is clearly a 
Chiot without any admixture of Attic ideas,* and the work 
belongs to the imported type. 

Kawadias, TEty. *A/>%., 1886, p. 73, pi. v. ; Gaz. de# Beau* 
Arts, 1886, xxxin. p. 419; Gaz. Arch., 1888, pi. xi.; Mm. 
tfAth., pis. vii. and vm.; Mz/T^Zo, pi. xxiu.; Lepsius, p. 67, 
No. 8; P. Paris, Sculpture Antique, p. 128, tigs. 5% and 52 s ; 
Pavlovski, p. 202, fig. 61; Joergensen, p. 18, fig. 5; Kalkmann, 
Jb., 1896, p. 23; Lechat, Au Mm., p. 296, fig. 25; Sc. Aft., 
p. 224 ; Lermann, pi. XL, 


Found S.W. of Parthenon, Oct. 1888. 

Parian marble. 

H. -92m. 

Missing both lower arms, legs from above knees. 

Damaged nose, chin, stephane, ringlets, right eye, back 
of right shoulder. 

Inserted head and neck, right lower arm, drapery in 
front of right leg. 

Put together from four pieces head and neck, torso, 
piece of stephane on left side, drapery fragment on right 
side. The left foot has now been identified by Schrader, and 
is bare. 

A piece of the neck in front has been restored in plaster. 
On the shoulders are visible two square rough marble studs 
filling two holes with the aid of a chalky cement. These 
holes served for running in lead to secure the head, not a 
shaft as suggested by Lechat. A comparison of No. 



shews the use of lead-running. 
A square mortice on the right 
thigh served for attaching the 
end of the himation fold in 
front of it. 

Pose and costume are accord- 
ing to the normal Ionic scheme. 
The gaze is directed downwards, 
the drapery held nearly in front 
of the left thigh. 

The green colour of the chiton 
is well preserved, but the neck- 
border has vanished. Red stripes 
are visible on the sleeve-borders, 
which are sewn together down 
the left arm. The slack of the 
sleeve falls over the cross-band 
of the himation, which displays 
five regular folds behind, but 
in front a looser zigzag border 
on which are traces of green. 
The overfall of the himation 
hangs in the usual vertical 

folds, with a well-preserved red and green maeander border. 
In the field of the himation are red, blue, and green rosettes, 
and a red and green maeander on the 7rapv<)>r). 

The hair is combed straight back above the stephane in 
wavy lines, falling over it behind in a mass of twelve zigzag 
locks. Three wavy ringlets of four strands each fall on 
either shoulder. Between the ringlets and the back hair the 
triangular space above the shoulders is left quite plain with 
traces of red paint on the left side. The fringe consists of 
zigzag waves. Yellow and red are both visible on the hair. 
The stephajie had a blue and green maeander pattern with 
red spots. Part of a meniskos of three twisted bronze shafts 
is visible on the crown. 

The surface of the face and neck is finely preserved, with 
the ydvaHris toned to a dark olive colour. The face is a true 
oval with narrow half-shut eyes slightly aslant and marked 
by large lacrymal ducts. Black lines mark lids and brows, 


and the pupils consist of red rings between black dots and 
black outlines the normal type of eye. The mouth curves 
very slightly with finely-cut lips ending in a dimple. The 
ears are high and delicately modelled, with round earrings 
decorated with a light rosette on a dark green ground. The 
neck is long, the shoulders narrow* and sloping, the bosom 
slight. The expression is markedly individual owing to the 
subtle curve of the lips. Ionic traits in eyes and shape of 
head and face are modified by an Attic mouth of utmost 
delicacy, and we have in this statue a tour de force of the 
early Attic-Ionic school. 

Mme. Lermann attributed to this statue the legs and feet 
(No. 609) with the inscription of Euthydicos. This view was, 
however, generally abandoned even before Schroder's new 

Wolters, A.M., 1888, p. 439; AeXrwz/, 1888, Oct., p. 181; 
Lechat, B.C.H., 1889, p. 145, No. 2; M^/ieta, xx.; Collignon, 
i. p. 345, fig. 174; Pavlovski, p. 207, fig. 66; Tarbell, p. 152, 
fig. 93; Perrot, vm. p. 596, pis. iv. 2 and xui., fig. 302; Lechat, 
Au MILS., p. 279, pis. i. and n.; Klein, p. 277; Lermann, pi. 
iv.; Schraaer, Arch. Marm., p. 37, fig. 32. 


Body found S. of Parthenon in 1888. 

Head found E. of Parthenon in 1886. 

Parian marble. 

H. -555m. 

Missing both lower arms and back of left upper arm 
from mid-biceps downwards, right leg from mid-thigh, left 
leg from knee, ends of drapery. 

Damaged nose, cheek, chin, and various portions of the 

Put together from three pieces head and neck, torso, 
and end of hanging fold of himation on the right. 

Pose and costume of normal Ionic type. 

The chiton is green with a purple or dark-red bonier on 
which a pattern is incised. It is sewn down the left arm. 
The himation shews a green and red border down the right 
arm with an incised maeander, and the pins picked out in 
red. The border on the hanging folds is purple or red and 



white between green and green 
and red stripes with an incised 
pattern. In the field are orna- 
ments consisting of four green 
spirals with red tongues between, 
and plain red darts. The cross- 
band shews a hanging border 
above the longitudinal folds and 
the hanging folds of the himation 
are oblique. The 7rapv<j>7) is in 
purple or red and white with 
green borders. A red and green 
girdle is visible. At the back 
there is neither colour nor carv- 
ing of detail. A green and red 
painted necklace is w T orn and ear- 
rings with a red and green pattern 
of four double spirals round a 

The hair is left smooth above 
the stephane^ and falls in a plain 
square mass behind with one 
separated zigzag lock on each side of it. Three similar locks 
fall on each shoulder, and the fringe consists of flat deeply 
arched waves with twenty-eight wavy spikes falling above 
them. There are a few traces of red, and the curving stephane 
has a red palmette and lotus pattern on a green ground. 
Seventeen holes on the upper rim served for the addition of 
bronze ornaments. There is no meniskos, and therefore the 
statuette probably stood indoors, as indeed its better con- 
dition would suggest. 

The head rises very high at the back in Ionic style, like 
those of Nos. 670, 673, 682, 686 and the more markedly Ionic 
types, so that the eyes are in the lower half of the head. The 
face is long and narrow. The eyes are narrow, slanting, and 
with half-closed lids, which are outlined with black. Chin and 
cheek-bones are prominent and the mouth consists of a 
simple curve with the lip-corners ending softly in the cheek 
without a dimple or vertical cut. 

The ears are high with red- and green-patterned earrings. 


The shoulders are narrow, the bosom prominent, the figure 
tall and thin. The garments are pulled tightly across the 
legs so that the outlines of the left knee are Very clearly 
defined. Holes on the neck shew that a second bronze 
necklace was worn as well as the painted one. The effect of 
the whole is perhaps injured by overloading of coloured 
detail, but the work is very good and the preservation of 
the face excellent. Lechat nas called the statue a copy in 
miniature of No. 682, to which there is certainly some resem- 
blance, but in style only without going into detail. The 
statue exhibits all the characteristics of Chiot art, cf. p. 21, 
and is one of the clearest instances of direct importation. 

AeXr/w, 1888, p. 102; Writers, A.M., 1888, p. 227; 
Ant. Derikmaler, p. 29, pi. xxxrx.; Mi^/teta, xxiv. 1 ; Lepsius, 
p. 67, No. 7, fig. 1; Hofmann, Untertnichungen^ pL in. 45; 
Pavlovski, p. 205, fig. 64<; Gaz. des Beaux Arts, 1892, iv. 
p. 109; Lechat, Au Mus., p. 320, fig. 30; Sc. Att., p. 221; 
Perrot, vni., fig. 301, pi, v.; Klein, p. 275; Lermann, pi. x. 


Pound E. of Parthenon in 1882. 

Pentelic marble. 

H. -68m. 

Missing top of head (either hacked away deliberately or 
meant to receive additional piece after some accident), lower 
right arm, lower left arm from above the elbow, right leg 
from above ankle, left leg from knee, ends of drapery. 

Damaged end of nose and lips. The surface is 
blackened by fire on stephane and fringe, and round the 
gathered folo's of drapery on the left thigh. 

Inserted right lower arm and perhaps the top of the 

The whole statue is in one piece except the right leg, 
which has been added. 

Pose and costume are ordinary, the head being erect and 
the left leg well advanced. The chiton was sewn down the 
left arm and was originally green. A red and blue maeander 
decorates the neck-border, a red white and blue pattern of 
squares the sleeves. The himation displays a pattern of red 
and green stripes down the right arm and along the cross-band, 



which shews, as is usual in the 
better finished figures, a wavy border 
above straight longitudinal folds. 
For this cross-band c Introd. pp. 45 
and 46. The overfall has a border 
of red and green squares and maean- 
ders in front, but at the back this 
appears as two green stripes, dark 
and light, with red dots above them. 
Red and green rosettes decorate the 
field of the himation. The hanging 
folds are oblique, and a girdle is to 
be seen round the waist. 

The hair is in wavy lines above 
the slightly curving stephane, which: 
has a pattern of two red stripes with 
a green maeander between them. 
In front is a fringe of zigzag waves 
with spiral ringlets hanging over 
them. Three wavy ringlets, each 
divided into four strands, fall on 
either shoulder, and a mass of twelve 
zigzag locks behind with free ends. 

The face is square with a prominent chin, and the head 
round. The eyes are level with lids and pupils painted as 
usual. They are of the triangular Attic type with an incision 
between lid and brow. The nose is thin with thick nostrils, 
the ears high with earrings decorated by the usual red rosette 
on a green ground, the mouth straight with lips terminated 
by large dimples, and another large dimple on the chin. 
The neck is short, the shoulders broad and high, the bosom 
prominent. Under the skirts the left knee is clearly outlined. 
Thus the head shews very obvious Attic features while the 
hair and drapery are clearly copied from the Ionic. The 
figure is one of the clearest examples of the Attic-Ionic 
school, Attic sculptors working on Ionic models, and its 
clumsiness and very Attic face point it out as one of the 
earliest of the imitations. Cf. Introd. p. 22. 

Mylonas, *<. 'Ap^., 1883, p. 43, No. 22, p. 182, pi. vm. 1; 
pi. xxiv. 3 ; Lepsius, p. 73, No. 54 ; E. Gardner, 


J.H.S., 1887, p. 170; Pavlovski, p. 231, fig. 80; Ferret, VIIL, 
pi. iv. 1; Lechat, AIL J/i., p. 3152, fig. 29; Sc. Ait, p. 238; 
Lermann, pi. xvi. 


Found 5th and 6th Feb., 1886, 
W. of Erechtheum, 
Naxian marble. 
H. -545 m. 

Missing body from waist 
downwards, right arm from above 
elbow, piece of left lower arm, 
left elbow, left biceps. 

Damaged left shoulder, left 
cheek, nose, chin, eyes, top of 
head, back hair, ears, left hand, 
object in hand, breasts and neck. 
The surface in front is weathered 
or injured by fire. 

Put together from six pieces 
face and top of head* neck 

and back of head, greater part of torso, two fragments of left 
arm lately added by Schrader, and left hand. 

The figure belongs to the same Naxian group as No. 619 
and like it stands stiffly in a primitive attitude. The left 
arm is bent across the breast holding a pomegranate, the 
right arm hangs by the side, and the gaze is directly frontal. 
The figure is "clad in Ionic chiton and himation, both 
shewn by simple incised lines without decorative folds. The 
chiton is sewn on shoulder and arm, the himation pinned in 
the usual way. It passes above and not below the left breast. 
The folds are more natural than those of No. 619. No colour 
is preserved. 

The hair is combed across the head and falls behind in a 
broad square mass, divided by vertical incisions and a few 
horizontal divisions further apart. It is confined by a plain 
band passing round the head and tied in a knot behind with 
the ends hanging down. On the forehead the hair is parted 
and waved back over the ears, and there are no shoulder- 


The head is high and very narrow, flat at the top, and 
with the long oblong face thnist too far forward on the neck. 
The eyes are high and close together, small and triangular in 
shape." Two arched incisions separate lids and brows. The 
mouth is straight, the lips terminated by downward cuts, the 
nose long without nostrils, the ears high and undecorated. 
The whole face is very flat and without much surface 
modelling. The same may be said of the left arm and 
hand, and the general appearance of the statue is strangely 
primitive and plain among its brilliant neighbours. In 
section it is rectangular with rounded corners, but the hollow 
of the waist is shewn and the breasts are separated, unlike 
No. 619. 

For a further discussion of Naxian art cf. No. 619. 

It is interesting to see that many of the Naxian conven- 
tions, e.g. the triangular eye and the straight mouth ended 
bv downward cuts, appear also in early Attic art. 

Kavvadias, 'E<. 'Ap%., 1886, p. 82; Mus. tfAth., pi. ix. ; 
MvijfjiGui, pi. xxiv. 2; Lepsius, p. 66, No. 1; Miller, A.J.A., 
ii., 1886, p. 64, No. 14; Collignon, i. p. 166, fig. 75; Pavlovski, 
p. 170, fig. 64; E. Gardner, p. 115, fig. 12; Sophoulis, *E<. 
'A/3%., 1891, p. 153; Sauer, A.M., 1892, p. 40; Joergensen, 
p. 29 ; Lechat, Au MILS., p. 398, fig. 44 ; Klein, p. 135. 


Found 5th and 6th Feb., 1886, W. of Erechtheum. 

Parian marble. 

H. -97 m. 

Missing right arm above elbow, left arm from biceps, 
legs from knees in front, but back of top of left calf has been 
added by Schrader. 

Damaged left eye, nose, chin, and points of breasts. 
The statue was made in two pieces joining at the knees. 

The figure stands upright with head erect. The left leg 
is advanced, and the right hand holds the gathered drapery 
at the side of the thigh. The left arm was presumably 
extended. The pose is curious, as it is the invariable custom 
for the skirt folds to be held on the same side as the 
advanced leg, and the opposite side to the heavy fall of the 
himation. so as to balance the masses of drapery. The 



garments appear to consist of 
the Ionic chiton girded round 
the waist, and a small garment 
above it reaching only to the 
hips, and leaving the top of the 
chiton visible round the neck. 
This garment has sleeves, but 
shews no seam all the way round. 
It is shewn by verticalYolds in 
front and behind and by wavy 
lines under the arms. It hangs 
low on the hips at the side, 
but only reaches to the wai^t 
at back and front. On the 
shoulders and down the arms 
it is fastened by brooches and 
therefore cannot be a sleeved 
garment at all, but if genuine 
it is cylindrical and is put on 
over the head, then fastened 
along arms and shoulders. It 
should shew a fulness under the 
arms, but the sculptor has got confused with ideas of sleeves. 
Kalkmann and Lechat are both wrong in suggesting that 
it consists of separate pieces sewn on to the front and back 
of the chiton, as a moment's examination of the statue 
will shew. It remains, however, without a parallel, and a 
garment of this cylindrical type seems very improbable and 
inconvenient. Moreover, this would not explain its greater 
length at the sides than in the middle, and in no case could 
it hang so closely to the body. The hanging folds on the 
right side, too, are longer than those on the left. 

A similar garment has already been discussed in No. 611. 
The true explanation undoubtedly is that the statue is made 
by an Attic artist the tvpe of head and face leaves no 
doubt on this point who has completely misunderstood the 
drapery of an Ionian model of the type of No. 673. He has 
copied the Ionian himation without understanding it, because 
Ionian dress had not yet been introduced generally into 
Attica. We have seen from No. 593 that Attic artists did 


not always reproduce correctly their own native costume, 
much less would they succeed at once with the complicated 
garments of Ionia, fcf. Introduction, p. 43. 

The lower border of this unfortunate himation-overfall 
shews a green stripe-pattern, the Trapvcfrij a green lozenge- 
pattern, and the girdle two green stripes. The garments fit 
so closely to the body behind as to suggest absolute nudity. 
Here again we have unintelligent imitation. On the other 
hand, the muscles of the knees are not attempted and the 
hollow between the legs is shallow. The incised folds in front 
are not carried round at the back except in one case, but 
three vertical incised lines appear between the legs. 

The hair is in heavy zigzag locks on the crown, combed 
straight back and falling behind in a semicircular mass of 
thirteen ringlets. Three similar ringlets fall on either 
shoulder, divided by incised lines into three strands each. 
The fringe of zigzag waves is similarly divided into strands. 
The hair is confined by a chaplet of pearls lying straight 
round the head, and by a band which ties the back hair 
between the ears. The chaplet is pierced by 24 holes above 
and seven below for the insertion of bronze ornaments. A 
hole on the left side is much larger than the others. There 
is no meni$ko$ on the crown, and no colour on the hair. 

The head is round and the face wide. The eyes are set 
high in the head and are not quite symmetrical, the left 
being rather the higher of the two. The eyes are separated 
from the brows and the cheek-bones by semicircular grooves, 
and the brow is left as a sharp line. The eyes are triangular 
in shape. The mouth is very slightly curved, heavy, and 
clumsy, being raised from the face by wide grooves all round 
it. Vertical grooves terminate the lips, small oblique 
incisions start to run from their corners towards the nostrils. 
The ears are bored for earrings, and a painted green necklace 
is woni. The chin is prominent. No colour is left on the 

The neck is long, the bosom prominent, the hips slender. 
The flatness of the body in front gives the statue a rigid and 
primitive appearance, and it undoubtedly belongs to an early 
period. The figure has a very close resemblance to No. 679 
in small details of the mouth and hair, and we should be 


inclined to attribute it to the same artist. At any rate it 
belongs certainly to the same school, and the supposition 
suggested above* about the drapery is confirmed by the fact 
that No. 679 wears the Attic clress, and that " therefore 
Nos. 678 and 679 undoubtedly do belong to a period which 
was transitional between the two costumes. The features of 
both are clearly Attic, but the drapery of No. 678 shews the 
beginnings of Ionian influence ; we may, therefore, without 
hesitation date both statues at the very beginning of the 
period of Ionian influence, and at the very end of the 
primitive Attic school. Cf. Introd. p. 16. 

E. Gardner, J.H.S.^ 1887, p. 163 D ; Mi^^Za, pi. xxn. ; 
Lepsius, p. 69, No. 16, fig. 3; Sophoulis, 'E^. *Ap#, 1891, 
p. 168, pi. xv, ; Sauer, A.M., 1892, pp. 48 F and 64 foil. ; 
Kalkmann, Jb., 1896, pp. 22, 36 ; Schneider, Verh. tier 40 
(Gorlitzer) Philohgenvers., p. 358; Pavlovski,p. 242, fig. 85 ; 

Perrot, vm. p. 583, fig. 293 ; Lechat, An J/iw., p. 330, fig. 32 ; 
Lermann, pi. n. (below on the left). 


Found 5th and 6th Feb., 1886, W. of Erechtheum. 

Parian marble. 

H, l-SOm. (including plinth -025 m.). 

Missing left lower arm, object held in right hand, right 
forefinger, front of feet, lower part of dress above feet in 
front, middle of fringe. Schrader has identified a fragment 
of the right foot (No. 483). 

Damaged nose, upper lip, ringlets on right side, sleeve 
under left arm, surface of drapery behind. 

Put together from four pieces head, greater part of torso, 
left elbow, right lower arm. 

Inserted left lower arm. The dowel-hole is pierced right 
through the arm. 

The figure stands stiffly erect on a small plinth cut to the 
shape of the feet with both feet level and close together. 
The left arm was extended from the elbow with an offering ; 
the right arm hangs by the side holding what was probably a 
wreath ('007 m. thick) like No. 593. 

She wears an Attic costume of under-chiton, visible in 
crinkly folds above the feet and on the arms, with a plain 



sleeve at the right elbow, and a peplos 
with overfall. This overfall, if of normal 
Dorian type, should shew divisions down 
both anus, or be caught up by brooches 
to form loose sleeves. It appears, how- 
ever, as divided on left arm only, and 
as an undivided surface, neither sewn 
nor brooched, on the right arm. Stais 
therefore suggested that this overfall 
was a separate piece flung round both 
shoulders and fastened on the left, but 
holes for pins shew that it was fastened 
on both shoulders like the Doric peplos. 
Either then the Attic peplos had its 
overfall sewn up on one side, but the 
sculptor did not take the trouble to shew 
the seam, or the sculptor has not cared 
to shew the garment accurately. In the 
light of Nos. 678 and 593 the latter 
seems more probable. The peplos is 
girded round the wrist and the ends of 
the girdle hang down in front. The 
drapery hangs in a smooth heavy mass 
without folds or indication of limbs and is not under-cut at 
all above the feet. 

The polychromy of the statue was very vivid when found, 
and Gillieron's drawing illustrating Stais 1 article shews a 
much more complete scheme of colour than is now visible. 
We can still distinguish a green border and spots of red and 
blue on the left sleeve of the chiton and two green stripes on 
the neck border. The overfall of the peplos has a border of 
green and white palmettes and lotus on a red ground between 
green stripes with a running green maeander above. The 
girdle has three green stripes, and the hanging ends two 
green stripes with white circles on them. The lower border 
of the himation is the same as that of the overfall. Green 
crosses decorate the field of the himation. A green painted 
necklace is worn, and sandals, indicated by an incised 

The hair is dark red and treated in the same way as 


No. 678. The place of the pearl chaplet is taken bv 
a bronze wreath inserted in holes all round the heacL 
Some of the nails are still in situ. There is a hole for the 
meniskos with the shaft still in it broken off level with the 

The head and features shew great resemblance to No. 678. 
We see the same round head and heavy face with highly 
placed triangular eyes. The mouth is treated more skilKiIIy 
but raised in a similar way from the face and ended with 
oblique incisions. The surface is finely finished, the ears 
pierced for earrings, the lips are red, "and the eyes shew 
black lines on lids and brows, and a red pupil with dark 
central dot. 

Like No. 593 the figure has a stiff xoaiion-like appearance 
owing to the heavy material of the woollen peplos, which quite 
conceals the legs. There is no need to suppose with Stais 
that the work is archaistic; it is genuinely archaic and 
belongs to the primitive Attic school. It comes just at the 
period when Ionic influence is beginning to penetrate, and 
the sculptor of No. 679 may have been the same man who 
tried rather unsuccessfully to imitate the new fashion in 
No. 678. 

The whole type of face belongs to the early Attic canon ; 
but we see some traces of the ridges at the eye-corners which 
mark the Moschophoros. Sauerk attempt to assign it to a 
Naxian school is impossible in the light of modern knowledge. 
Cf. p. 151. 

Stais, 'E<. 'A^%., 1887, p. 129, pi. ix. ; K Gardner, 
J.H.S., 1887, p. 163, fig. IB; Miller, A.J.A., n. (1886), 
p. 63; Gaz. Arch., 1888, pL x. 1 ; Mus. tfAth., pi. x.; 
MvTjpeia, pi. xvi. 1; Ant. Denkmdlcr, pi. xix. 2, p. 8; 
B.-R, No. 57 2 ; Lepsius, p. 67, No. 5; Schneider, Verh. der 
40 (Gorlttzer) Philologenvers., p. 358 ; Collignon, i. p. 341, 
fig. 170; Pavlovski, p. 189, fig. 55; E. Gardner, p. 170, 
fig. 30 ; Kalkmann, J&., 1896, p. 46, fig. 20 ; Joergensen, 
p. 32, fig. 15; Sauer, A.M., 1892, pp. 48 D and 64 sqq. ; 
Lechat, Au Mus., p. 321, fig. 31 ; Klein, p. 271 ; Lermann, 
pi. xvin. 

D. 15 




Found 5th and 6th Feb., 
1886, N.W. of Erechtheum. 
Island marble. 
H. M55 m. 

Missing fingers of left hand 
with end of gathered drapery, 
ends of hanging himation folds, 
legs from below knees. 

Damaged stephane, nose, 
neck, right hand with fruit, 
edges of drapery. The right 
lower arm is blackened with 
fire. The back is intentionally 
"hacked away. 

Inserted right lower arm 
(fitting in socket without a 
dowel) and missing ends of hi- 
mation folds. One of the iron 
dowels of the latter join is still 
in situ. Two iron nails also 
appear a few centimetres above 
the joins, probably in connec- 
tion with vertical holes on the 
under surfaces. They must have been visible from the front, 
and clearly belong to" a later repairing job. 

Put together from the following pieces head and torso, 
left hand and wrist, right lower arm (in two pieces). The 
latter was added by Schrader. 

The position is the ordinary one with gaze a little 
lowered. The extended right arm held a fruit, probably a 

The figure is clad in the ordinary Ionic chiton and 
himation. The upper part of the chiton was once green, 
and had a red and green maeander border. It was sewn 
down the left arm. The wavy folds are shewn by raised lines. 
The slack of the sleeve in the left armpit is shewn by straight 
folds, not a round piece like No. 674. This system is further 
developed in Nos. 594 and 682. Also the folds at the back 
of the left elbow are treated plastically. This has not yet 


been done in any of the statues previously described, not 
even in No. 594, but is further developed in No. 682. The 
cross-band of the himation shews a wavy overfall above the 
longitudinal folds. The folds in front hang obliquely. 
A green girdle is visible in the front angle of the himation, 
and the folds of the skirts are raised, not incised. 

The colour-scheme of the statue is remarkably well pre- 
served. The Trapv^ij has a green pattern with red squares, 
and the skirts shew green crosses in the field. The border 
above the cross-band consists of red and green stripes with 
green dots between. The edge of the himation overfall shews 
a pattern of three green stripes with a running red maeander 
between them picked out with dashes of green, which varies a 
little at different parts of the garment. This pattern appears 
on the right lower arm near the elbow, actually painted on 
the flesh, a unique device of the repairer. The colour hardly 
appears at the back. This zigzag himation border is further 
distinguished from most of the previously noted Karat, by 
having the folds slightly raised in the middle and undercut 
with the drill. A green painted bracelet is worn on the 
right wrist, a green carved one on the left. 

The hair is treated in finely -combed wavy lines from the 
crown above the siephane. It falls behind in a mass of 
twelve zigzag locks with free ends. Four wavy locks appear 
on each shoulder, and there is a wavy arched fringe in two 
layers with side-coils of zigzag locks. There* is no colour 
remaining on the hair, but traces of a green pattern on the 

The head is long and egg-shaped, the face long with 
prominent chin and cheek-bones. The eyes are narrow and 
Ionic, the ears high and delicately carved with round earrings 
decorated by the usual red rosette on a green ground. The 
mouth is curved in a smile, but the lips are terminated by 
Attic vertical cuts. The neck is short, the shoulders broad, 
the bosom prominent, and the knees clearly defined under the 
drapery. Lechat has called the statue Attic on comparison 
of the mouth-corners with Nos. 676, 616, and 648. But 
eyes, smile, shape and pose of head are markedly Ionic and 
quite different from No. 676. It is true that the mouth fixes 
the statue without doubt in the Attic-Ionic class, but the Ionic 



influence is the predominating one. The advances in technique 
shew that the statue is of a developed period. 

E. Gardner, J.H.S., 1887, p. 171, fig. I; Mus. fAth., 
pi. II. ; Mz/?7/ita, pi. xix. ; Ant. Derikmakr, pi. xix. 1, p. 8 ; 
Lepsius, p. 67, No. 9; Duruy, Hist, des Grecs^ 11., pi. on 
p. 376; CoUignon, i. p. 342, fig. 171 ; Overbeck 4 , i. p. 192, 
fig. 41 1 ; Pavlovski, p. 229, fig. 79 ; Tarbell, p. 148, fig. 89 ; 
Perrot, vm. p. 577, fig. 289 ; Lermann, pi. xvn. ; Lechat, 
Au Mus., p. 304, fig. 26; id., Sc. Att. 9 p. 227; Schrader, 
Arch. Maivn., p. 23, fig. 19. 


Found Greater part of statue 
and inscribed base on 5th and 
6th Feb., 1886, N.W. of Erech- 
theuni. The feet and plinth 
were found earlier and were 
connected by Studniczka. The 
connecting piece between feet 
and torso was found later in 
1887, and was added by Wolters. 
E. Gardner questions the con- 
nection of the statue and the 
inscribed base. 

Island marble. 

H. 2*55 m. (including plinth 
04 m.). 

Missing nose, right lower 
arm, tops of fingers of left hand,, 
parts of lower legs, front of feet, 
right eye, middle parts of ring- 
lets (restored in plaster). 

Damaged eyebrows, lips, 
chin, neck, ends of drapery folds, 
breasts, left eye. 
Put together from numerous pieces head and neck; 
shoulders to hips ; end of drapery folds on right side ; piece 
across thighs ; back of right knee and section of front ; 
another large section with back of right leg down to foot, 


part of left leg, and folds hanging from left hand ; feet and 
plinth ; left lower arm ; thin section of left upper arm. 

The missing parts of the body, left arm, and legs, have 
been restored in plaster as well" as part of the neck, the 
middle of the shoulder-locks on each side, and the greater 
part of the folds hanging from the left hand. 

The only inserted parts of the statue are the eyes, which 
are made of purple glass in a metal case inserted in the 
socket ; the metal case probably projected a little originally, 
and was cut to imitate the lashes. 

The pose is the ordinary one with head erect. The 
statue stands on a small plinth cut to the shape of the feet 
and intended for insertion into a basis. The edges of this 
plinth are chipped away. It has been restored in position on 
an inscribed basis '605 m. square and *30 m. nigh with 
abakos and kymation. The latter is decorated on all four 
sides with alternate red and green tongues. The inscription 


6 Ev/ta/>oi/9 TO 

The costume consists of Ionic chiton and himation worn 
in the ordinary way. The feet are bare. A green carved 
bracelet decorates the left lower arm. The chiton is shewn 
by the usual raised crinkly lines, and straight raised lines 
radiate from the left hand over the skirts. These lines have 
a sharp edge and are not flattened as in Nos. 676 and 680. 
The chiton is sewn down the left arm, and the neck border- 
pattern appears very clearly on both sides of the seam. The 
original surface was blue, not red as Lermann states. The 
border-pattern consists of four narrow stripes and three 
broader stripes between them. The outer two narrow stripes 


are blue, the inner two green (?), the middle broad stripe is 
red, and the colour of the other two has vanished. On the 
outer two broad stripes are incised red circles, on the middle 
one a maeander and squares. The opening of the sleeve has 
a red and blue line at a little distance from the edge ; a red 
line is visible also on the slack of the sleeve in the armpit. 
The cross-band of the himation shews no small overhanging 
folds. The front folds of the himation are vertical and are 
deeply undercut with large round drill holes where the edges 
are broken. Two red stripes with green maeander between 
decorate the lower edge. This pattern is very clear at the 
back. Incised circles in which green and red eight-point 
stars were painted are visible on the field of the himation, and 
the irapvipi] has a complicated red, blue, and green maeander 

The hair is smooth above the high band which runs 
round the head. In front is a fringe of three rows of thick 
spiral buckles. Four square zigzag locks hang on each 
shoulder, very similar to those of No. 669, but the square- 
ness has been exaggerated by the restorer. Behind the hair 
falls in a semicircular mass of twenty zigzag locks. It follows 
the shape of the back without conforming to laws of gravity. 
The head-band has a green and red square and maeander 
pattern with seven bronze arrow-head spikes projecting at 
intervals round it, of which five are still in situ. There are 
traces of red on the hair. A bent menisJcos is still in position 
on the crown of the head, '133 m. long and square in section. 

The head is round, the face square and heavy with level 
eyes and straight mouth. The lower lids are straight, the 
upper arched in Attic style. Simple grooves run round the 
eyes and round the mouth forming sharp cuts at the lip- 
corners. The ears are of normal height and clumsy Attic 
shape like those of No. 669. They are bored for the addition 
of bronze earrings. 

The face is rather flat, again resembling No. 669, and the 
chin is firm and square. The modelling of collar-bones and 
neck is indicated. 

The shoulders are broad and high, and the treatment of 
drapery very simple. The heavy hair, the deep under- 
cutting of the himation folds, and the coloured glass eyes 


give a much greater effect of light and shade at a distance. 
Thus the statue has a more genuinely plastic appearance than 
any of the others in the room. At the same time the colour- 
scheme is very elaborate, and the polychrome drapery must 
have been as brilliant on a close inspection as that'of the 
other Korai. The careful treatment of the folds of the 
chiton behind the left elbow is a sign of late date. The 
statue is usually compared with No. 669, but Lechat goes 
too far in attributing it to the same artist. There is distinct 
advance in the treatment of every feature. But thev both 
belong to the genuine Attic school of sculpture and shew 
very little Ionian influence. The round head with its iaenla 
instead of stephane, the broader proportions, the direct gaze, 
and every feature of the face are sure signs of pure Attic 
origin. There is a distinct reaction against merely super- 
ficial treatment, and in favour of dignity and simplicity. On 
internal evidence, then, we should feel at once disposed to 
accept Studniczka's restoration of the basis signed by Antenor, 
who was the leading sculptor of the decade 510 500, which 
saw the establishment of the democracy. It is just in such 
a period of political revolution that an artistic revival might 
most naturally be expected. The connection of plinth and 
basis has been condemned by E- Gardner on the following 
grounds. Although the plinth will fit into the space hollowed 
in the top of the basis, it still projects above it. Also although 
the large socket-holes within the hollow on the basis and on 
the bottom of the plinth can be made to correspond, a smaller 
hole for a central pin in the centre of the larger hole cannot 
be brought into exact correspondence with a similar small 
hole in the large hollow on the under side of the plinth. 

It may be replied that the first objection is immaterial, 
since there is no rule for making the plinth level with the 
base, cf. the Moschoph&ros, and that the second objection 
is inconclusive, since it is not certain that the two smaller 
holes were intended to correspond. So small a pin would 
have had no effect on the rigidity of the statue, and there may 
well have been two pins, above and below, each fitting into 
the material that filled the opposite large hollow. Two pins 
would be stronger than one. It is impossible, however, to 
follow Studniczka in his further attempt to prove an identity 


of origin between the Kore and the Tyrannicides of Naples. 
Graef pointed out the fallacy of this comparison, and, in any 
case, the likeness would be immaterial, since the Tyrannicides 
of Naples are certainly copies of the later work of Kritios 
and Nesiotes, not the original group of Antenor. Sophoulis 
wished to see in the Kore the earliest of the whole series, but 
an examination of the technical details makes it obvious that 
it is among the latest of them. The statue clearly belongs 
to the Attic revival of the last decade of the 6th century 
(cf. Introd. p. 23), and the connection with Antenor may be 
accepted as practically certain. 

Mu#. (FAth. vi. ; Mvypela, pi. xv. ; Ant. Denkmdler, 
pL LIU. p. 42 ; B.-B., No. 22 ; Wolters, A.M., 1887, p. 265 ; 
id., ., 1888, p. 226; Kavvadias, 'E<. 'A w , 1886, p. 81, 
pi. vi. 4; Studniczka,e/ft., 1887, p. 135, pl.ix. 1 ; Sophoulis, 'E$. 
*Apy., 1888, p. 107; E. Gardner, J.H.S., 1889, p. 278; id., 
ib., 1890, p. 215; Graef, A.M., 1890, p. 1; Heberdey, ib., 
p. 126; Lepsius, p. 71, No. 35; Collignon, i. p. 366, 
fig. 186; Overbeck 4 , i. p. 153, fig. 25 ; Murray, Handbook of 
Gk. Archaeology, p. 254, fig. 88; Pavlovski, pp. 218, 219, 
fig. 73 A and B; Tarbell, p. 149, fig. 90; Perrot, vm. 
p. 561 foil., pi. ii. ; E. Gardner, pp. 181, 182 ; P. Hermann, 
Dfirf. Lltt. Zefo., xxxv., 1903, p. 2164; Lechat, Sc. Att., 
pp. 245 foil. ; Klein, pp. 222, 253; Lennann, p. 75, fig. 34, pi. 
XIL; Schrader, Arch. Marm., p. 27. 


Found 5th and 6th Feb., 1886, N.W. of Erechtheum. 

Legs and feet found separately and added by Schrader in 

Island marble. 

H. 1-825 m. (including plinth '025 m.). 

Missing right lower arm, left hand, part of neck, part 
of back, part of upper left arm, ends of himation folds, big 
toe of left foot, left knee, parts of legs, eyes, upper part of 
shoulder-locks. The figure is restored with plaster. 

Damaged surface of drapery, ears, nose, feet. 

Inserted eyes, right lower arm (in socket without dowel), 
upper parts of shoulder-locks, end of three shoulder-locks 
on left breast, end of inner shoulder-lock on right breast. 



Put together from six large and nine 
small pieces. Head and neck; three 
pieces of back hair; main part of torso; 
left lower arm; piece of left thigh 
shewing gathered folds of drapery; 
three small pieces by right knee ; large 
piece of both lower legs ; three small 
pieces above feet; feet with plinth* 
The statue was made in two pieces, 
like No. 678, joining at the knees, 
where they were secured with dowels. 

The pose and costume are of the 
ordinary Ionic type. The gaze is 
slightly lowered. * The figure stands 
on a small plinth cut to the shape of 
the feet and sloping a little forward. 
Two holes at the back of the calves 
served for lead-runnings to fasten the 
dowels joining the two parts of the 

The chiton is shewn by wavy double 
lines like No. 670, but of finer execu- 
tion. It is sewn down the left arm. 
The back of the sleeve at the elbow and the fulness in the 
armpit are shewn by deep folds well undercut with the drill. 
Its original surface was blue or green, not uncoloured, as 
Lennann supposes, and it has a neck-border of an elaborate 
green and red maeander, which appears on each side of the 
seam on the left sleeve. The cross-band of the himation 
shews overlapping zigzag folds, and the front folds are a 
little oblique on the left side. The loose zigzag border is 
deeply undercut, and raised a little with the drill. As in all 
the more elaborate statues, the little crinkly folds radiating 
from the brooches of the himation on the right shoulder are 
worked with great elaboration. A border-pattern of red, 
blue, and green maeander and stripes is visible on the right 
arm. Two small holes below the corners of the himation on 
the left side suggest that bronze tassels were attached. The 
field of the himation shews ornaments of blue or green 
rosettes, and more complicated honeysuckle patterns in red, 


blue, and green; the border of the overfall has red and 
green squares between green and blue stripes. A girdle is 
visible, consisting of a red band with two green guilloche 
borders, and a little piece of the white surface of the himation 
above it. The Trapvtyij has a green and red double maeander 
with green squares. The vertical folds of the skirts are 
finely incised lines below the 7rapv<j>ij, double raised lines 
above it on the left hip. A horizontal green stripe appears 
halfway down the legs. The lower border round the anldes is 
lost, but the drapery is only separated from the surface of the 
feet by a fine incised line. It is just the absence of plastic 
effect in such details that distinguishes Ionic from Attic or 
Peloponnesian work. The colour-scheme is particularly vivid 
at the back. The Kore wears red sandals similar to those of 
No. 672, but visible here on the instep, where there is a hole 
for the bronze latchet. Two green triangular ornaments 
appear on the laces going round to the heel. She wears also 
a green carved bracelet on the lower left arm, and heavy round 
earrings with a green pattern. 

The hair is combed downwards from the crown of the 
head above the stephaiie in wavy lines. The stephane is 
decorated with a green pattern. The menlskos is preserved 
to a height of '65 m., and is square in section. The fringe 
consists of 23 hanging locks, divided into wavy strands and 
ending in spirals, with an upper fringe of 25 wavy zigzag 
spikes parted in the middle. 

Just above the spirals of the lower fringe is a row of 
%% small holes for fixing a bronze diadem of some kind. 
Behind falls a mass of twelve zigzag locks with free ends, and 
four spiral ringlets decorate each shoulder. These were 
attached by bronze pins behind the ears and on the breast, 
and four of them had free-hanging ends similarly fastened on 
the breast. 

The head is very tall and egg-shaped with eyes lower than 
the centre. The forehead is curved, and the nose makes an 
angle with it ; the eyes are slanting with black brows, and 
the balls inserted as a flat plate, probably of glass. Chin 
and cheek-hones are prominent. The curved mouth ends 
in dimples, and oblique lines from the nostrils outline the 
cheeks. The nose is thin, the ears delicately carved. The 


face has a bony structure and is finely finished. The 
hollow in the middle of the upper lip is sharply outlined, 
the lower lip is divided in the middle. The dividing line of 
the lips is carried even beyond the corners of the mouth. 
The neck is long, the shoulders narrow, the bosom prominent, 
the figure tall and thin. The muscles of the legs are well 
indicated, and the toes are bony. 

This figure is the most elaborately decorated of the whole 
series of Korai, and shews all the Ionic features without any 
Attic admixture. It is the finest of all the imported Chiot 
statues. The hair in particular reaches the acme of elabora- 
tion. Lechat compares it for delicacy with the little figure 
No. 675, and, like Homolle, with the Karyatides of the Siph- 
nian treasury at Delphi for its general* features. In date 
its technique proves it to be one of the latest of the imported 

Mus. cTAth., pis. in. and iv. ; MvyfieZa, pi. xvui. ; AnL 
Derik., pi. xxxix., p. 29; B.-B., pi. 458; Gaz. des Beaiu- 
Arts, xxxm., 1886, p. 417 ; Lepsius, p. 69, No. 14 ; CoIIignon, 
i. p. 347, pi. L; Murray, Handbook, p. 251, % 86; Over- 
beck 4 , i. p. 192, fig. 41 3 ; Pavlovski, p. 205, fig. 65 ; E. Gardner, 
p. 166, fig. 28]; Tarbell, p. 151, fig. 92; Perrot, vni. p. 589, 
fig. 295 ; Kalkmann, Jb., 1896, p. 36 ; Collignon, Polychromie, 
p. 28, fig. 2, pi. n. ; Hofmann, op. dt., pi. in. 47; Joergensen, 
pi. n. ; Lechat, Au Mus., p. 315, fig. 22 ; id., Sc. Att., p. 219 ; 
Homolle, B.C.H., xxiv., 1900, p. 606; Klein, p. 244; Lermann, 
pis. xiv., xv.; Schrader, Arch. Marm., p. 17, figs. 14 18. 


Found in 1882, E. of Parthenon. 

H. -805 m. above plinth. 

Missing ends of fingers of right hand with gathered 
drapery, head of bird in left hand. 

~ I back, left arm, left leg, back of right leg, 

Put together from four pieces head, body to hips, hips 
to middle of lower legs, plinth, feet, and lower part of legs. 

Inserted upper part of bird (missing). 

The figure stands upright on a small round plinth with 
the right foot slightly advanced; the right hand holds the 



gathered skirts to the side, while 
the left holds a bird close to the 
body. The head is erect. The 
plinth measures -SO m. x -17 m., 
and was fastened to the base by 
three clamps, one on each side 
and one in front. 

The costume consists of a 
single Ionic chiton with Jcolpos 
like No. 670. It is shewn as 
usual by wavy lines above, and 
below is gathered in a heavy 
7rapv<f>ij between the legs, as 
well as held out at the side by 
the right hand. The material 
is indicated by thick and slightly 
undulating folds. It is sewn 
down the arms, and shews a 
border pattern of light blue 
palmette and lotus on both arms, 
the neck border and in the field. 
A maeander pattern decorated 
the 7rapv<j>ij 9 but all colour has 

wellnigh disappeared. On the feet are red pointed shoes, 
with traces of blue on the instep above them. 

The hair is combed down from the crown over the back of 
the stephane in twelve zigzag locks behind, shewing several 
superimposed layers at the back of the neck. There are no 
shoulder-ringlets, and the fringe consists of a large roll of 
vertical zigzag locks. Red is preserved on the hair. There 
was no menisJcoSy and the pattern of the stephane has dis- 

The face is heavy and fleshy with prominent features. 
The eyes are oval and level. Brows and lids shew the 
customary black lines, the pupils consist of a yeUow ochre 
ring with black centre and black outline, and the lips are 
red. A curved line runs obliquely from each nostril, out- 
lining the cheek, and giving a certain resemblance to the 
expression of Nos. 648 and 672. The mouth shews a similar 
resemblance, straight with sharp corners, and with the 


division of the lips bow-shaped. The ears are high, and 
had earrings painted in green on the lobes. The shoulders 
are broad, the bosom prominent, and the head large in pro- 
portion to the figure. The legs from the knee are par- 
ticularly short. The face preserves the olive tone due to 
the ydvGMTw, or treatment of the marble surface. On the 
right wrist appear two strings from under the sleeve of the 
chiton, but their interpretation is doubtful, and thev are not 
visible on other statues. 

The figure was at first interpreted as Aphrodite on 
account of the bird, but appears to fall in the ordinary 
category ; No. 685 also carries a bird in her left hand. The 
statue has also been called naturalistic, and even thought to 
be the representation of a negress. This is due partly perhaps 
to the rather clumsy workmanship and curious facial ex- 
pression, partly no doubt to the shoes and hair. But the 
hair can be paralleled by No. 687, the face closely resembles 
Nos. 648 and 672, and doubtless, if more of the" Korai had 
their feet preserved, the shoes could be paralleled too. In any 
case a preference of negresses for red shoes could hardly be 
established for the 6th century B.C. 

It is noteworthy that the material of the statue is Pentelic 
marble. This proves an Attic origin, which might also be 
inferred from the individualistic nature of the work. It must 
belong to the Attic-Ionic period. 

Mylonas, 'E<. 'Ap^-, 1883, pp. 42, 182, pL vra. 2; 
M.v<rjtJi,eia, pi. xxvi. ; Lepsius, p. 73, No. 55 ; Kalkmann, Jb., 
1896, p. 29 ; Collignon, i. p. 354, fig. 179 ; Pavlovski, p. 210, 
fig. 68 ; Tarbell, p. 150, fig. 91 ; Perrot, vni. p. 579, fig. 291 ; 
Lechat, AuMus., pp. 156, 193, 202, fig. 11 ; Sc. Ati., p. 232 ; 
Klein, p. 275; Lermann, pi. xx., below. 


Greater part found in 1882-3, E. of Parthenon. Lower 
part of torso added by Schrader in 1907, who has identified 
also the right foot, inventory No. 501. 

Island marble, with right arm inserted in Pentelic. 

H. 1-19 m. 

Missing left shoulder and arm, the greater part of the 
legs, the right hand. 


Damaged nose and most of 

Inserted right lower arm (in 
situ) with tenon, but no dowel. 

Put together from ten pieces 
head; fragment reaching to 
waist behind, and including neck 
to collar-bone on the right, and 
left breast in front; right breast; 
right shoulder to elbow behind ; 
right lower arm and elbow. To 
these Schrader has added a large 
section of the body down to right 
knee and middle of left thigh ; 
two smaller pieces of the right 
knee ; the left breast ; himation 
folds on the right side. 

The pose is the usual one with 
head erect. 

The costume consists of Ionic 
chiton and himation with the 
epiblema in addition. The latter 
garment falls over the shoulders 
like a scarf, reaching to the waist behind ; the right end is 
then rolled round the extended right lower arm. 

The chiton is shewn by the usual wavy lines above. It 
was green originally with a green maeander border. The 
himation falls in vertical folds in front and has an overfall of 
zigzag folds over the cross-band. It is fastened as usual on 
the right shoulder only. The girdle is visible in front. The 
epiblema is distinguished by its broader folds, and shews on 
the right arm a border pattern of green stripes with red 
zigzags between. The spots of red on the statue are not 
original, but accidental. The wide vrapvfyr) has traces of a 
green pattern, and the himation shews traces of green and 
red ornament in the field, probably green diamonds with red 
quatrefoils in the centre, and a green border on the cross-band 
folds. The hanging folds are deeply cut, and undercut below. 
The hair is combed down from the crown of the head in 
fine wavy lines. There is a hole for the meniskos. 


The stephane is round, not curved in the usual way, and 
shews a red and green lotus and palmette pattern. The 
fringe consists of zigzag undulations with side coils over the 
temples. At the back is a square mass of fine wavy strands, 
and three ringlets of wavy strands fall on each shoulder. 
The triangle on the shoulders between back and front hair is 
flat and decorated with wavy incisions. No colour is pre- 
served on the hair. A carved pearl necklace is worn, and a 
carved green bracelet on the right wrist. The ears are 
decorated with concave earrings adorned with a central boss 
and a green and red rosette or wheel pattern. 

The head is round and the face heavy. The eyes axe 
long straight narrow ovals with the usual scheme of painting. 
The tear-ducts are prominent. The mouth is straight, the 
division of the lips very subtly carved, and the corners slightly 
drooping. Chin and cheek-bones of normal prominent type. 
The ears are finely carved. The shoulders are broad, the hips 

The statue shews an Ionic eye with an Attic mouth, Ionic 
hair and Attic stephane, Ionic drapery, and an Attic head. 
In general style and execution it is one of the masterpieces of 
archaic art, and while undoubtedly belonging to the mixed 
Attic-Ionic school, it clearly belongs to a late period. Winter 
compared it with No. 686, but Lechat is right in drawing a 
sharp contrast. There are marked differences in the eyes, 
hair, and the general type, the one being very elaborate, 
the other very simple. At the same time, there is not the 
fundamental difference Lechat would see. Both shew the 
same Attic head and general type of features, but the one is 
infected with Ionic influence, the other with Peloponnesian. 
It would seem certain on stylistic grounds that No. 684 is 
later than No. 681, and therefore we have evidence for an 
Ionic school after the Attic revival. Cf. Introd. p. 27. 
Lechat makes a happy comparison between No. 684 and 
what we know of the Sosandra of Kalamis. It was un- 
doubtedly Kalamis who kept up the Attic-Ionic tradition in 
the 5th century. A small copy of the head,, No. 641, shews 
that the statue was a favourite one. 

Mylonas, 'E<. 'A/> % ., 1883, p. 41, No. 10; Mus. tfAih., 
pi. XITI. ; Mvypeia, pi. xvii. 1 ; Philios, 'E<. 'Ap#, 1883, 


p. 97, pi. VL; E. Gardner, J.H.S., 1887, p. 174 ; Studniczka, 
AM., 1886, p. 352; Winter, J5., 1887, p. 216, pi. xin. ; 
Joergensen, pi. i. ; _Collignon, i. p. 355, pi. vi. 1 ; Overbeck 4 , 

p. 196, fig. 43 1 ; Pavlovski, p. 233, fig. 82; E. Gardner, 
p. 173, fig. 31 ; Tarbell, p. 153, fig. 94; Perrot, vni. p. 591, 
fig. 297; Lechat, Au Mu*., p. 368, fig. 38; Lepsius, p. 69, 
No. 17 ; Klein, p. 278 ; Lermann, pi. xx., above ; Schrader, 
Arch. Marm., p. 33, figs. 29, 30, 31. 


Found in 1888, S.W. of Parthenon. 
Parian marble. 
H. 1-25 m. 

Missing right lower arm, left hand, 
right leg above ankle, left leg from mid- 
shin, bird in left hand. 

Damaged stephane, nose, chin, ends 
of drapery. 

Put together from six pieces head; 
body in three pieces divided at waist 
and knees; lower left arm; and end of 
drapery. The two latter pieces were 
added by Schrader. 

Inserted both lower arms, the right 
with dowel as well as tenon. 

The pose is upright with left leg ad- 
vanced, and both lower arms extended. 
The drapery fits tightly round the legs. 
The head is erect. 

The figure wears the ordinary Ionic 
chiton and himation. The skirts are 
not touched by either hand, and the 
'jrapv^tj hangs between the legs. The 
surface of the chiton was green (not red as Lermann gives it) 
with a light red maeander border. It is sewn down the left 
arm, and hangs in impossibly elaborate folds under the left 
elbow. The himation shews a single wavy fold hanging over 
the cross-band, and the front folds hang obliquely on the left 
side. It has a border pattern of red maeanders with blue 
stars and spots and two blue stripes. There are also crosses 


in the field. The irapv<l>ij has an elaborate pattern of green 
and red squares, and there are traces of a green and red girdle. 
The folds of the skirts are shewn by fine vertical lines, and 
fit as if made of elastic. The figure wears a carved bracelet 
on the left lower arm, over which appears the tail of the bird 
which was held in the left hand. 

The hair is dark red, combed across the head above the 
stephaw in broad flat waves. The stephane curves very 
slightly, and has a red and green maeander pattern. In 
front of it are four holes for a bronze crown or wreath. 
Above is a hole for the menukos. The fringe is waved, with 
zigzag locks ; a square mass of zigzag locks falls behind, and 
four similar ringlets fall on each shoulder. 

The head is egg-shaped, with heavy jaw, and straight, 
narrow mouth and eyes. The red rings of the pupils are 
preserved and a black line on the left eyebrow. The mouth 
is ended by slight downward cuts. Oblique grooves start 
from the nostrils. The ears are normal, with round earrings 
on which is a green rosette on a red ground. The figure 
is very tall and slim in Ionic fashion, and the general im- 
pression is similar to No. 671. The Attic eyes and mouth 
shew that we have here another member of the mixed school, 
but the Ionic influence is predominant, and the work must be 
decidedly earlier than e.g. No. 684. 

AeXrtW, Oct. 1888, p. 181 ; Wolters, A.M., 1888, p. 438 ; 
Lechat, B.C.H., 1889, p. 145; Mvy/ju-ta, pi. xvi. ; Bulle- 
Hirth, pi. xxix. % ; Lepsius, p. 67, No. 4 ; Pavlovski, p. 40, 
fig. 84; Perrot, vin. p. 597, fig. 300; Lechat, Au Mus., 
p. 156, fig. 10; Sc. Att^ p. 35; Klein, p. 78; Lermann, pi. 
vi. ; Schrader, Arch. Harm., p. 67, figs. 33, 34. 


Found in 1882, E. of Parthenon. 

Parian marble. 

H. (top of head to left hand) -58 m. 
to which probably belongs 

6O9. Leg and feet of female figure on inscribed base of 

Found in 1886 or 1887 near the Erechtheum. 

D. 16 



Parian marble. 
H. (above base) '415 m. 
Missing right lower arm, body from 
waist to above knees, fingers of left hand, 
gathered folds of drapery, left ankle. 

Damaged End of nose, ears, shoulder 
ringlets, top of head, end of left sleeve. 
The hair at the back is blackened by 

Inserted right lower arm. 
Put together from eight pieces (No. 
686) head and bust; body in two ver- 
tically joined fragments; left arm; left 
hand ; (No. 609) knees ; legs to ankles ; 
feet, ankles, and base. 

The left ankle is restored in plaster. 
In the middle of No. 609, between the 
legs, there is a small hole a few milli- 
metres deep. 

The connection of Nos. 686 and 609, 
made by Winter, is now generally ac- 
cepted, and is based on identity of scale, 
material, and style. Mme. Lermann sug- 
gested that No. 609 would belong better 
to No. 674, but Schrader has identified the left foot of that 

The pose is normal with head erect. The figure stands 
on a small oblong plinth ('SO m. x 197m.), which is let into 
a round capital with lead. This capital is inscribed in Attic 
characters ftv6v$Lfcb$ o @a\^ap%ou dveOe/cev. The letters are 
painted red. The capital is about *27 m. high (diameter of 
abacus *375 m., of shaft '1 m.) and is cut off below. For 
these capitals as bases cf. Borrmann, JJ., 1888, p. 269. No 
coloured decoration is preserved on the base. 

The costume consists of Ionic chiton and himation. The 
former shews no folds on left breast and shoulder, and is only 
separated from the neck by a slight incision. The slack of 
the sleeve in the armpit is heavy and flat. The cross-band of 
the himation consists of fine regular longitudinal folds, narrow 
at the shoulder, and wide on the left breast. The front 


folds of the himation are flat and vertical. The skirts are 
also flat with the radial folds from the left hand shewn by 
simple incisions on the left leg only. The skirts make a 
semicircle on the plinth behind the feet, which are bare. 
No colour or decoration survives on the himation, but the 
chiton shews a decoration of horizontal bands on the left 
shoulder. Of these the best preserved is the second from 
the top, consisting of a row of four-horsed chariots in very 
faint black outlines, apparently drawn with a pen or fine 
brush. Originally there was a ground-colour over the whole 
surface on which the bands stood out with polychrome 
patterns, but now only a few outlines are left. This" scheme 
of decoration is not paralleled elsewhere in the Acropolis 
sculpture, but is common in vase paintings of the 6th century, 
cf. in particular the Francois vase. 

There is no stephane round the head, but a soft band 
wound twice round the hair, and tied at the back with the 
ends hanging down. This band shews the remains of a 
maeander pattern. There is no mtniskos. Above the band 
are smooth concentric waves. Behind is a square flat mass 
of hair horizontally divided. On the forehead the hair is 
parted and waved behind the ears, the side-locks being very 
deeply undercut. Three thin wavy locks of three strands fall 
on each shoulder. The outer two of these are undercut so as 
to hang freely between head and shoulders without being in- 
serted, as in No. 68& The small holes of the drill are 
visible along the side of all the ringlets. There is no colour 

The face is oval with heavy chin, the head round. Eyes 
and mouth are level. The eyelids are thick, and the red rings 
of the pupils preserved. The lips are red, and turned down 
at the corners, giving a pouting expression to the face. The 
forehead is flat, the eyebrows sharp. A sharp line separates 
lids and brows. The ears are high, finely worked, and without 
earrings. The cheeks are flat, except round mouth and 
nostrils, and shew none of the ordinary Attic or Ionic pro- 
minence of cheek-bone and chin. The shoulders are sloping, 
the breasts very high, the limbs rounded. The treatment of 
the neck, and especially of the collar-bones, and the hollow 
in the centre between them, marks a technical advance. The 



feet are very delicately carved, and are less bony than those 
of No. 682. The nails are semicircular, not triangular like 
No. 672, or quadrilateral like No. 682. 

The statue is remarkable for its simplicity of treatment in 
comparison with the elaboration of the greater number of the 
Koral With the exception of eye and cheeks, the head 
might be called Attic, but these features at once challenge 
comparison with the Peloponnesian type observed in heads 
Nos. 644 and 699, and shew that we have here a complete 
reaction against the Attic-Ionic school, and a clear example 
of Attic work infected with Peloponnesian influence. A re- 
semblance has always been noticed between this statue and 
the ephebe^s head No. 689, though it is distinctly earlier in 
technique. It has been compared by Winter with No. 684, 
but Lechat has pointed out the obvious differences in style. 

This statue then is of supreme importance in the chrono- 
logical study of early Attic art, as it marks more clearly than 
any other the arrival of the second great foreign influence in 
Attic sculpture, that of Argos. It is the direct forerunner 
of No. 689. Compared by Winter and Graef with the Peitho 
of the E. frieze of the Parthenon, it clearly foreshadows 
many Pheidian features, cf. Introduction, p. 25. 

Mylonas, '<. 'A/%, 1883, p. 44, No. 25 (misprinted 26); 
Mus. cTMk., pi. xiv. ; Mwrjfjbeia, pi. xvn. 2 ; B.-B., No. 459, 2; 
Gaz. Arch., 1888, pi. vn. ; Winter, Jb. 9 1887, p. 216, pi. xiv. ; 
Graef, AM., 1890, p. 33 ; P. Paris, La Sculpture grecque, 
p. 129, fig. 53 ; Collignon, i. p. 356, pi. vi. 2 ; Murray, Hand- 
book, p. 252, fig. 87; Overbeck 4 ,!. p. 196, fig. 43 3 ; Pavlovski, 
pp. 237, 8, fig. 87 1 ' 2 ; E. Gardner, pp. 187, 8, fig. 37; 
Tarbell, p. 154, fig. 95; Collignon, Polychromie, p. 33, 
fig. 3; Perrot, vm. p. 592, figs. 298, 299; Lechat, Au 
Mus., p. 364, fig. 37; Sc. Att., pp. 353, 4, note 2; Klein, 
p. 280 ; Lermann, p. 68, note 1. 


Body known since visit of Lebas in 1843. 
Head found in 1882, E. of Parthenon. 
Island marble. 
H. -61 m. 



Missing right hand and wrist, left 
arm from above elbow, legs from left 
knee and below right knee. 

Damaged face, hair, edges and hang- 
ing folds of drapery. The top of the 
head is cut off obliquely towards left ear. 
The figure is blackened by fire about the 
neck and shoulders. 

Put together from two pieces head 
and body. 

The neck is partially restored in plaster. 
There is a hole on the top of the head, 
probably for fixing the separate upper 
part, which may have been a restoration 
after an ancient break. 

The pose is erect, with left leg ad- 
vanced, left lower arm extended, right arm hanging by side. 
The arms are thus the converse of No. 671. The gaze is 

The costume consists of Ionic chiton and himation. The 
chiton has not only a Jcolpos, which is raised in triangular 
fashion in the middle, but also a short overfall on the bosom 
like No. 688. Examples of this overfall in sculpture are 
confined to these two statues, but are visible on vases (cf. 
Kalkmann, Jb., 1896, p. 23, fig. S). The Trapvty hangs 
straight between the legs. The wavy lines of the chiton 
appear on the skirt as well as on the upper part in this 
statue only. The himation is worn like a shawl over 
both shoulders, hanging low behind. The fall over the 
arms is here correct, not as in No. 671. It is treated 
in smooth flat folds. There are no painted patterns 

The hair is waved above the stephane, which is very 
slightly curved, and has a palmette and lotus pattern, pro- 
bably in red, on a green ground. It falls behind in a 
semicircular mass of eleven zigzag locks, and in three wavy 
ringlets on each shoulder. The fringe is a heavy roll of 
undulating locks like No. 683. The hair is coloured yellow 
ochre, and is darker at the sides of the fringe where it is 
thickest. Lermann suggests that this is a naturalistic detail, 



but that seems rather dubious. The artist is however in- 
dividualistic in other respects. 

The eyes protrude, and are of Attic-Ionic type. The 
red ring of the eyeball is preserved. The mouth shews the 
archaic smile, and ends in heavy dimples. Lateral grooves 
from the nostrils outline the cheek-bones. The ears are low, 
with round red- and green-patterned earrings. The figure 
is stiff and square, the bosom is hardly indicated, the folds 
are superficial and without use of the drill. Lechat com- 
pares the face with a head from Eleusis, published in 'E<jf>. 
Ap%., 1883, pi. v. It clearly belongs to the Attic-Ionic 
period, and, though a work of some originality, is not of 
great artistic merit. 

Lebas-Waddington, Voy. Arch., Mons. Figs., pi. n. 2; 
Beule, La Sculpt, avant Pheidias, p. 102; Heller, Awgrab. 
auf der Altropolis, note 46 ; Miiller-Scholl, Arch. Mit. aiis 
Griech., p. 24, No. 5; Sybel, No. 5007; Mylonas, 'E</>. s A/o%., 
1883, p. 41, No. 21; Lepsius, p. 68, No. 10; Studniczka, 
AM xi., 1886, p. 356, pi. ix. 2; Friederichs-Wolters, No. 12; 
Pavlovski, p. 193, fig. 58; Kalkmann, Jb., 1896, p. 24; 
Lechat, Au Mus., pp. 164, 170, fig. 12; Sc. Att., p. 236. 


Body found in 1889 in the Propylaea. 

Head known before 1885 (probably 
found in 1882 during Stamatakis'' ex- 
cavations in the Propylaea). 

Pentelic marble. 

H. -51 m. 

Missing lower arms, legs from lower 
part of thighs. 

Damaged nose, chin, drapery, espe- 
cially on the legs. 

Inserted both lower arms; the right 
has tenon in place with dowel-hole. 

Put together from two pieces head 
and body. 

The figure stands upright with head 
erect. The legs apparently were to- 
gether. Both lower arms were outstretched. 


The costume consists of Ionic chiton and himation. The 
former shews the same small overfall on the bosom as No. 687, 
and has a very low Jcolpos visible right at the bottom of the 
statue. Similar Icolpoi as low as the knees may be seen in 
Kalkmann's article in the Jahrbuch for 1896, pp. 25, 9, 
figs. 5 and 11. The folds of the chiton are not wavy but 
straight, and probably there was no irapv^r}. On the sleeves, 
instead of the formal radial folds from the pins, a naturalistic 
treatment is attempted. Similarly the himation, worn like 
a shawl over both shoulders, is treated with greater realism, 
being bunched at the back of the neck over the hanging 
mass of hair, and shewing a less stylistic arrangement of 
folds. No colour or patterns are preserved. 

The hair is combed downwards from the crown of the 
head in concentric undulations. There is no menisJcos. The 
stephane is small and probably round not curved, but its 
shape at the back is hidden by the back hair. There are 
traces of green on it. The front hair is parted and waved 
to the side with coils falling over it on the temples. There 
are no separate shoulder locks, but a thin ringlet of four 
strands falls at the side of the neck on each shoulder, and 
disappears under the himation. Traces of red colour are 

The head is round, the face square and heavy at the 
chin. The eyes are level and oval in shape with thick lids 
like Nos. 686 and 689, They are outlined with black, and 
shew traces of black pupils. The brows are sharp, the 
mouth straight with lips terminated by cuts. The cheeks 
are flat, though the chin juts out strongly. The ears are 
small and deeply cut, without earrings. The figure is stiff 
and square, but the bosom is well moulded, and the neck 
muscles treated in the developed style of No. 686. 

In considering the date of the statue, it must be borne 
in mind that it is not the work of a first-rate artist. There 
is no Ionian influence at all, but the Dorian traits of No. 
686 are repeated. The shoulder ringlets and the drapery 
shew an advance in technique on that statue, and the 
drapery belongs to a later fashion. The statue was not 
found in the Perserschutt, but in the Propylaea, i.e. it was 
thrown into the foundations of that building in 438 B.C. It 


might of course have been lying about for some time, and it 
certainly shews signs of weathering, but Heberdey's view 
that it is a post-Persian offering seems highly probable. In 
this case it is clear that the series of Korai did not end in 
480, but was continued, at any rate for a short time, after 
the return of the Athenians to their city. 

AeXrtW, May, 1889, pp. 85, 106; Welters, A.M., 1889, 
p. 122; E. Gardner, J.H.S., x. 1889, p. 265, fig. B; Pav- 
lovski, p. 197, fig. 59; Perrot, vm. p. 587, fig. 294; I^chat, 
Au Mus., pp. 164, 170, fig. 13. 

689. MALE HEAD. 

Found N.E. of museum in 
Sept., 1887. 
Parian marble. 
H. -245 m. 

Preserved to centre of neck 
in good condition. The head 
is bent forwards and towards 
the right shoulder. 

The hair is combed down 
from the crown in fine ridged 
wavy lines, twisted behind each 
ear in two thick plaits, which 
are wound round the head, and 
tied under the fringe in front. 
Concentric waves round the 
head are also visible. The side 

hair from the temples is brought back over the ears and 
twisted in behind. The fringe itself falls quite straight in 
front, ending in unsymmetrical curls low on the forehead. 
The fine hairs below the plaits on the neck are painted in 
black and yellow, not incised. The fashion of the hair is 
best parallelled by the Apollo on the Omphalos, and on vases 
of Euphronios. Another fragment in the Museum, No. 308, 
has the same coiffure. On the top of the head is a hole 
012 m. in diameter, "031 m. deep, intended for a meniskos. 

The ey^es are straight with prominent ducts, and with a 
slight Attic arch of the upper lid, which is broad and heavy. 
The mouth is straight and terminated by downward grooves 


from the lip-corners. Red is visible above the eyelids and 
on the lips, and the lashes are painted in black on the 
insides of the lids. The hair is a yellow ochre colour, and 
the eyeballs are painted with a yellow ring between a black 
dot and a black outline. The face is very delicately modelled 
without over-emphasis of any feature, but 'the effort to avoid 
the archaic smile has resulted, as in No. 686, in a pouting 
and mournful expression. The ears are very delicate, and 
of the crescent shape visible in Nos. 698 and 699. There 
is some general resemblance with No. 686, especially in the 
pouting expression, but every detail of modelling exhibits a 
great advance in technique. As compared with No. 698, it 
is much softer in treatment, and of a different shape. The 
proportions of the three divisions are nearly equal, and the 
head is higher and deeper. It has some resemblance to, but 
is distinctly earlier than No. 699, not shewing so much 
swelling of the occiput, and lacking the fine modelling of 
the eyes, and the oval face of the latter. It has been 
compared by Sophoulis with the Apollo of the Olympia 
pediment, but the resemblance does not extend to detail. 
To the ephebe heads of Euphronios there is a closer resem- 
blance, not only in the arrangement of the hair, but in the 
general structure of the face. Perhaps the closest parallel 
is a small bronze head (Mus. d?Ath. xvi.) also found on the 
Acropolis. The face of the latter is thinner and more 
pointed, but the shape of the head, and the proportions 
of the three divisions are the same. The eyes and mouth 
are treated with great similarity. Furtwangler has suggested 
Hegias as the author of this head on the strength of the 
resemblance to the Apollo of Mantua. No. 689 belongs 
clearly to a different school from No. 698 which is connected 
with Kritios, but Hegias remains a symbol rather than a 

Peloponnesian influence is visible in the treatment of the 
mouth and eyes, while the shape of the head is purely Attic. 
At the same time the delicacy of finish and the rather 
affected pose is Ionic in style, and thus we have all the 
evidence of eclecticism which we should expect in the master 
of Pheidias. 

The question of date largely depends on the question 


whether the head is pre-Persian or not. The stratum in 
which it was found is not conclusive (Kavvadias and Kawerau, 
Ausgrdb. der AJcrop. (1907), p. 32) and its style seems a 
decade or so later than 480, but it is difficult in the case 
both of this head, and of the statue No. 698, to account 
otherwise for their excellent preservation. 

Wolters, AM., 1887, p. 266; Lechat, B.C.H., 1888, 
p. 239 ; Studniczka, A.M., 1887, p. 373 ; Gaz. Arch., 1888, 
p. 41; Winter, Jb., 1887, p. 233 s3 ; Jane Harrison, J.H.S., 
1888, p. 122, fig. 3; Sophoulis, 'E<. 3 A/>^., 1888, p. 81, pi. n. ; 
Lepsius, p. 71, No. 57; Mvyfjueia, pi. xxvni.; B.-B., No. 160; 
Bulle-Hirth, Nos. 54, 55; Furtwangler, SOthW.F.P., p. 151; 
Lechat, Au Mus., p. 374, fig. 39; Sc. Ait., p. 362; Over- 
beck 4 , i. p. 200, fig. 49; CoUignon, i. p. 362, fig. 184; E. 
Gardner, p. 189, fig. 38; Tarbell, p. 155, fig. 96; Pavlovski, 
p. 150, fig. 43 ; Perrot, vtn. p. 643, pi. xiv. ; Klein, p. 282 ; 
Lermann, p. 131, fig. 43. 

The suggested torso (Wolters, AM., 1887, p. 266; Graef, 
AM., 1890, p. 21, No. 7; Kalkmann, Jb., 1892, p. 131, 
fig. 3), clearly does not belong. 

69O. NIKE. 

Found Feb. 5th and 6th, 1886, N.W. of Erechtheum. 

Parian marble. 

H. 1-40 m. (incl. plinth -04 m. -045 m.). 

Wing-holeslength -17 m., breadth -04 m., depth -11 m. 
"15 m. 

Missing upper part of head and whole of face, right 
arm from elbow at back and mid-biceps in front, left arm, 
shoulder, breast, and side, oblique section from waist to mid- 
thigh on left side to mid-thigh to knee on right side (restored 
in plaster), both legs from knees, and wings. 

Damaged the lower part of the drapery is split and 
calcined by fire, the flying himation fold is broken. 

Inserted the wings in deep mortices at the back of the 

Put together from six pieces main part of torso, small 
fragment of left chest and shoulder, end of flying himation 
fold, oblique section of legs, left knee, and lower drapery with 



plinth. The section restored 
in plaster is too wide, making 
the figure rather too tall. 

A female figure is represented 
in a running attitude facing 
right, but the pose is a great 
improvement on the archaic 
type of Nos. 691 and 693. 
From the size and remains of the 
plinth we can see that neither 
foot touched the ground. The 
figure was supported by the 
heavy central mass of drapery. 
This is the old convention, but 
it is further improved on here 
by leaving a rough space be- 
tween the plinth and the bottom 
of the drapery, which was pro- 
bably coloured blue, and helped 
to increase the illusion of free 
flight. The legs are in profile, 
but the upper part of the body 
is twisted so as to face the 

spectator, while the head is even more distorted so as to 
glance back over the right shoulder. The right arm was 
bent across the body and held the lower drapery, the left 
was extended, and is restored by Reichhold as holding out a 
wreath. The plinth is small and rectangular (-33 m. x -17 m.), 
cut away at the corners and projecting more on the right 
side. The rough piece above it is *04< m. *05 m. high. 

The figure wears the ordinary Ionic chiton and himation. 
On the back, where the wings fit, the surface is left smooth, 
and the question of adapting them to the drapery is not 
attempted. The chiton is distinguished from the neck only 
by the painted border. It shews the usual wavy surface on 
the left chest and shoulder. The himation is fastened on 
the right shoulder and arm in the ordinary fashion of the 
foraL The small overlapping folds on the cross-band are 
elaborated even beyond the standard of Nos. 682 and 684. 
The hanging folds are blown to the left by the motion of 


the figure, and stream freely in the air. The folds of the 
skirts radiate from the centre of the body where they were 
grasped by the right hand. No colour is now preserved, 
but at the time of discovery, a red maeander pattern could 
be detected on the neck-border of the chiton, and a blue and 
red border on the hiraation. Nine holes bored in the front 
of the neck shew where a bronze necklace with pendant was 

The hair shews blackening by fire but no colour. It is 
arranged in a simple knot on the nape of the neck consisting 
of finely combed strands. There are no shoulder locks. The 
modelling of skiu and drapery alike, especially of the neck 
and the cross-band of the himation, is wonderfully fine and 

The wings were inserted behind at an angle from the 
back and from each other, not straight out at the sides like 
Nos. 691, 693, and 694. One fragment of them survives in 
the wall-cases in Room IV., and shews a polychrome scheme 
of colour for the feathers. From it we can judge that 'the 
wings were not of the archaic up-curling type like those of 
the Sphinxes, Nos. 630 and 632, but pointed downwards like 
the bronze Nike in the National Museum (De Ridder, Cat. 
des Bronzes d?J.ihene$> p. 324). 

The statue clearly represents a Nike, but the ordinary 
archaic type is here softened down to meet a later taste. 
Drapery and surface treatment represent the acme of Ionian 
skill. Studniczka at one time proposed to combine it with 
the Persian rider No. 606 in a Marathon trophy, but Winter 
demonstrated the incorrectness of this view. Lechat com- 
pares it with No. 627 for delicacy and elaborate treatment 
of the himation cross-band, Petersen and Sophoulis with the 
Iris of the Parthenon pediment. The raising of the edges 
of the himation folds brings it in line with No. 682 and the 
finer monuments of imported Chiot art. Without the head 
or feet it is difficult to fix its exact position, but the quality 
of workmanship and developed pose suggest the Ionizing 
school of No. 684 in Period III. Cf. p. 27. 

Kawadias, 'E 'A P% ., 1886, p. 77; W. Miller, J.J.J., 
1886, p. 63; Studniczka, AM., 1886, p. 356, note 1 ; Petersen, 
ib. 9 p. 380, pi. xi. c; Studniczka, Siegesgottm, p. 10, pi. in. 


fig. 10; Lepsius, p. 70, No. 27; Sophoulis, 'Ed>. 'A/^., 1888, 
p. 92; B.-B., No. 526 A, restored in text by Reichhold; 
Bulle in Reseller's Lexicon, in. p. 334; Studniczka, JJ., 1891, 
p. 248; Winter, Jb., 1893, p. 152; Pavlovski, p. 181, fig. 51; 
Lechat, Au Mus., p. 380; id., Sc. Att., p. 393, fig. 31. 


Found according to Kastriotis 
(Acrop. Cat.) in 1886 with No. 
690, but according to Sophoulis 
in 1888. The AeX^V the 
B.C.H., and the A.M. all an- 
nounce the finding of a torso of 
Nike S. W. of Parthenon in Nov. 
1888, and the B.C.H. (Lechat) 
gives the height as -40 m. This 
corresponds better with No. 691 
than with No. 693, the other 
Nike statuette, and so we may 
conclude Sophoulis to be correct. 
Island marble. 
H. -39m. 
Missing head, ends of wings, 

both lower arms, right leg from below knee, left leg from 
above knee, and drapery from the same level. 

Put together from two pieces, the right arm with front 
of wing being added to the main piece. 

The surface of this piece is damaged by fire. 
The pose is a converse of No. 690 and nearly identical 
with the Nike of Archermos in the National Museum. 
Head and body face the spectator, while the legs are in 
profile, and the motion is to the left. The wings were 
stretched out in a straight line right and left, and were of 
the early up-curling type. Light and dark stripes are all 
that remain of their decoration at the back. The left arm 
is bent across the body to hold the gathered drapery between 
the legs, and the right was extended and probably bent 
upwards at the elbow like several small bronze Nikai from 
the Acropolis (De Bidder, Cat. des Bronzes cTAtlienes, pp. 
32427, figs. 316320). 



The costume consists of Ionic chiton and himation. The 
latter is fastened on left shoulder and down left arm, so that 
the chiton appears on the right breast and shoulder, contrary 
to the usual fashion of the Kwai. The wide chiton sleeve 
hangs below the upper arm, and both this and the drapery 
on the right leg are pushed up by the wind, so as to leave 
the right leg bare. This is the usual convention in archaic 
Nike figures. The cross-band of the himation shews only 
parallel folds. The hanging folds swing out behind under 
the left arm. 

The hair falls in a wavy mass with free ends behind and 
in fine thin zigzag locks on each shoulder. Both behind and 
in front it is blown back by the wind. 

No colour is preserved. The statuette is probably the 
most archaic of the four Nikai in this room, but has a finely 
life-like and individual character owing to the efforts of the 
artist to indicate the effects of motion. Studniczka suggests 
that it belongs to the next generation after Archermos, a 
date which would suit it as an imported piece of Chiot art. 

Ae\Ttois Nov. 1888, p. 201; Lechat, B.C.H., 1889, p. 142; 
Wolters, A.M., 1888, p. 439 ; Sophoulis, 'E<. ' Ap%.> 1888, p. 89, 
fig. A; Lepsius, p. 70, No. 29; Studniczka, Siegesgottin, pp. 7 
(note 2, No. 5) and 10, pi. n. fig. 8; Pavlovski, p. 180, fig. 53. 


Found S.E. of Acropolis in 1864 

H. ;87m. 

Parian marble. 

Missing head, left arm from mid- 
biceps, right arm from mid lower arm, 
legs from below knee, penis. 

torso, right thigh and knee, right lower 

The right arm was added in the sum- 
mer of 1900, and also a head which has 
since been removed and placed on No. 
633, where it certainly belongs. 

The weight is mostly on the right 
leg, and the left leg is advanced. The 



v it arm is drawn back above and bent at the elbow, the 
left arm was probably in a similar position. The chest is 
expanded. The attitude is suggestive of an athletic pose. 

The body is very tall and thin. The three vertical divi- 
sions of the torso measure -12 m., '22 m., and '12 m., which 
give a very disproportionate length between pectorals and 
navel. The modelling of the muscles is only slight. There 
seem to be traces of red colour on the nipples. The figure 
is youthful and slight without pubes, the sacral triangle is 
marked behind, and the glutei have lateral depressions. The 
navel is carved as a raised button under an arched fold of 
flesh, a treatment visible also in Nos. 302 and 698. The 
thighs are round and rather shapeless. Delbruck has at- 
tempted to prove that the statue belongs to a Parian school, 
and compares it with the Ptoan figure (B.C.H., xi., pis. xni. 
and xrv.) and with No. 145, which shews however a very 
different system of proportions. But we ought not to go 
further than to say that it does not correspond either with 
Peloponnesian canons or with Attic works of the Kritios type. 
It appears to be decidedly older than No. 698. The work is 
certainly suggestive of Ionian rather than Attic ideals. 

Brunn, Decharme, and Pervanoglu, Bull. deW Inst., 1864, 
p. 85; Pervanoglu, Bull delT Irwt., 1867, p. 76; Sybel, 
No. 5101 ; Furtwangler, AM., 1880, pp. 25, 32; Pavlovski, 
p. Ill, fig. 27; Delbruck, AM., 1900, p. 373, pi. xv. xvi. 2; 

ius, p. 71, No. 40. 


Found probably in Feb. 1886, N.W. of Erechtheum with 
No. 690 (c notice of No. 691). Head added since. 

Island marble. 

H. -435 m. 

Missing both arms and most of wings, both legs from 
above knees, ends of shoulder locks, lower drapery and plinth. 

Damaged face (features almost entirely erased), breasts, 
drapery in general. 

Put together from three pieces head and neck, body to 
hips with right thigh, left thigh and drapery. 

Inserted ends of shoulder locks. 

The pose of the figure is nearly identical with No. 691, 



but the left band hangs by the side, 
and downwards from the extended 
elbow, instead of grasping the drapery. 
The gaze is downwards, and no effect 
of motion is given except by the tra- 
ditional pose. 

The costume consists of Ionic chiton 
and himation arranged like No. 691. 
The chiton shews traces of colour, and 
the himation has a border of red and 
green squares and maeanders on the 
hanging folds. Small folds overlap 
the cross-band of the himation in later 
style, and there are traces of green 
ornaments in the field. The 7rapv<f>rf 
had a maeander pattern. The hang- 
ing folds are firmly and deeply cut, but are not quite vertical. 
The skirts are caught up as usual on the right thigh. The 
wings had the feathers incised, and raised so as to overlap the 
next row, and red appears on the front of the wings. They 
are of the same type as No. 691. 

The hair is combed straight back from the front of the 
stephane in a zigzag mass of ten locks with free ends down 
the back. Red paint is visible. Three wavy locks of two 
strands each fall on either shoulder. In front of the stephane 
is a waved, deeply-arched fringe with zigzag side-coils on 
the temples, and zigzag spiky locks above it, parted in 
the centre. On the crown of the head is a hole for the 

The head is full and egg-shaped, the eyes protruding but 
level. The mouth has an acute smile and thick lower lip. 
The ears are high, with round earrings. The breasts are 
prominent, the shoulders narrow. An ordinary Ionic type, 
perhaps a little later than No. 691. 

Sophoulis, 'E</>. 'A/%., 1888, p. 91, fig. B ; Studniczka, 
Siegesgottin, p. 7, note 2, No. 6 ; Lepsius, p. 70, No. 30 ; 
Pavlovski, p. 174, fig. 52. 




Found in June, 1888, between 
the museum and the S. wall of 
the Acropolis. 
Parian marble. 
H. -76m. 

Missing head, right arm 
from above elbow, left arm from 
mid-biceps, left breast, right leg 
from above knee, left leg, dra- 
pery from level of left knee. 
Damaged drapery in front. 
Put together from five pieces 
upper part of torso, right 
arm, left shoulder, lower part 
of torso from waist, lower right 

Inserted the figure is cut off* sharply underneath through 
the left thigh, and still shews the protruding end of a large 
iron dowel run in with lead. Above this on the left side 
the body is also cut for the insertion of the left leg. There 
is no dowel-hole in this socket. Two large holes are visible 
in the front of the figure, one at the waist, and one, still 
filled with lead, on the left thigh on the surface of the 
hanging fold of drapery. It is difficult to determine what 
was attached in these holes. Marks of the drill are very 
evident all over. 

The pose in general resembles that of Nos. 691 and 698, 
but like No. 690 the bending of the right knee is not so 
sharp. The right arm is lowered and holds the drapery up 
from the right thigh; the position of the left arm is un- 
certain. The wings are of the up-curling type, but separated 
on the back, with rounded ends where they join the body. 
The pose is probably identical with that of a small bronze 
from the Acropolis (De Ridder, Catalogue, p. 323, No. 808, 
fig. 314; Petersen, A.M., 1886, pi. xi. c. ; Collignon, i. p. 190, 
fig. 70 ; B.-B., cut in text of No. 526). 

The costume is different from that of the other Nikai 
and any of the Korai, resembling the Athena, No. 140. It 
consists of a short-sleeved tight-fitting chiton, shewn with 

D. 17 


a perfectly smooth surface, and distinguished from the neck 
by paint only, and a himation fastened like a Doric peplos 
with a single brooch on each shoulder. The folds of this 
himation are simple and heavy, radiating from the brooches, 
which were inserted in bronze, and open down the left side. 
The front angle and hanging folds of the Ionic himation 
are still preserved. The horizontal folds of the skirt stop 
abruptly at the back of the leg. There is no colour except 
at the back, where red paint is visible below the wings and 
on the hair. 

There are no shoulder locks, and the hair falls in a simple 
semicircular mass behind with horizontal waves. It is left 
rough at the edges. The right breast is prominent and 
sharply pointed; the right thigh is remarkably thin. In 
general the statue shews good work, with the edges of 
drapery carefully raised, and much use of the drill, but it 
is not well finished. The neglected back looks as if it served 
some architectural purpose, and a position as akroterion is the 
most likely. The heavy iron dowel implies great need of 
support. As to the date, the similarity in costume connects 
it inevitably with No. 140, but it seems impossible to place 
it much later than 480 B.C. as it was found with earlier 
bronze objects and pottery and with the head of No. 698 
in a stratum which, partly at any rate, consist of pre-Persian 
objects. It might be possible however to include them both 
in "the decade 480470 B.C. 

AeXrtoi/, June, 1888, p. 104; Lechat, B.C.H., 1888, 
p. 437; Wolters, A.M., 1888, p. 227; Lepsius, p. 70, No. 28; 
B.-B., No. 526 B; Pavlovski, p. 183, %. 54; Lechat, Sc. Att. 9 
p. 371, fig. 30. 

695. Relief. 


Found in June, 1888, S. of the Parthenon, built into the 
wall of a poros building, -20 m. below the surface. 

Parian marble. 

H. -54 m. Br. -31 m. to -315 m. Thickness -05 m. 

Relief depth up to '016 m. 

There is a slight moulding above and a small plinth 
below (H. -013m.). 



Missing top left corner, 
most of left lower arm of Athena 
(restored in plaster). 

Damaged drapery and right 

Put together from two pieces 
with the join across the neck of 

Athena is represented facing 
right and leaning on a staff or 
probably a reversed spear, which 
she holds in her left hand, while 
the right rests on her hip. Her 
weight is on the right foot, with 
the left drawn back and raised 
on the toes. Her head is lowered 

till it almost touches her left hand, and the body is twisted 
a little forward at the hips. In front of her, on the right 
side of the relief, is a small rectangular stele (H. '#4 m. ; 
br. '04m.; thickness -007 m.), which is now quite plain. 

The goddess is clad in a plain Doric peplos pinned on the 
shoulders and reaching to the ankles, with an overfall down 
to the hips, above which is tied the girdle, represented by a 
mere incision. She wears no aegis, but has a helmet of 
Corinthian type with two crests. The heavy vertical folds, 
which shew the thick material of the peplos and quite hide 
the contour of the limbs, fall not perpendicularly but parallel 
with the slightly sloping line of the body. The hair is 
parted, and waved behind the ears. The modelling is careful 
and accurate, the eye in correct profile, and the pose lazy 
and simple. The bare feet belong to the Peloponnesian con- 
vention with the second toe longest, and the only trace of 
archaism is the angle of the folds. 

The background was once dark blue, and the cornice had 
a painted design, but slight traces only were visible on dis- 
covery, and these have since disappeared. No paint or 
design appears on or above the stele, and its meaning must 
therefore remain obscure. Several suggestions, however, have 
been made: e.g. Athena mourning over a monument to 
her dead citizens, Athena guarding a battlement, Athena 



guarding a stele with laws or accounts engraved upon it, 
or (the view of Lechat) Athena watching over the youthful 
Erich thonios, represented in colour on the top of the stele in 
his cradle. This view is based on a lamp from the Passin 
collection (cf. article mentioned below, fig. 1), and the Finlay 
vase (Benndorf, Gr. und Siril. Vasen, pi. xxxi. 1). But the 
lamp is probably a forgery, traces of colour are hardly per- 
ceptible above the stele, and the stele itself is not like a base. 
Besides, if the important figure of the child was only painted, 
why should the basis of it be carved? The battlement is 
highly improbable, and there are no traces of any inscription 
to justify an urkunden-stele. Nor, it may be said, does the 
attitude of Athena necessarily indicate mourning. Two 
recent views may be added. A. Fairbanks suggests the meta 
of the racecourse as an explanation of the stele, and Florence 
Bennett calls it a symbol of the original aniconic xoanon in 
the form of a pillar. But there is no parallel for the repre- 
sentation of the latter of these objects by a perfectly plain 
square stele without capital or base, and Athena has no direct 
connection with the racecourse. The goddess is certainly in 
the typical attitude of a spectator, but the riddle of the stele 
is still unsolved. 

Lechat and E. Gardner suggest a date late in the 5th 
century, Kavvadias, Furtwangler and Graef in the middle 
of the century. Clearly later than the pre-Persian JTorai, 
the face is undoubtedly Pheidian in type and the general 
treatment of the drapery shews Peloponnesian influence. The 
only archaic survival is the oblique hanging of the drapery. 
This Lechat and Gardner attribute to the sculptor rather 
than the period. But the provenance of the relief seems to 
make it clear that it is of an earlier date than the Parthenon, 
as the wall in which it was built is probably connected either 
with the embanking and supporting of the Parthenon site, 
or with the building of the Parthenon itself. 

AeXrfoif, June, 1888, pp. 103, 123; E. Gardner, J.H.S., 
x., 1889, p. 267, fig. D; S. Reinach (C. Waldstein), Rev. Arch., 
1889, n. p. 98; Mvweia, pi. i. ; Gra^f, A.M., xv., 1890, 
p. 22; E. Gardner, p. 302, fig. 70; C. Robert, Die Nekyia 
des Polygnot (!&** Hallisches W. P.), 1892, p. 43; Furt- 
wangler, Meuterwerke, p. 40; 'E<. 'Ap%-> 1901, p. 146; 



Jamot (Minerve a la dste\ Mom. Grecs., u. p. 34 2 ; Lechat, 
Mons. Piot, in. 1896, p. 5, pi. i. ; Collignon, n. p. 143, fig. 
70; Joubin, Sculpt. Grecque, p. 193, fig. 68. A. Fairbanks, 
AJ.A., vi, (190), p. 410; R Bennett, ib., xm. (1909), 
p. 431. 


Found in Nov. 1888, near W. 
facade of Parthenon. 
Pentelic marble. 
H. -275 m. 

Missing ears and back of 
head, part of left cheek in front, 
part of polos crown. 
The nose is damaged. 
Put together from two pieces 
upper part to mouth, and 
lower lip to chin. 

The head, like No. 654, wears 
a polos crown instead of the 
Ionic stephane. On the crown 
is a design of lotus and palmette 
above and maeander below in 

green and red. The hair is red, and shews two superimposed 
fringes, waved below and zigzag above. The eyes and lids 
are painted in the usual way. They are straight*, but narrow 
and with large ducts. The mouth is slightly curved, and the 
lips end in dimples. The cheeks and chin are not prominent, 
and the forehead is flat. The face thus shews mixed but 
predominantly Attic characteristics, with some admixture of 
Peloponnesian influence in the cheeks. It has none of the 
Ionian delicacy of Nos. 674 and 684, with which Lechat 
classes it. There is rather a general resemblance to Nos. 
671 or 686. 

It has been suggested that the polos crown is a mark of 
divinity, and that the head probably represents Aphrodite, 
but the argument is unsupported, and we certainly cannot 
maintain it, like Lechat, by pointing to the expressionless 
face as a mark of divinity. 



To this head Schrader suggests the restoration of the 
lower part of a Kore from the knees 
downwards (inv. No. 493). Of the same 
material, and cut off behind in a similar 
manner, the fragment exhibits the same 
Attic style and simplicity. He finds 
also two fragments of a back (inv. Nos. 
354 and 4136 with 154) which seem to 
belong to this statue. 

The style of this statue is unique 
among the series of Korai, but seems 
to fall between Nos. 671 and 686, 
belonging to the period of earliest 
Peloponnesian influence. 

AeXriV Nov., 1888, p. 01 ; Wolters, 
A.M., 1888, p. 440; Lechat, B.C.H., 
1889, p. 148 ; E. Gardner, J.H.S., 1889, 

p. 265; Lechat, Rev. Arch., 1889, n. pp. 396402, pi. xxm.; 

Pavlovski, p. 228, fig. 78; Perrot, vni. p. 625, fig. 320; 

Lechat, AuMus., p. 360, fig. 35; Sc. Ait., p. 392; Lermann, 

p. 69, fig. 31, pi. ix. (above); Schrader, Arch. Marm., p. 45, 

figs. 38 41 (wrongly described as No. 698). 


Found E. of Erechtheum in 1887. 

Parian marble. 

H.I -13m. 

Missing support under belly, hind-quarters and legs, 
except right hoof, right fore-leg except *16 m. on each side 
of knee, left hoof. 

The break suggests that the statue was hacked in two. 
The colour of the mane is red, inside of mouth and nostrils 
red, pupil of eye dark. The horse paws the ground with his 
right fore-leg, raises and turns head over the right shoulder. 
Usual hole at back of head; there is no trace of a rider or of 
the attachment of harness on the body. It is thus likely 
that the horseman is standing in front arranging the bridle, 
as is the case with some figures of the Parthenon frieze. 
Fragments of a base (No. 571) shew the hoofs of a horse 
and feet of a man in just this position. The base is of a 



rather more archaic type than 
this figure, but must have 
belonged to a similar group. 
Another base (No. 499) may 
have belonged to a similar group 
on a larger scale. 

On first sight this horse seems 
to belong to the same com- 
position as No. 700. The iden- 
tity in scale, similar finish, 
and general resemblance sug- 
gest this view, but on closer 
inspection the differences are 
considerable. Firstly, the marble 
is different, secondly, the style 
is much more developed. In 
No. 697 we see the muscles of 
the chest and shoulder natura- 
listically and successfully ren- 
dered, the conventional incisions 
under the jaw replaced by 
modelling, and the eye with- 
out its conventional downward 
duct. The ears are modelled with greater precision, and the 
structure of the forehead is most artistically executed. The 
top and back of the mane are carved with fine incised lines 
instead of being left flat, and the muscles of the fore-legs are 
more distinguished. The whole attitude of the horse with 
tossing head and distended nostrils breathes fire and energy. 
The scale, fine finish, and beautiful execution of these two 
statues, and Schrader's recent happy restoration of their 
fore-legs single them out as among the most characteristic 
examples of the delicacy and vivacity of pre-Persian Attic 
sculpture. Cf. Introduction, p. 51. 

Winter would place it among the latest of the finds in 
the Perserschutt. 

Wolters, AM., xii. 1887 (Winter), pp. 107, 144; Lepsius, 
p. 73,Nos. 50 and 84; Theox&iou, Gaz. Arch., 1888, p. 38; 
Studniczka, /&., VL, 1891. p. 242 13 ; Winter, J6., vm., 1893, 
pp. 140 foil., figs. 13 A, 13 B, 14 A, 14s ; Collignon, i. pp. 358, 9, 


figs. 180, 181; B.-B., No. 459; Pavlovski, pp. 260, 
figs. 91, 92; Perrot, vm. pp. 637, 639, figs. 326, 
E. Gardner, p. 176 ; Lechat, Sc. Att., pp. 399, 400, fig. a* ; 
Joubin, Sculpt. Grecgue, pp. 1824, fig. 65; Schrader, Arcli. 
Marm., p. 81, figs. 7275. 


Body found in 1865 S.E. of Par- 

Head found in 1888 between museum 
and S. wall. 
Parian marble. 
H. -86m. 

Missing arms from elbows, left foot 
and ankle, right leg from below knee, 
inserted eyes. 

Damaged nose, chin, cheeks and 

Put together from four pieces head, 
body to knees, lower piece of left upper 
arm, left lower leg (added by Schrader). 
Inserted eyes (missing). 
The head No. 699, which was found 
at the same time as the torso was fitted 
on by Furtwangler in 1880, and removed 
on the discovery of the right head in 
1888, about the connection of which 
there is no doubt. 

The pose is upright with the weight 
on the left leg, the right leg forward 
and bent at the knee. The arms hung by the sides and are 
connected with the hips by small supports. The head is 
upright with a slight turn towards the right shoulder. 

The hair is combed down in fine ridged waves from crown 
under a ring going round the head, and then twisted over it 
in separate locks and tucked in again. Fine incisions denote 
the short locks in front of the ears and on the nape of the 
neck. The latter are arranged alternately in straight locks 
and curls. On the top of the head is a hole in which are the 


remains of a meniskos broken off level with the head. No 
colour is preserved. 

The eyes are high in the head and straight, Attic in 
shape, and without heavy lids. The nose is thin, the ears 
small and crescent shaped. The mouth is small and straight, 
ending in two angular cuts at each lip-corner. The chin is 
heavy, the three dimensions of the face being about -045 m., 
04 m., and *055 m. The resemblance in proportion, shape 
and details of features to the head of the Harmodios at 
Naples is marked. The hand is of a different type from either 
Nos. 689 or 699. The back of the head is nearly straight, 
a point also visible in No. 689, but the top is flatter, and the 
angle of the lower jaw and chin much sharper. 

The muscles of the torso are finely rendered and again 
shew great resemblance to the Harmodios. The navel is 
shaped like No. 692 but more softly worked ; the linea alba 
does not appear below it. The pubes is not indicated. The 
lateral hollows of the stomach are prominent, but the angle 
in the hip-muscle is not strongly marked. The back is well 
hollowed and the chest inflated. Lateral gluteal depressions 
are to be noticed, and sloping shoulders with dispropor- 
tionately narrow hips. The body is not dry and spare in 
Aeginetan fashion, but well covered with flesh. The 
superiority to No. 692 is very obvious, especially in the 
fine modelling of the thighs. Furtwangler aptly remarks 
the resemblance to the Harmodios, and his attribution of 
the statue to Kritios and his school cannot be contested. 
He remarks also that the movement of the legs is not com- 
municated to the torso, i.e. the "rhythm" of Myron and 
Pythagoras is not yet studied. The head offers some resem- 
blance to the small bronze head from the Acropolis (Mus. 
d?Afh.) pi. xvi.), but in shape, proportions, nose and mouth 
the latter is nearer to the head No. 689. The statue pro- 
bably represents an athlete or ephebe. The fashion of the 
hair is reproduced in several contemporary statues, e.g. the 
bronze head just mentioned, the bronze of Castelvetrano 
(Arndt-Amelung, E.A., Nos. 571, 2), and the Aktaion from 
a metope at Selinos (B.-B., No. 290 B). The fine engraving 
of the hair on the neck has been attributed to the influence 
of work in bronze. 



Pervanoglu, Butt. delT Inst., 1867, p. 76; Sybel, No. 5103c ; 
Furtwangler, A.M., v., 1880, p. 20, pi. i.; id, 50th W.F.P., 
pp. 132, 150; id., Arch. Anz., 1889, p. 147; id, Meisterwerke, 
pp. 76*, 81; id., If fine*, tfitefcr., 1897, n. p. 128; Wolters, 
AM., 1888, p. 226; AeX/rfon, June, 1888, p. 104; Lechat, 
JB.CJ5T., 1888, p. 484; Sophoulis, 'E<. 'Ap%., 1888, p. 85, 
pi. m.; Mj^efo, pi. xxix.; B.-B., No. 461 B; Bulle-Hirth, 
No. 52; Lepsius, p. 71, No. 36; Graef., -4 JI/., xv., 1890, p. 15; 
OverbeckS i. p. 205; Collignon, i. pp. 374, 375, figs. 191, 2; 
Pavlovski, pp. 113, 142, figs. 28, 42; Perrot, vni. p. 495, 
figs. 2535; Lechat, Sc. Ait., p. 452, fig. 38; Klein, p. 283; 
Schrader, Arch. Marm., p. 59, fig. 48. 

699. MALE HEAD. 

Found S.E. of Parthenon in 

Parian marble. 
H. '225 m. 

Damaged nose,brows, right 
cheek, ears and hair. 

The head was fitted on to No. 
698 by Furtwangler in 1880, 
but removed in 1888, when the 
right head of the latter was 

The head is inclined slightly 
forwards and towards the right 
shoulder. The hair is left rough, 
and confined by a plain band. 
There is no hole above. Some 
colour was visible at first. The eyes are straight with pro- 
jecting lids, and well sunk under the brows, the ridge of 
which is raised above the forehead. They shew the ordinary 
colour scheme for the pupils. They are well arched and the 
underlids are hollowed from below, a new principle shewing 
an advance on No. 689. Also the corner of the upper lid is 
carried on beyond the lower lid, as in later art. The mouth 
is small and the lips parted, their corners finely worked into 
the cheeks without sharp transitions. The ears are damaged, 
but are of the crescent shape visible in Nos. 698 and 689. 


The proportions of the three divisions are about '04m., 
05 m., and '05 m. The face is delicate and pointed, with 
oval forehead and deep Pheidian head with the back pro- 
jecting well beyond the neck. The modelling is very soft 
and masterly. It shews a great advance on No. 689, especially 
in the treatment of eyes and mouth, and belongs to the great 
art of the middle 5th century. The flat cheeks, sir/all mouth, 
and heavy lids recall the Peloponnesian influences observed 
in Nos. 644 and 657 but the workmanship is much more 
advanced. It clearly belongs to the Pheidian school, and is 
a work of superlative excellence. It cannot be earlier than 
450 440B.C. 

The resemblance to the metope heads of the Parthenon 
is very pronounced, but it is clearly carved in the round, 
and too finely finished for such a purpose, although it might 
have been used as a model. Cf. Introduction, p. 28. 

Furtwangler, A.M., v., 1880, p. 20, pi. i. ; Sybel, 5103 b ; 
Lepsius, p. 71, No. 39; B.-B., pi. 461 A; Lechat, Sc. AU., 

i. 482, fig. 44 ; Klein, p. 283. Cf. also the notices of No. 

98 at the time the heads were changed. 


Found E. of Erechtheum in 1887. 

Pentelic marble. 

H. M2 m. 

Missing end of muzzle, legs (all but left fore-leg, which 
has been added by Schrader; the hoof is still missing) and 
tail of horse. Of the rider the left leg and hand, and the 
right leg to the middle of the shin are preserved. 

The rider is nude but wears sandals, with straps between 
each toe, which are shewn by red paint. Blue paint on the 
instep denotes the latchet. His hand rests on the left thigh, 
and is pierced to carry the reins, which would be added in 
bronze. The hole for the bit is shewn where the head is. 
broken. The muscles of the leg are shewn with care, and 
the whole execution is excellent, both of man and horse. 
The horse's head is turned slightly over the left shoulder 
and has the usual hole for the bridle at the back. The 
hogged mane is coloured blue. The eye shews the long 
old-fashioned duct and has a red iris with black pupil. 



There is a great advance in the treatment of the body 
over the horses already noticed, with the exception of No. 697 5 
though the head is perhaps not so true to life as that of No. 
606. The chest muscles, however, shew no comprehension 
of the effect of motion. The horse stands on three legs 
and paws the ground with the left fore-leg. There is still 
a feeling of archaism in the building of the jaw and its con- 
ventional incisions to shew the skin folds. But the surface 

is highly finished, and the treatment of the muscles very 
delicate. An octagonal support under the horse's belly is 
preserved and has been replaced by Schrader. Winter in 
his chronological study of the equestrian fragments attributes 
this figure and No. 697 to the early 5th century. The human 
leg shews an advance on No. 606, and the foot is among the 
most beautiful of the pre-Persian marbles. 

It is hardly possible therefore to accept Winter and 


Schrader's supposition that it belongs to the period of Chiot 
art. The vigour and life of the muscles of the neck shew 
conclusively that it belongs to the Attic line of development, 
although some Ionic influence may be admitted. Cf. Intro- 
duction, p. 51. 

For bibliography, cf. No. 697. Schrader, Arch. Marm., 
p. 81, figs. 78, 78. 


Found in Dec., 1888, S.W. 
of Parthenon. 
? Pentelic marble. 
H. -25 m. 

Of the archaic bogey type 
with round deep head, promi- 
nent cheek-bones, Attic-shaped 
straight eyes, and wrinkled nose 
with wide nostrils. The huge 
mouth is furnished with teeth 
and tusks; deep wrinkles de- 
scend from the corners of the 
nostrils; the ears are clumsy; the tongue protrudes over 
the heavy square chin. 

The hair is in square beads above a narrow taenia on the 
forehead, and below it in a fringe of four simple waves. The 
pupils are shewn by an incised circle and central dot. Traces 
of red colour are visible on hair, tongue, and lips. 

Schrader has rightly restored the figure as a running 
gorgon by the help of some other fragments in the museum, 
and has fixed it as the central akroterion of the oldest Athena 
temple. In style the face shews close resemblance to the 
Moschophoros, especially in the treatment of the grooves 
between eyelids and eyebrows, and in the folds outlining 
nostrils and mouth. 

Remains of two smaller gorgons of similar type (inv. 
Nos. 8799, 3800, 3837, 3838) are to be distinguished, which 
probably belong to one or other of the smaller faros 

v 9 Dec., 1888, p. 219; Wolters, A.M., 1888, p. 440; 


Lechat, B.C.H., 1889, p. 148; E. Gardner, J.H.S., 1889, 
p. 265, fig. C; Lepsius, p. 74, No. 64; Collignon, i. p. 18, 
fig. 103; Perrot, vin. p. 624, fig. 317; Lechat, Sc. Att., 
p. 121; Schrader, Arch. Marm., p. 1, fig. 2. 

702. Relief. 


In two pieces, of which one 
was found by the S.W. angle 
of the Parthenon in 1888, and 
the other, the larger one, near 
the Propylaea in Jan., 1889. 
Pentelic marble. 
H. (as restored) -395m. Br. 

7 fit'. ffilB.1941 " 4 25 m - H - of P linth 

( ( t.MMB.lft'n 

Missing central akroterion 
and right top corner. The 
boy's left arm and right foot 
are broken away, the lower part of Hermes 1 face is damaged, 
and the surface is injured in several places. 

Put together from two pieces the main piece, and the 
top left corner. 

The relief is enclosed in a frame with pedimental orna- 
ments, and contains five figures moving towards the left. 
First comes a male figure in profile playing the double flutes, 
with right leg advanced, and clad in a large himation. The 
muscles of his legs are strongly emphasized, and his feet are 
large, following the old convention in the greatest length of 
the big toe. His short hair is painted red and arranged in 
a roll round his head. Lids, brows and pupils are painted 
in the usual fashion. Following him are three female figures, 
each with right leg advanced and both knees bent in a 
running attitude. Their heads and bodies face the spectator, 
while their legs are in profile. The front lady has her feet 
flat on the ground, the right arm bent across the body holding 
a fruit, and the left hand grasping the extended right wrist 
of the middle figure. The two following are in the same 
position except that the middle figure has the right heel 


raised, while the third lady takes a longer stride. She in 
her turn grasps the arm of a small boy, also in profile, who 
completes the group. He is only *18 m. high, and his left 
leg is furnished with a right foot. 

The female figures are dressed in Ionic chiton with Tcolpos 
and himation. The first and third have their skirts gathered 
in a Trapvfyr) in front. The himatia are worn like shawls 
loosely over both shoulders, and are distinguished by paint 
only. The first figure has no colour left on her garments, 
the second has a yellow chiton and probably a red himation, 
the third a plain chiton and red himation. The male figure 
has no colour on his himation, and the boy is nude. 

The first female figure has a flat waved fringe with the 
usual mass of hair behind, coloured yellow; the second a 
wavy fringe with the back hair hanging in a mass on the 
left shoulder, coloured red; the third a wavy fringe with the 
hair in two short coils behind the ears, also red. All have 
the usual Ionic stephanai. The small boy's hair hangs straight 
on neck and forehead, simply incised and coloured red. The 
background is blue. 

All have bare feet. The eyes are Attic-Ionic in type, 
the mouths terminated by cuts. The work is rather careless, 
the modelling of the boy, with arms of quite disproportionate 
length, being the most defective. 

Lechatfs view that the group represents Hermes and the 
Charites is now generally accepted. We know that the Charites 
had a cult in the Propylaea, and other reliefs of them have 
been found on the Acropolis (Furtwangler, A.M^ m., 1878, 
p. 181). The fact that the relief was found in the Propylaea, 
and the correspondence in appearance with other reliefs of 
Hermes and the Charites lead to the conclusion that we 
have here the same subject. At the same time the boy is 
not accounted for. G. C. Richards suggests that the figure is 
female and represents some local divinity. But it is clearly 
a boy and nude. 

AeX>*, Jan., 1889, p. 15; E. Gardner, J.H.S., x. 1889, 
p. 265; Mvyjuiela, pi. xxx.; Lepsius, p. 75, No. 73; G. C. 
Richards, J.H.S., XL, 1890, pp. 284, 5; Daremberg and 
Saglio, Dictionnaire, n. p. 1665, fig. 50 ; Perrot, vm. p. 654; 
Lechat, Au Mus., pp. 443 foil., pi. in. ; Sc. Att., p. 300. 


1 332. Relief of A POTTER. 

Found E. of Erechtheum in 1887. 

Pentelic marble. 

H. l-82m. Br. -76m. 

The relief is in a frame with oval pediment above, and 
square cuttings for two akroteria. The lower plinth is '07 m. 
high, the side frames '01 m. wide. The actual field of the 
relief is *94 m. high, and the depth of relief is *04 m. '045 m. 

Missing left arm from elbow to wrist, right arm from 
mid-biceps, body from chest to mid-thighs, feet, ankles, and 
lower part of lower legs, parts of chair-legs and seat. The 
right top and bottom corners are missing, as well as a section 
through the figure including lower half of right-hand side. 

Damaged surface generally, including forehead, eyes, 
and front of head, legs, and the vase held in the left hand. 

On the sides of the frame are remains of inscriptions giving 
the name of the dedicator and probably of the artist. The 


former ends in MO2, which cannot be Euphronios, as has been 
suggested, but might be Pamphaios, among the Attic potters 
of the period known to us by name. 

The relief represents a bearded male figure seated, facing 
left, on a four-legged stool without back or arms, holding 
two cylices in his left hand by the side of the seat, and 
probably with the right hand extended. The legs are to- 
gether, with the right foot slightly advanced. He is clad in 
a himation wrapped round the lower limbs, but leaving the 
upper part of the body bare. His hair is combed in wavy 
lines from the crown of the head, and hangs low on the fore- 
head and on the neck behind. His pointed beard projects in 
front. The drapery hangs very tightly round his legs, re- 
calling the seated figures of the scribes in Room V. Incisions 
following the lines of the body denote the material, and the 
end of the garment hangs by the seat. 

The features are very delicately carved, especially the 
mouth, whose subtle curve gives a very individual expression 
to the face. The shape of the head corresponds in general 
with the ephebe head No. 689, but the ear is different and 
the work is certainly earlier. The hand is very finely moulded 
and the cups and chair legs are treated with great care. In 
the large empty space to the left of the figure are traces of 
the outline of a figure in yellow paint, and, as the back- 
ground was blue, this must represent an additional figure. 
The shape of the relief would naturally require another 
figure to fill it. It would hardly be natural to represent 
either a real person or the deity by paint only on a relief of 
this kind, but we might imagine here a statue of the deity, 
probably Athena Ergane, to whom the potter is making an 
offering in the manner of the craftsman of No. 577. The 
colours of the relief are well preserved. The background was 
blue, the inside of the frame red, the lips red, the himation 
a reddish-brown, the vases red and black. Red is also 
visible under the chair. Judging from the fine character 
of the carving, and the raising of the ends of drapery, we 
should probably ascribe the relief rightly to the best period 
of the Attic revival at the end of the 6th century. 

Petersen, AM., 1887, pp. 145, 66; Pavlovski, p. 297, 
fig. 109 ; Lepsius, p. 75, No. 72 ; Lechat, Sc. Att. 9 p. 365, 

D. 18 



fig. 29. Furtwangler, Aegina, p. 495, fig. 405; (inscription) 
Lolling, C.LA. suppl. iv. 1, p. 132, No. 373 s32 . 

134O. Relief. 

Found 1835, S. of Par- 

Pentelic marble. 
H. -56m. Br. -47m. Th. 
10 m. Depth of relief 

Missing end of muzzle, 
body from below shoulder. 
The fragment is part of the 
right side of a slab, but it 
cannot belong, as Schrader 
suggests, to the same frieze 
as the three pieces Nos. 
1342, 3, 4, for the material, 
thickness, and depth of 
relief are all different. 
The mane is left uncovered except for the forelock. A 
large square hole at the base of the lock and a small hole 
above the mouth served for the attachment of the bridle. 
In the former the ear was inserted. The eye was also put 
in separately. The front line of the head is very flat and 
straight, and the bone above the eye is very prominent, 
while the line of the jaw is not emphasized. The veins are 
carefully shewn. This head is attributed by Schrader to 
the same frieze as Nos. 1342, 1343, etc., but the style is utterly 
different from the other fragments of the frieze ; e.g. compare 
the forelock with the tails of the horses in No, 1342. The 
veins, too, shew that it belongs to a much later period. 
The finish of the side of the slab is different, and it probably 
belongs, not to a frieze at all, but to a 5th century votive 

Ross, Arch. Aufsdtze, i. p. 93; Muller-Scholl, op. dt., 
No. 163; Sybel, No. 7002; Friederichs-Wolters, No. 98; 
Studniczka, Jb., vz., 1891, p. 243* ; Lepsius, p. 75, No. 81; 


Lechat, Sc. AU., p. 412 3 ; Schrader, AM., 1905, p. 305 ML; 
Furtwangler, Munch. Sttzungsber., 1906, p. 143. 

Two other fragments (Nos. 356 and 449) have been 
attributed by Schrader to the frieze of the Hekatompedon. 

1342. Relief from a frieze. 


Broken in two pieces, found in 18 near the Klepsydra 
(left-hand piece), and in 1859-60 on the E. side of Acropolis 
(right-hand piece). 

Island marble. 

Dimensions Left-hand slab: H. 1*205 m., Br. *73 m. 
Right-hand slab: H. '90m. Total breadth 1*075 m. The 
small plinth below is "05 m. high, and projects '08 m. The 
thickness is -8 m., the depth of relief '03 m. The sides are 
rough except for *04 m. at the edges where the surface is 
smoothed for joining on to neighbouring slabs. 



Missing top right corner, right leg of figure. 

Damaged the whole surface is weathered and decayed, 
in particular the front of the car, the rail, the two lower 
spokes of the wheel, and the left arm, head, and face of the 
figure. The features are obliterated. 

The relief represents a figure facing right and stepping" 
into a chariot with the left foot. The hands are extended 
holding the reins; the head and body lean forward. The 
car has four horses whose tails and hind legs are seen on 
the right. Of the car we see the near wheel, body, and 
pole. It has a curved rail with a support. The figure is 
dressed in Ionic chiton with kolpos and 7rapv<ptf, and a 
himation worn like a shawl on both shoulders. The 
garments are represented in the usual Ionic way, cf. Introd. 
p. 44, and the notices of the Korai. The hair is arranged 
in an S-shaped knot behind in the fashion known as Ivrobyhs 
or korymbos (Studniczka, Jb., 1896, p. 248 foil.). It is 
treated in fine wavy incisions. The figure is unbearded, and 
the forms of the body are soft and Ionic. But the head is 
round, and the profile fairly straight with the three divisions 
of the face about equal. The horses' tails are shewn by fine 
wavy incisions, and the muscles of the legs are well given. 
There are no surviving traces of colour. The style of the 
relief is formal and finicky, typically Ionian in its elaboration 
of detail. 

Some controversy has existed as to the sex of the figure, 
since the fashion of hair and drapery were at one time 
supposed to be feminine. Athena, Nike, Apollo, and a 
Panathenaic victor have all been suggested. But the outline 
of the body, so far as it is visible, seems to be male, and the 
hair and drapery can be parallelled in other masculine figures, 
e.g. No. 1343 and No. 633. A priori, a male charioteer is 
much more probable. Any more definite identification of 
the figure would be dangerous. The block clearly belongs 
to a frieze of which several other fragments remain (Nos. 
1343, 1344 and 356, and possibly 449). Elements of this 
frieze were chariots, walking figures, and seated figures. It 
is thus analogous to the Panathenaic frieze of the Parthenon. 
Schrader maintains the theory that we have in these fragments 
the remains of the marble frieze of the Hekatompedon, which 


remained standing through the Persian wars, and in fact 
existed for centuries on the Acropolis. He sees in this frieze 
the reason for the erection of the Parthenon frieze in such an 
unsuitable position, since the new temple was to be lacking 
in no detail of the old. As evidence for survival of the 
Persian sack he instances the remains of architrave and 
triglyph frieze in the north wall of the Acropolis, and 
explains the paucity of the remains by the building activities 
of the Byzantine period. Furtwangler suggested that it 
belonged to the altar of Athena, but there is no particular 
appropriateness in the subject. Heberdey has suggested the 
pre-Persian propylaea, but here again it is a mere conjecture. 

It certainly was the frieze of a rectangular building, for 
No. 1343 is smoothed on one of the sides, but it is dubious 
if that building could have been the Hekatompedon, as 
surely more fragments would have survived. It may have 
belonged to some altar or small shrine which escaped the 
Persian sack, as it has clearly been exposed to rain for a 
number of centuries. 

The style of the fragments is Attic-Ionic, cf. p. 22, with 
mixed characteristics from both schools of sculpture. The 
drapery and hair are carved with Ionian delicacy, but the 
features, in so far as they can be recovered, are Attic. The 
vigorous muscles of No. 1343 are certainly due to an Attic 
artist. But the date would seem to be rather earlier than 
the remains of the pediment of the Hekatompedon, as the 
drapery is more formal, and the Tcrobylos type of coifiure is 

Lebas-Waddington, Voy. Arch. Mons. figs., pi. i.; Lebas- 
Reinach, Mons.jfig$., pp. 50, 51; Bibliofheque des Mons. Jigs. 
(addenda), p. xiii. ; Prokesch von Osten, Derikwurdigkeiten 
und Erirmeriingen aus dem Orient, IT. p. 395 ; Muller-Scholl, 
Arch. Mitt, aus Griechenland, n. 4, p. 25, No. 11; de Satilcy, 
Rev. Arch., 1845, p. 271; Gerhard, Annali, 1837, p. 115; 
Botticher, Die Alcropolis, p. 85; Martinelli, 3; Pervanoglu, 
Brunn, Michaelis, Bull delT Inst., 1860, pp. 53, 114; Fellows, 
Discoveries in Lycia, 1841, p. 170; Bursian (Ersch und 
Gruber, Encycl. Ant. Gr. Kunst\ p. 418; Beule, La Sculpture 
want Pheidias, p. 106 (Gazette des Beaux- Arts, 1864); Brunn, 
Munch. Sitzungsber., 1870, n. pp. 213, 214; Liibke, Gesch. der 


Plastih, i. p. 128; Braun, Gesch. der Kuwt, n. pp. 188, 549; 
Lucy Mitchell, A History of Ancient Sculpture, p. 228 ; 
Purgold, 'E<. 'Apx-9 1885, p. 251; Sybel, No. 5039; Welt- 
gesch. der Kunst, p. 121, fig. 106; A. S. Murray, i. p. 142; 
Friederichs-Wolters, No. 97; Milchhofer, Arch. Zett., 1883, 
p. 180; Hauser, Jb., 1892, p. 54; Overbeck 4 , i. p. 203, fig. 47; 
Collignon, VArch. Gr., p. 136; Histoire, i. p. 377, fig. 194; 
Baumeister, Denkmdler, i. p. 342, fig. 359; Pavlovski, p. 294, 
fig. 106; Perrot, vm. p. 651, fig. 335; B.-B., No. 21; Lepsius, 
p. 75, No. 78 (wrongly called Pentelic marble) ; Studniczka, 
Jb., 1896, p. 265, fig. 7; Savignoni, R.M., 1897, p. 313; 
Lechat, Sc. Att., p. 408; Klein, p. 268; Schrader, A.M., 

1905, p. 305 foil., pi. XT.; Furtwangler, Munch. Sitzungsber., 

1906, p. 143. 

1343. Relief from a frieze. 
BEABDED MAN in profile. 

Found near Propy- 
laea by the S. wall of 
the Acropolis in 1859. 
Island marble. 
H. -44m. Br. -64m. 
Th. -28 m. 

The slab is the top 
left-hand corner of the 
corner slab of the frieze. 
This can be fixed by 
the smoothness of the 
left edge of the block 
and the shape of the cramp-hole above. The surface is 
damaged by exposure, but not so badly as No. 1342. 

Missing body below waist, right arm from elbow, left 
arm from top of biceps. 

The relief represents a bearded figure moving to the 
right, clad in an exomis, or sleeveless tunic of fine material, 
the texture of which is shewn by fine wavy incisions, every 
third incision being deeper than the other two. The 
garment is fastened by a brooch on each shoulder. The 
left arm is extended forward, the right drawn back and 
bent at the elbow. The hair is arranged in the krobylos 


like No. 134$, and is carved in the same way. A narrow 
ring ran round the hair, and on the head is a petasos, or flat 
hat with a wide brim. The eye is shewn in full view, though 
the face is in profile, and is of Attic shape (cf. p. 16); the 
mouth is straight and the lips are ended in the drooping 
moustache; the shoulders are broad and muscular. The 
nude parts are finely modelled, but the exomis hides the 
muscles of the chest. The style is archaic, with body in full 
view, but head in profile. The type of face does not differ 
much from the poros heads, or the earlier marble heads like 
No. 653, but it is finer and more developed than the Mo$- 
chophoros (No. 624), 

Various identifications have been suggested, Hermes 
(usually in the older authorities), Theseus (Conze), or 
Hephaistos. But there is no real reason for seeing a deity 
here, and a mortal is more likely. The style is identical 
with No. 1342, and the block is of the same dimensions. 
There is therefore no doubt that they belong to the same 

Conze, Nuove Memorie delT Inst.^ p. 408 foil., pi. xin.; 
Sittl, Die Patrizierzeit tier Gr. Kunst> pi. in., 22; Sybel, 
No. 5040; Pervanoglu and Brunn, Bull. delF Inst, 1859, 
p. 197, 1860, p. 53; Arch. Anz., I860, p. 6*; Arch. Zett., 
1868, p. 75; Bursian (Ersch and Gruber, op. dt.) 9 pp. 82, 
418; Beule, Sculpt, av. PTieid., p. 91; Friederichs-Wolters, 
No. 96; Overbeck 4 , i. p. 204; Collignon, i. p. 3*78, fig. 195; 
Pavlovski, p. 295, fig. 107; Perrot, vm. p. 653, fig. 334; 
Studniczka, Jb., 1896, p. 265, fig. 8 ; Schrader, AM., 1905, 
p. 305 foil., pi. xii.; Furtwangler, Miinch. Sitzb., 1906, 
p. 143. 

1344. Relief. 


Found before 1881. 

Island marble. 

H. -40 m. Br. '39 m. (front surface '29 m). Th. '25 m. 
Depth of relief -03m. 

This fragment shews the top right-hand corner of a 
folding stool with a cushion on it, and traces of a figure 
sitting on the stool and facing left. All the traces visible 



are two folds of a hi- 
mation, one hanging in 
front of the stool, and 
one above it. The corner 
of the stool has a circle 
in relief upon it. The 
surface has lost its fine 
finish through exposure, 
but is not so badly 
damaged as No. 134$. 
The dimensions suggest 
that this fragment be- 
longs to the same frieze 
as Nos. 1342 and 1343. 
Schrader interprets it as 
part of a seated deity 

watching, like the deities of the Panathenaic frieze, the 

approach of a procession. 

Sybel, No. 5042 ; Milchhofer, Arch. Zeit., 1883, p. 181 ; 

Schrader and Furtwangler, op. cit. 

135O. Relief. 

FEMALE FOOT and skirts of drapery. 

Pentelic marble. 
H.-335m. Br.-355m. 
Th. 14 m. (broken be- 
hind). The plinth is 
07m. high, and projects 
04 m. The frame on 
the right is '04 m. wide. 
Depth of relief -04m. 

The fragment shews 
a foot wearing a sandal 
belonging to a figure 
facing left clad in chiton 
andhimation. The chi- 
ton hangs in elaborate 
doubled folds, while the 
himation is smooth with one large doubled fold. No colour 
is preserved, though there are traces of a vanished border 



pattern round the bottom of the himation. The frame, which 
resembles that of No. 1382, shews that the figure belonged 
to a separate votive-relief. The style is quite different from 
those lately described and belongs to a more developed period 
of art in the early 5th century. It may be compared closely 
with the slightly more advanced stele found on the Esquiline 
(Ghirardini, Bull Com. di Roma, 1883, p. 144, pi. xm.). 


Put together by Schra- 
der in 1907. 

Island marble. 

H. 1-88 m. (including 
plinth -06 m.). 

Missing head, both 
arms, right leg between 
knee and ankle, drapery 
ends, most of surface of 

Damaged all the 
front. Much of the figure 
is restored in plaster. 

Put together from 
seventeen pieces : neck ; 
three pieces of back hair; 
back of right shoulder; 
two pieces of right elbow 
with falling drapery ; back 
of left shoulder; body to 
knees ; two pieces of left 
leg and gathered drapery 
to above ankle ; small 
piece above ankle; feet 
and plinth in five pieces. 

The pose is the ordin- 
ary one with left foot for- 
ward. The figure stands 
on a thick rectangular 
plinth, rounded in front. 
The costume consists of Ionic chiton and himation. No 



colour or pattern is preserved. The folds gathered by the 
left hand are deeply and finely cut with the saw, and traces of 
the drill are visible. The folds that radiate from the left 
hand across the legs are raised. The left leg and gathered 
drapery are practically the only undamaged parts of the front 
surface. This drapery strongly resembles Nos. 669 and 681 
in the fineness of the cutting. 

The hair falls in a mass behind of fourteen flat wavy 
locks, parted in the centre, and each divided into four strands. 
The ends are free. No colour is preserved. 

The feet are bare and bony in structure, and the second 
toe is markedly the longest. ' The muscles of the left leg 
and knee are prominent. The shoulders are broad. Further 
description is impossible owing to the condition of the statue, 
but in all recognizable features there is considerable resem- 
blance to Nos. 669 and 681. We may therefore conclude 
that the statue belongs to the full Attic school. 

Schrader, Arch. Harm., p. 24, figs. 2021. 

3832. LION. 

Island marble. 
H. -38m. L. -49m. 
Put together from 
three pieces, but very 
much broken and dam- 
aged, and without legs. 
The lion is probably 
couchant to left, with 
the mouth open in a 
roar of defiance. 

The eyes, unlike those of the poros lions and bulls, are 
oval and slanting, with the corners continued by incisions. 
The mane is shewn by incisions, and is purely conventional, 
being shewn by locks raised from a dark-blue background. 
The ears are also formal and out of place on the top of the 
head. The body shews no naturalism. 

Such a type of lion is utterly different from the vigorous 
type of the poros lions. The similarity in the treatment of 
the mane to the Ionian horses shews that we have here to 
deal with an Ionian type of lion, stylised and unreal. 


Schroder has found fragments of a second lion in the 
converse position, and a lucky discovery of Heberdey shews 
that the two lions formed a votive dedication (cf. No. 140). 
Schroder, Arch. Marm., p. 1%, figs. 6164 

4119. Fragments of EQUESTRIAN STATUE. 

Parian marble. 
H. '13 m. (horse only). 
Missing end of muzzle, part 
of mane, lower part of chest, legs 
and hind-quarters. Fragments 
of the rider's legs are visible 
well forward on the horse's back. 
The horse shews the thin arched 
neck of the last figure, but the 
mane is treated in a more elabo- 
rate way in rows of square zigzag 
locks. The forehead like that 
of the last figure is flat without 
heavy hollows behind the eyes, 
and the eye is round and not 
deeply worked. The rider sits 

well on to the horse's back, not above it like 590 or 148. 

Holes on the right cheek and on the top of the head served 

for the attachment of the bridle. In the illustration the 

torso of 623 is restored above the horse. Its scale and style 

seem to make the connection clear, cf. p. 156. 

There is no doubt of the Ionian character both of horse 

and rider (cf. p. 50). 

Winter, J6. 9 vin. (1893), p. 140, No. 11 ; Lechat, B.C.H., 

1888, p. 243; Schrader, Arch. Marm., p. 78, figs. 70 and 71. 

4557. Cf. p. 90. 


Abrahams, B. B M 46 (note) 
Acropolis, excavations on, 1 foil.; 

museum, 1, 4, 29, 93, 156, 169 
Aeginetan art, 25, 26 (note), 134, 

154, 265; see also Sikyonian- 

Aeginetan art 
Aeschylus, 132 
Ageladas, 25, 154 
Akanthos, stek from, 86 (note) 
Akroterion, 11 (note), 20 (note), 38 

(note), 93, 113, 258, 269 
Aktaion, 265 

Altar of Twelve Gods in Louvre, 143 
Amazon, 65, 140 
Anaribios, stek at Sparta, 32 
Antenor, 23, 28, 29, 39, 109, 162, 


Aphaia, temple of, 25 
Aphrodite, 162, 192, 237, 261 
"Apollo," 26, 151, 200, 276 
Apollo Nomios, 158; of Mantua, 

249 ; on the Omphalos, 248 
Archaeological Society of Greece, 


Archaistic reliefs, 119, 141 
Archermos, 20, 253 
Architectural sculpture, 20 ; see also 

Pediments! sculpture, Akroteria, 

92, 93, 111, 112, 257, 275-280 
Argive art, 25, 26, 28, 186, 195, 244 
Aristophanes, 39, 181 
Arrhephoria, 32 
Artemis, 32; Brauronia, 35, 98 
Ashmolean Museum, vase in, 51, 


Assos frieze, 16, 60 
Athena, 30, 31, 33, 34, 47, 65, 73, 

91-97, 101, 105, 107, 117, 118, 

140-148, 152, 160, 169-176, 179, 

180, 187, 188, 195, 197, 258, 276 
Athena Ghalkioikos, 32 

Athena Ergane, 118, 273 

Athena Eygieia, 118 

Athena Lemma, 95 

Athena, old temple of (Hekatom- 

pedon), 6 foil. , 10, 13,17,18,23, 

26, 30, 35, 36 (note), 66, 69, 78- 


275, 277-280 
Athena Parthenos, 188 
Attic art, characteristics of early, 16, 

23, 29, 50, 71, 72, 83, 106, 117, 

120-128, 148, 155, 157, 158, 181, 

221-226, 279 
Attic costume, 36, 40, 42, 63, 119- 

128, 194, 223 
Attic-Ionic sculpture, 11, 22, 147, 

165, 167, 182, 183, 184, 185, 196, 

198, 209, 211, 215, 218, 226, 237, 

239, 240, 246, 252, 268, 271, 

Attic revival, 24 (note), 27, 29, 37, 

51, 162, 205, 231, 239, 249, 273, 

Attico-Peloponnesian sculpture, 11, 

175,186,195,242,249, 264-267; 

see also Peloponnesian art 

Babelon, E., 177 

Barracco, see Collection Barracco 

Bases, 39, 130, 141 

Baomeister, A., 163, 175, 278 

Bennett, Florence, 260 

Berlin, 12 (note) 

Bernardakis, B., 3 

Beul4, E., 2, 105, 153, 163, 246, 277, 


Beute gate, 56 
Bird, 79, 80 
Bird's claw, 73, 85 
Bissing, W. von, 167 
Boreas and Oreithyia, 23, 171 



Borrmann, B., 39 (note), 242 

Botticher, A., 59 (note), 120, 141, 
143, 159, 163, 277 

Bowl, 125, 151 

Boys, 119 

Branchidai, 20, 152, 193 

Braun, B., 278 

Brownson, 0., 87 

Bruckner, A., 4, 61 (note), 67, 75, 
80, 81, 84-86 

Brunn,H., 59 (note), 78, 87, 160, 163, 
277 ; see also Brann, Decharme, 
and Pervanoglu, and Pervanoglu, 
Brann, Michaelis 

Brunn, Decharme, and Pervanoglu, 
95, 109, 159, 175, 255 

Bull of Marathon, 158 

Bulls and lions, pediments repre- 
senting, 13, 16, 17, 18, 30, 67, 75- 
78, 84, 86, 282 

Bupalos and Athenis, artists of 
Chios, 20 

Bursian, C., 277, 279 

Calamis, see Kalamis 

Calf, 156-158 

Castelvetrano, bronze statue of, 


Centaur, 100 

Chariot, see also rtBpnnros, 58, 275 
Charioteer, HI, 275 
Charites, see Hermes and the 

Cheramyes, statue of in Louvre, 13, 


Chiot art, see Ionic art 
Chiton, see Attic costume, Ionic 

costume Doric costume 
Chronological study, 9 foil. 
Chronological table, 29 
Chrysapha, stele from, 12, 36 (note) 
Cock-fighters, 34, 105 
Collection Barracco, 199 
Collection Sabonroff, 166 
Collignon, M., passim 
Conze, A., 159, 279 
Corinth, 20, 142 
Crab, 58 
Craftsmen (see also Scribes, Potters), 


Crete, 80 (note) 
Curtius, L., 20 (note), 101, 151 
Cyclopean wall, 5 foil. 

Daidalos, 15, 24 (note), 162 
Damage by fire, 59, 153, 193, 211, 

217, 226, 250, 253, 281 
Damage by hacking away, 56, 103, 

130, 139, 226, 263 
Damage by weathering, 160, 208, 

276, 278 
Decharme, P., see Brunn, Decharme, 

and Pervanoglu 
Delbruck, B., 101, 255 
Delos, 13, 19, 20, 32, 81 
Delphi, 25, 32, 117, 151, 161, 235 
Democracy and ark, 6-9, 30 
Demos personified, 118 
Deonna, W., 148, 192, 199, 201 
Dice-players, 34, 105 
Diokleides, 140 

Dionysos, 17 (note), 105, 141, 142 
Diptych or writing-desk, 99, 102, 166 
Dodona, 32 
Dog, 98, 112 
Doric costume, 42 (note), 47, 94, 

224, 257, 260 

Doriskos, stele from, 36 (note) 
Dorpfeld, W., 4 ML, 17 (note) 
Drill, use of, 94, 97, 113, 138, 146, 

178, 230, 233, 257, 282 
Duruy, V., 228 

Egyptian art, 19 (note), 99, 159, 165 

Eleusis, 17 (note), 246 

Endoios, 24, 29, 162, 163, 209 

Enneakrunos, 30, 71 

Ephesos, wood-carvings from, 12, 24 

Epiblema, see Ionic costume 

Epiktetos, 140 

Equestrian figures, 31, 34, 49-51, 56, 

102, 124, 131, 139, 156, 158, 267, 

Equestrian groups, 112, 113, 114, 

186, 262 

Erechtheum, 2 foil., 153, 162 
Erechtheum, pediment representing, 

12, 17, 29, 30, 35, 69-72, 88, 90 
Eretria, 23, 171 
Erichthonios, 260 
Erythrai, 24 
Escher, J., 61 (note) 
Euphronios, 65, 248 
Euripides, 39 
Eurymedon, battle of, 5 
Eustratiadis, P., B 
Eutbydikos,br<! of, 39, 215, 241-244 



Evans, A. J., 81 (note) 
Excavations, on the Acropolis, 1 
Exomis, 278 
Eyes, treatment of, 38, 41, 77, 115, 

116, 147, 157, 159, 190, 196, 199, 

207, 229, 266, 282 

Fairbanks, A., 260 
Farnell, L. E., 33 (note) 
Fellows, C., 277 
Flinders Petrie, W., 167 
Footwear, 48, 73, 139, 211, 234, 236 
Francois vase, 10, 12, 18, 42, 65, 


Frazer, J. G., 163 , 
French School (Eeole franpaise 

d'Athenes) 2 
Friederichs-Wolters, 118, 122, 143, 

159, 176, 246, 274, 278, 279 
Frothingham, A. L., 126 
Furtwangler, A., passim 

y&vaxris, 40, 214 
Gardner, E., passim 
Gardner, P., 51 (note), 139 
Gerhard, E., 12 (note), 60, 81, 101, 

105, 132, 163, 277 
German Institute (K. Deutsches 

Archaologisehes Institut), 3, 7 
Ghirardini, G., 32 (note), 281 
Giants, 26, 83, 91, 95, 100, 169-176, 


Gillieron, E., 224 
Gorgon, 31 (note), 94, 97, 160, 161, 


Graeco-Boman reliefs, 119, 142 
Graef, B., 95, 195, 205, 232, 244, 

250, 260, 266 

Hadrian, 5 

Hair, treatment of, 38, 41, 48, 49, 

129, 138, 142, 147, 155, 173, 177, 

179, 192, 195, 196, 198, 199, 200, 

204-248, 258, 259, 264 
Harmodios, statue in Naples, 26, 

109, 232, 265 
Harness, 55, 56, 57, 114r-117, 139, 

262, 274 
Harrison, Jane, 86, 128, 132, 151, 

159, 163, 250 
Hartwig, P., 105 
Hauser, F., 278 
Heberdey, B., 4, 62, 64, 65, 70, 73, 

76, 77, 80, 81, 85-87, 90, 166, 171, 
174, 232 

Hegias, 28, 29, 249 

Hekatompedon, see Athena, old 
temple of 

Helbig, W., 34, 140 

Hellenistic art, 17 (note) 

Heller, B. E., 246 

Hephaistos, 141, 142, 279 

Hera, 12, 25, 63, 64 

Heraion of Samos, 151 

HeraMes, 182 

Herakles, cult at Marathon, 80 

Herakles, pediment representing In- 
troduction to Olympus, 10, 11, 12, 

16, 17, 18, 27 (note), 29, 35, 62- 
67, 73, 81, 84, 85, 88, 90, 152, 

Herakles, predominance of type, 30 
Herakles and Hydra, see Hydra 
Herakles and Triton, pediments 
representing, No. 35, 12, 14, 16, 

17, 29, 73, 81-87, 90, 175 ; No. 2, 

17, 18, 60, 82, 88, 90 
Hermann, P., 232 
Hermes, 81, 141, 142, 154, 279 
Hermes and the Charites, 16, 19, 

29, 35, 123, 155, 181, 270 
Hermes Kriophoros, 158 
Hermes Mosehophoros, 158 
Herodotus, 5, 30 (note) 
Heydemann, H., 163 
Himation, see Ionic costume 
Hippalectryon, 31, 34, 131 
Hippeis, tiTnrjperat of, 140 
Hofmann, H., 193, 197, 200, 217, 


Hogarth, D. G., 12 (note) 
Homolle, T., 20 (note), 117, 235 
Horses, 17, 36 (note), 49-51, 55,102, 

114-117, 124, 139, 262, 267, 274^ 

277, 283 
Hydra, pediment of, 11, 13, 15, 17, 

18, 29, 36 (note), 57 
"Hydriophore," 18, 30, 70, 71 
Hymettan marble, 10, 13, 37, 113 

Hum, 33 

Inscriptions, 26, 131, 158, 229, 273 

Insertions in statues, 38, 128, 134, 

135, 164, 198, 206-244, 255, 257 
lolaos, in Hydra pediment, 16, 17, 

18, 58 



Borrmann, E., 39 (note), 242 

Botticher, A., 59 (note), 120, 141, 
143, 159, 163, 277 

Bowl, 125, 151 

Boys, 119 

Branchidai, 20, 152, 193 

Braun, E., 278 

Brownson, C., 87 

Bruckner, A., 4, 61 (note), 67, 75, 
80, 81, 84-86 

Brunn, H., 59 (note), 78, 87, 160, 163, 
277 ; see also Bmnn, Decharme, 
and Pervanoglu, and Pervanoglu, 
Brunn, Michaelis 

Brunn, Decharme, and Pervanoglu, 
95, 109, 159, 175, 255 

Bull of Marathon, 158 

Bulls and lions, pediments repre- 
senting, 13, 16, 17, 18, 30, 67, 75- 
78, 84, 86, 282 

Bupalos and Athenis, artists of 
Chios, 20 

Bursian, C., 277, 279 

Calamis, see Kalatnis 

Calf, 156-158 

Castelvetrano, bronze statue of, 


Centaur, 100 

Chariot, see also T<*0ponros, 58, 275 
Charioteer, 111, 275 
Charites, see Hermes and the 

Cheramyes, statue of in Louvre, 13, 


Chiot art, see Ionic art 
Chiton, see Attic costume, Ionic 

costume Boric costume 
Chronological study, 9 foil. 
Chronological table, 29 
Chrysapha, stele from, 12, 36 (note) 
Cock-fighters, 34, 105 
Collection Barracco, 199 
Collection Sabouroff, 166 
Collignon, M., passim 
Conze, A., 159, 279 
Corinth, 20, 142 
Crab, 58 
Craftsmen (see also Scribes, Potters), 


Crete, 80 (note) 
Curtius, L., 20 (note), 101, 151 
Cyclopean wall, 5 foil. 

Daidalos, 15, 24 (note), 162 
Damage by fire, 59, 153, 193, 211, 

217, 226, 250, 253, 281 
Damage by hacking away, 56, 103, 

130, 139, 226, 263 
Damage by weathering, 160, 208, 

276, 278 
Decharme, P., see Brunn, Decharme, 

and Pervanoglu 
Delbriick, E., 101, 255 
Delos, 13, 19, 20, 32, 81 
Delphi, 25, 32, 117, 151, 161, 235 
Democracy and art, 6-9, 30 
Demos personified, 118 
Deonna, W., 148, 192, 199, 201 
Dice-players, 34, 105 
Diokleides, 140 

Dionysos, 17 (note), 105, 141, 142 
Diptych or writing-desk, 99, 102, 166 
Dodona, 32 
Dog, 98, 112 
Doric costume, 42 (note), 47, 94, 

224, 257, 260 

Doriskos, stele from, 36 (note) 
Dorpfeld, W., 4 foil., 17 (note) 
Drill, use of, 94, 97, 113, 138, 146, 

178, 230, 233, 257, 282 
Duruy, V., 228 

Egyptian art, 19 (note), 99, 159, 165 

Eleusis, 17 (note), 246 - 

Endoios, 24, 29, 162, 163, 209 

Enneakrunos, 30, 71 

Ephesos, wood-carvings from, 12, 24 

Epiblema, see Ionic costume 

Epittetos, 140 

Equestrian figures, 31, 34, 49-51, 56, 

102, 124, 131, 139, 156, 158, 267, 

Equestrian groups, 112, 113. 114, 

186, 262 

Erechtheum, 2 foil., 153, 162 
Erechtheum, pediment representing, 

12, 17, 29, 30, 35, 69-72, 88, 90 
Eretria, 23, 171 
Erichthonios, 260 
Erythrai, 24 
Escher, J., 61 (note) 
Euphronios, 65, 248 
Euripides, 39 
Eurymedon, battle of, 5 
Eustratiadis, P., 3 
Euthydikos,Jbre of, 39, 215, 241-244 



Evans, A. J., 81 (note) 
Excavations, on the Acropolis, 1 
Exomis, 278 
Eyes, treatment of, 38, 41, 77, 115, 

116, 147, 157, 159, 190, 196, 199, 

207, 229, 266, 282 

Fairbanks, A., 260 
Farnell, L. E., 33 (note) 
Fellows, C., 277 
Flinders Petrie, W., 167 
Footwear, 48, 73, 139, 211, 234, 236 
Francois vase, 10, 12, 18, 42, 65, 


Frazer, J. G., 163 
French School (Ecole francaise 

Friederichs-Wolters, 118, 122, 143, 

159, 176, 246, 274, 278, 279 
Frothingham, A. L., 126 
Furtwangler, A., passim 

is, 40, 214 
Gardner, E., passim 
Gardner, P., 51 (note), 139 
Gerhard, E., 12 (note), 60, 81, 101, 

105, 132, 163, 277 
German Institute (EL. Deutsches 

Arehaologisches Institut), 3, 7 
GMrardini, G., 32 (note), 281 
Giants, 26, 83, 91, 95, 100, 169-176, 


Gillieron, E., 224 
Gorgon, 31 (note), 94, 97, 160, 161, 


Graeco-Eoman reliefs, 119, 142 
Graef, B., 95, 195, 205, 232, 244, 

250, 260, 266 

Hadrian, 5 

Hair, treatment of, 38, 41, 48, 49, 

129, 138, 142, 147, 155, 173, 177, 

179, 192, 195, 196, 198, 199, 200, 

204-248, 258, 259, 264 
Harmodios, statue in Naples, 26, 

109, 232, 265 
Harness, 55, 56, 57, 114-117, 139, 

262, 274 
Harrison, Jane, 86, 128, 132, 151, 

159, 163, 250 
Hartwig, P., 105 
Hauser, F., 278 
Heberdey, E., 4, 62, 64, 65, 70, 73, 

76, 77, 80, 81, 85-87, 90, 166, 171, 
174, 232 

Hegias, 28, 29, 249 

Hekatompedon, see Athena, old 
temple of 

Helbig, W., 34, 140 

Hellenistic art, 17 (note) 

Heller, B. K., 246 

Hephaistos, 141, 142, 279 

Hera, 12, 25, 63, 64 

Heraion of Samos, 151 

Herakles, 182 

Herakles, cult at Marathon, 30 

Herakles, pediment representing In- 
troduction to Olympus, 10, 11, 12, 

16, 17, 18, 27 (note), 29, 35, 62- 
67, 73, 81, 84, 85, 88, 90, 152, 

Herakles, predominance of type, 30 
Herakles and Hydra, see Hydra 
Herakles and Triton, pediments 
representing, No. 35, 12, 14, 16, 

17, 29, 73, 81-87, 90, 175 ; No. 2, 

17, 18, 60, 82, 88, 90 
Hermann, P., 232 
Hermes, 81, 141, 142, 154, 279 
Hermes and the Charites, 16, 19, 

29, 35, 123, 155, 181, 270 
Hermes Kriophoros, 158 
Hermes Moschophoros, 158 
Herodotus, 5, 30 (note) 
Heydemann, H., 163 
Himation, see Ionic costume 
Hippalectryon, 31, 34, 131 
Hippeis, binipera.1 of, 140 
Hofmann, H., 193, 197, 200, 217, 


Hogarth, D. G., 12 (note) 
Homolle, T., 20 (note), 117, 235 
Horses, 17, 36 (note), 49-51, 55,102, 

114-117, 124, 139, 262, 267, 274- 

277, 283 
Hydra, pediment of, 11, 13, 15, 17, 

18, 29, 36 (note), 57 

" Eydriophore," 18, 30, 70, 71 
Hymettan marble, 10, 13, 37, 113 

Dion, 33 

Inscriptions, 26, 131, 158, 229, 273 

Insertions in statues, 38, 128, 134, 

135, 164, 198, 206-244, 255, 257 
lolaos, in Hydra pediment, 16, 17, 

18, 58 



Ionic art, see also Samian art, 13, 
16, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 
28, 29, 47, 49-51, 56, 88, 119, 
128, 129, 148, 153, 159, 179, 185, 
193, 199, 207, 213, 216, 232-235, 
255, 256, 276-280, 282, 283 

Ionic costume, 16, 27, 38, 40, 44-47, 
94, 119, 128, 129, 136, 139, 178, 
206, 208-248 

Ionic costume imitated, 16, 43, 143, 

Ionic smile, 16, 234 

Iris, 12, 64, 65, 154, 252 

Island marble, 37, 119 

Ivory-carving, 11, 13 

Jacobsen head, 209 

Jahn, O., 163 

Jamot, P., 261 

Jan, IL von, 159 

Jewellery and ornaments, 47, 48, 

204-248, 252 
Joergensen, C., 126, 179, 207, 213, 

220, 225, 235, 240 
Joubin, A., 261, 264 

Kalamis, 27-29, 158, 239 
Kalkmann, A., 46 (note), 146, 207, 

209, 213, 221, 223, 225, 235, 237, 

245, 246, 247, 250 
Kallias, 162 

Kallon of Aegina, 26 (note) 
Kastriotis, P., 120, 253 
Kawadias, P., 1 foil., 20 (note), 39, 

84, 134, 140, 213, 220, 232, 250, 

252, 260 

Kawerau, G., 1 foil., 250 
Kekropion, 71 

Kekute von Stradonitz, B., 159 
Kimon, 5 
Klein, W., 20 (note), 24 (note), 59 

(note), 61, 87, 101, 141, 159, 163, 

176, 177, 202, 215 passim 
Eleisthenes, 5, 9 
Knidian treasury, 161 
Kdhler, U., 159, 175 
Kolpos, tetikiros, see Ionic costume 
Korai, 4, 11, 15, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 

24, 25, 27, 29, 31, 32, 33, 37, 38, 

39, 40, 41-49, 66, 97, 106, 107, 

111, 120-249, 251, 254, 262, 276, 

Korymbos, see Krobylos 

Kritios, Kritios and Nesiotes, 26, 27, 

29, 232, 249, 265 
Krolylos, 276, 278 

Lange, J., 95, 163, 195, 196 
Lebas-Beinach, 163, 277 
Lebas-Waddington, 121, 153, 162, 

246, 277 

Lechat, H., passim 
Lenormant, F., 163 
Leochares, 141 
Leonardos, B., 160 
Leopard, 113 
Lepsius, G. B., passim 
Lermann, W., passim 
Lermann, Mme, 215, 242 
Ligourio bronze, 25 
Lion, 75, 76, 92, 282 ; see also Bulls 

and Lions 

Lobeck, C. A., 81 (note) 
Loeschke, G., 163 
Lokri, 33 

Lolling, H. G., 32 (note), 159, 274 
Louvre, 132, 142, 150 
Lubke, W., 163, 277 
Luperci, 80, 81 
Lykabettos, 35 

Magne, L., 59, 78 

Male figures (not pediment al), 26, 
100, 108, 112, 130, 133, 153, 154, 
155, 178, 184, 191, 194, 199, 200, 
248, 252, 264, 266, 272-279 

Marathon, battle of, 8, 51, 140, 252 

Marathon, cult of Heracles, 30 

Marathonian bull, 158 

Martinelli, N. F., 96, 118, 159, 175, 

Masks (Nos. 11 and 12), 11, 29, 72, 

Material and technique, 35 foil. 

Mechanion, 166 

Medusa, see Gorgon 

Meier, P. I., 59 (note), 61 (note) 

Meniskos, 39, 139, 156, 157, 179, 185, 
191, 197, 199, 205, 207, 208, 211, 
212, 214, 216, 222, 225, 230, 234, 
236, 238, 241, 243, 247, 248, 256, 

Meta of racecourse, 260 

Michaelis, A., 143, 159, 180; see 
also Springer-Michaelis, and Per- 
vanoglu, Brunn, Michaelis 



Milchhofer, A., 95, 143, 159, 163, 

193, 278, 280 
Milesian art, 151 
Miller, W., 87, 125, 220, 225, 252 
Miltiades, 140 
Mitchell, Lucy, 175, 278 
Moschophoros (No. 624), 13, 14, 15, 

16, 26, 27 (note), 33, 39, 50, 51, 

66, 101, 124, 148, 156-160, 168, 

177, 225, 231, 269, 279 
Muller-Scholl, see Scholl 
Munich, 65 
Munychia, 35 
Murray, A. S., 159, 163, 232, 235, 

244, 278 

Museum, Acropolis ; see Acropolis 
Museum, National, 177, 201, 253 
Mylonas, K. D., passim 
Myron, 28, 29, 265 

Naukratis, 19 (note), 167 

Naxian art, 19, 34, 47, 125, 150, 151, 

201, 211, 219, 225 
Naxian marble, 37, 125, 150, 151, 


Nearchos, 34, 229 
Negress, 237 
Nesiotes, see Kritios 
Newton, Sir C., 163 
Nikandra, statue from Delos, 13 
Nike, 20, 27 (note), 29, 31, 33, 34, 

47, 95, 103, 140, 250-258, 276 
North Greek art, 36 (note) 
Nymph, 81, 85, 87 

Oinomaos, 95 

Olympia, 25, 32, 85, 200, 249 

Olympos, see Heracles 

Onatas, 26 (note) 

Over beck, J., passim 

Owl, 13, 31, 35, 90 

Painting of sculpture, 14, 36, 40, 58, 
68, 80, 95, 109, 110, 118, 134, 198, 
224, 227, 230, 233, 273 

Pamphaios, 273 

Panathenaic vases, 143 

Parian art, 101, 255 

Parian marble, 10, 13, 21, 37, 55, 

Paris, 240 

Paris, P., 213, 244 

Parthenon, 2 foil., 36 (note), 95, 

114, 134, 174, 244, 252, 260, 262, 

Patterns on costumes, 41, 46 (note), 

63, 138, 139, 206-248 
Pausanias, 5, 24, 30 (note), 56, 153, 

PavlovsM, A., 59, 67, 72, 78, 86, 90, 

91, 117, 125, 128 passim 
Pedimental sculpture, 14, 57-90 
Peisistratos, Peisistratidae, 8, 17, 19, 

21, 22, 23, 24, 51, 140 
Peitho, 244 
Pelasgi, 30 
Peloponnesian art, 20 (note), 24, 25, 

27, 28, 51, 94, 101, 104, 112, 134, 

154, 186, 241-244, 247, 249, 260, 

262, 267 

Pentelic marble, 10, 13, 37 
Peplos, see Attic costume, Doric 


Perdrizet, P., 118 
Perikles, 6, 8 
Pernier, E., 80 (note) 
Perrot, G., passim 
Perserschutt, 5, 9 (note), 101, 162, 

208, 247, 263 
Persia, 132 

Persian archer, 138, 139, 252 
Persian sack of Athens, 5, 8, 10, 56, 

130, 153, 277 

Perspective in early art, 36 (note) 
Pervanoglu, P., 255, 265; Per- 

vanoglu and Brunn, 279; see 

also Brunn, Decharme, and Per- 
vanoglu ; see also Pervanoglu, 

Brunn, Michaelis 
Pervanoglu, Brunn, Michaelis, 143, 


Petasos, 279 
Petersen, E., 72, 95, 128, 129, 130, 

140, 151, 176, 177, 179, 193, 252, 


Phaistos, 80 (note) 
Pharsala, stele from, 36 (note) 
Pheidias, 28, 29, 180, 186, 249, 267 
Philios, D., 176, 239 
Pig, 118 
Piraeus, 35, 177 
Pittakis, K. S., 1 foil., 153 
Plataea, battle of, 5 
Plinths, 39 

Polites, N. G., 159, 169, 177 
Polykleitos, 25, 186 



Polymedes, statue at Delphi, 25 
Pom, 3, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 

18, 19, 23, 25, 29, 35, 36, 38, 40, 

50, 57-90, 158, 258, 267, 279, 


Portraiture, 33, 154, 158 
Pose of Korai, 49, 210, 220-248 
Poseidon, 174 
Postolakkas, A., 95, 132 
Post-Persian sculpture, 108, 134 
Potter, relief representing, 272 
Pettier, E., 132 
Prokesch von Osten, 277 
Prokrustes, 101 
Propylaea, 2 foil., 55, 247, 271, 


Ptoon, 151, 199, 201, 255 
Purgold, K., 59 (note), 61 (note), 

159, 278 

Hvppaiddai, 81 (note) 
Pythagoras of Bhegium, 265 

Beichhold, C., 251 
Beinach, S., 105, 132, 260 
Beliefs (not pedimental), 91, 92, 111, 

112, 117, 118, 122, 123, 141, 154, 

Kepairs of statues, 37, 38, 71, 132, 

164, 175, 207, 209, 226, 237 
Bhombos or Kombos, 33, 158 
Biohards, Gk C., 271 
Bidder, A. de, 252, 253, 257 
Bobert, C., 260 
Boss, Ludwig, 2, 102, 166, 274 

Sabouroff , see Collection Sabouroff 
Samian art, 20, 151, 159 
Samos, 151 
Santa Sabina, wooden doors of 

church in Borne, 12 
Sauer, B., 126, 151, 220, 223, 225 
Saulcy, M. de, 163, 277 
Savignoni, L., 278 
Scharf, GL, 163 
Scherer, C., 159 
Schliemann, EL, 3 
Schneider, B. von, 59 (note), 126, 

159, 223, 225 
Sch6IL, B., 102, 122, 153, 163, 166, 

246, 274, 277 
Schone, B., 118 
Schrader, EL, passim 
Schreiber, T., 95 

Scribes, 31, 34, 98, 99, 102, 158, 160, 

165, 166 

Scythian archer, see Persian archer 
Seated figures (not scribes), 105, 109, 

117, 148, 152, 160, 193, 279 
Selinos, metopes of, 20 (note), 56, 


Sikyon, 26 (note) 
Sikyonian-Aeginetan art, 195 
Siphnian treasury, 235 
Sittl, K., 160, 229 
Six, J., 163 
Snakes, 74, 75, 79, 82, 86, 93, 107, 

160, 171 
Sokrates, 155 
Sophoulis, T., 88, 90, 125, 128, 140, 

151, 159, 220, 223, 232, 249, 252, 

253, 256, 266 
Sparta, 5, 32 
Spartan art, 12, 13, 16, 20, 25, 36 

Spata, 177 
Sphinx, 31, 34, 73, 151, 167, 168, 

176, 177 

Springer-Michaelis, 78, 86 
Stais, B., 120, 224, 225 
Stamatakis, P., 3, 246 
Stele, (?), 259, from Esquiline, 281 
Stephane, see Ionic costume 
Stephaui, L., 159, 163 
Sterope, 95 
Strassburg, 180 
Strategos, 154 
Stuart Jones, E., 140 
Studniczka, F., passim 
Subjects and meaning, 29 foil. 
Suidas, 33 
Sybel, L. von, passim 

Table, 117 

Tanagra, 158 

TarbeU, F. B., 215, 228, 232, 235, 

237, 240, 244, 250 
Tegea, 24 (note) 

T<?0pnros, 36 (note), 50, 56, 114-117 
Thasos, relief from, 155 
Themistokles, 5, 6 
Theodores of Samos, 19 (note) 
Theox6nou, M., 140, 263 
Theseum, 5 

Theseus, 30, 101, 158, 279 
Theseus and Antiope, 23 (note), 171 
Thracian Chersonese, 140 



Three-bodied monster, pediment 

representing, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 

Throne, 62, 109, 149, 152, 160, 


Thucydides, 47 
Tools, 11, 24, 35, 37, 94, 162, 165, 

204, 282 

Tragelaphos, 132 
Tritopatores, 81 
Typhon, see three-bodied monster, 


Vase-paintings, 12, 46 (note), 51, 58, 
60, 81, 115, 139, 143, 171, 243 

Veyries, A., 159 

Votive-offerings, see also birds, 119, 
125, 219, 223, 236, 238, 241 

Walters, H. B., 65 

Water, emblem for, 80 
Watzinger, Karl, 69, 77, 78 
Weissenborn, H. J., 1 
\ Welcker, F. G., 143 
Wiegand, T., 29, 59 (note), 61 (note), 

66, 67, 70, 72, 73, 75, 78, 81, 

85-90, 176 
Wilamo'witz-MoeUendorf, U. von, 


Winter, F., passim 
Wolters, P., passim 
Wood-carving, 11, 13, 113, 114 

Xanthos frieze, 16 
Xerxes, 5 

Xoana, 15, 17, 37, 120-128, 225, 

Zeus, 11, 14, 16, 18, 62, 63, 65, 174 
Zeus Polieus, 141